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1.  Remifentanil added to sufentanil-sevoflurane anesthesia suppresses hemodynamic and metabolic stress responses to intense surgical stimuli more effectively than high-dose sufentanil-sevoflurane alone 
BMC Anesthesiology  2015;15(1):3.
Even extremely high-doses of the potent opioid, sufentanil, cannot reliably suppress stress responses to intense surgical stimuli such as sternotomy. The chemically related opioid remifentanil with its different pharmacokinetics and binding affinities for delta- and kappa-opioid receptors might be more effective in attenuating these responses.
ASA I-III patients scheduled for a surgical procedure with sternotomy under balanced anesthesia (sevoflurane and sufentanil 3 μ bolus, 0.017 μ infusion) were randomized into two groups. Patients in the study group were supplemented with remifentanil (2 μ bolus, 2–7 μ infusion) starting ten minutes before sternotomy. Heart rate, arterial blood pressures, cardiac index, ejection fraction, systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), total body oxygen uptake (VO2) and electric dermal response were measured and compared between the groups.
62 patients were studied (study group 32, control group 30). Systolic and mean arterial blood pressures, SVRI, VO2 and skin conductance increased during sternotomy and sternal spread in the control group but not in the study group. Systolic blood pressure increase: 7.5 ± 19 mmHg vs. -3.4 ± 8.9 (p = 0.005); VO2 increase: 31 ± 46% vs. -0.4 ± 32%; incidence of systolic blood pressure increase greater than 15 percent: 20% vs. 3% (p = 0.035) (control vs. study group).
High-dose remifentanil added to sevoflurane-sufentanil anesthesia suppresses the sympathoadrenergic response to sternotomy and sternal spread better than high-dose sufentanil alone.
Trial registration
Clinical Trial number: DRKS00004327, August 31, 2012
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2253-15-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4322556  PMID: 25670917
Sternotomy; Stress response; Remifentanil; Intraoperative hypertension; Oxygen uptake
2.  Quantification of urinary TIMP-2 and IGFBP-7: an adequate diagnostic test to predict acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery? 
Critical Care  2015;19(1):3.
Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequently observed complication after on-pump cardiac surgery (CS) and is associated with adverse patient outcomes. Early identification of patients at risk is essential for the prevention of AKI after CS. In this study, we analysed whether urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) combined with urine insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP-7) ([TIMP-2] × [IGFBP-7]) is an adequate diagnostic test to identify early AKI after on-pump CS.
In 42 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, we surveyed individual risk factors for AKI and defined AKI by applying the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classification during the day of surgery and the following 2 days after surgery. Concentrations of urinary TIMP-2 multiplied by IGFBP-7 were recorded at four time points: at baseline pre-surgery, at the end of surgery, 4 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and at 8:00 am on the first postoperative day.
In total, 38% of the patients experienced AKI. The results showed a median baseline [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP-7] concentration of 0.3 (ng/ml)2/1,000, decreasing at the end of surgery and then increasing at the next measurement point 4 hours after CPB and further on the first postoperative day. On the first postoperative day, patients with AKI had significantly higher concentrations of [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP-7]. On the day of surgery, the concentration did not significantly differ between patients classified as KDIGO 0 or KDIGO 1 or 2. Previously published cutoff points of 0.3 and 2 were not confirmed in our study cohort.
[TIMP-2] × [IGFBP-7] concentration can be used as a diagnostic test to identify patients at increased risk of AKI after CS on the first postoperative day. At earlier time points, no significant difference in [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP-7] concentration was found between patients classified as KDIGO 0 or KDIGO 1 or 2.
Trial registration
German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00005457. Registered 26 November 2013.
PMCID: PMC4310039  PMID: 25560277
3.  Randomized comparison of the i-gel™, the LMA Supreme™, and the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D using clinical and fibreoptic assessments in elective patients 
BMC Anesthesiology  2012;12:18.
The i-gel™, LMA-Supreme (LMA-S) and Laryngeal Tube Suction-D (LTS-D) are single-use supraglottic airway devices with an inbuilt drainage channel. We compared them with regard to their position in situ as well as to clinical performance data during elective surgery.
Prospective, randomized, comparative study of three groups of 40 elective surgical patients each. Speed of insertion and success rates, leak pressures (LP) at different cuff pressures, dynamic airway compliance, and signs of postoperative airway morbidity were recorded. Fibreoptic evaluation was used to determine the devices’ position in situ.
Leak pressures were similar (i-gel™ 25.9, LMA-S 27.1, LTS-D 24.0 cmH2O; the latter two at 60 cmH2O cuff pressure) as were insertion times (i-gel™ 10, LMA-S 11, LTS-D 14 sec). LP of the LMA-S was higher than that of the LTS-D at lower cuff pressures (p <0.05). Insertion success rates differed significantly: i-gel™ 95%, LMA-S 95%, LTS-D 70% (p <0.05). The fibreoptically assessed position was more frequently suboptimal with the LTS-D but this was not associated with impaired ventilation. Dynamic airway compliance was highest with the i-gel™ and lowest with the LTS-D (p <0.05). Airway morbidity was more pronounced with the LTS-D (p <0.01).
All devices were suitable for ventilating the patients’ lungs during elective surgery.
Trial registration
German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00000760
PMCID: PMC3434115  PMID: 22871204
Laryngeal mask airway; Leak pressure; Laryngeal Tube
4.  Intensified thermal management for patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) 
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation via the transapical approach (TAVI-TA) without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a minimally invasive alternative to open-heart valve replacement. Despite minimal exposure and extensive draping perioperative hypothermia still remains a problem.
In this observational study, we compared the effects of two methods of thermal management on the perioperative course of core temperature. The methods were standard thermal management (STM) with a circulating hot water blanket under the patient, forced-air warming with a lower body blanket and warmed infused fluids, and an intensified thermal management (ITM) with additional prewarming using forced-air in the pre-operative holding area on the awake patient.
Nineteen patients received STM and 20 were treated with ITM. On ICU admission, ITM-patients had a higher core temperature (36.4 ± 0.7°C vs. 35.5 ± 0.9°C, p = 0.001), required less time to achieve normothermia (median (IQR) in min: 0 (0-15) vs. 150 (0-300), p = 0.003) and a shorter period of ventilatory support (median (IQR) in min: 0 (0-0) vs. 246 (0-451), p = 0.001).
ITM during TAVI-TA reduces the incidence of hypothermia and allows for faster recovery with less need of ventilatory support.
PMCID: PMC3203847  PMID: 21943183
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation; hypothermia; thermal management; core temperature; prewarming; forced air warming
5.  Recombinant activated factor VII (Novo7®) in patients with ventricular assist devices: Case report and review of the current literature 
Postoperative bleeding might become a serious problem in the management of cardiac surgical patients, with marked medical and economic impact. In these life-threatening situations, massive haemorrhage represents frequently a combination of surgical and coagulopathic bleeding. Surgical bleeding results from a definite source at the operation site and can be corrected using surgical standard techniques. Acute coagulopathies, in contrast, result from impaired thrombin formation, and require optimized therapeutical strategies. Effective pharmacological treatment will be complicated by the presence of ventricular assist devices (VAD), which necessarily imply effective anticoagulation.
In episodes of uncontrolled coagulopathic bleeding, the application of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) as a effective haemostatic agent has become more and more popular. However, only very few data are available on its use in patients with VAD in place.
We researched the PubMed-database for case reports about the use of rFVIIa in patients with VAD and summarized them. In addition, we report a case from our hospital. In all cases cessation of bleeding without any thrombembolic complications could be achieved. In cases of uncontrollable, non-surgical bleeding rFVIIa seems to be a therapeutical option even for patients with VAD.
PMCID: PMC2169244  PMID: 17963487

Results 1-5 (5)