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1.  The Natural History of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in a Birth Cohort: The Influence of Age and Previous Infection on Reinfection and Disease 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2012;176(9):794-802.
This study aimed to quantify the effect of age, time since last infection, and infection history on the rate of respiratory syncytial virus infection and the effect of age and infection history on the risk of respiratory syncytial virus disease. A birth cohort of 635 children in Kilifi, Kenya, was monitored for respiratory syncytial virus infections from January 31, 2002, to April 22, 2005. Predictors of infection were examined by Cox regression and disease risk by binomial regression. A total of 598 respiratory syncytial virus infections were identified (411 primary, 187 repeat), with 409 determined by antigen assay and 189 by antibody alone (using a “most pragmatic” serologic definition). The incidence decreased by 70% following a primary infection (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.30, 95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.42; P < 0.001) and by 59% following a secondary infection (hazard ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.22, 0.73; P = 0.003), for a period lasting 6 months. Relative to the age group <6 months, all ages exhibited a higher incidence of infection. A lower risk of severe disease following infection was independently associated with increasing age (P < 0.001) but not reinfection. In conclusion, observed respiratory syncytial virus incidence was lowest in the first 6 months of life, immunity to reinfection was partial and short lived, and disease risk was age related.
PMCID: PMC3481264  PMID: 23059788
birth cohort; estimation; incidence; reinfection; respiratory syncytial virus; risk
2.  Effect of Age and Vaccination With a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on the Density of Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Carriage 
This study evaluated the impact of age and pneumococcal vaccination on the density of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage. Among colonized individuals, density decreased with increasing age. Time-trends analysis revealed that pneumococcal vaccination appeared to lower the density of nasopharyngeal carriage.
Background. This study evaluated the impact of age and pneumococcal vaccination on the density of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage.
Methods. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted in rural Gambia. In 11 villages (the vaccine group), all residents received 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7), while in another 10 villages (the control group), only children <30 months old or born during the study period received PCV-7. Cross-sectional surveys (CSSs) were conducted to collect nasopharyngeal swabs before vaccination (baseline CSS) and 4, 12, and 22 months after vaccination. Pneumococcal density was defined using a semiquantitative classification (range, 1–4) among colonized individuals. An age-trend analysis of density was conducted using data from the baseline CSS. Mean pneumococcal density was compared in CSSs conducted before and after vaccination.
Results. Mean bacterial density among colonized individuals in the baseline CSS was 2.57 for vaccine-type (VT) and non–vaccine-type (NVT) pneumococci; it decreased with age (P < .001 for VT and NVT). There was a decrease in the density of VT carriage following vaccination in individuals older than 5 years (from 2.44 to 1.88; P = .001) and in younger individuals (from 2.57 to 2.11; P = .070) in the vaccinated villages. Similar decreases in density were observed with NVT within vaccinated and control villages. No significant differences were found between vaccinated and control villages in the postvaccination comparisons for either VT or NVT.
Conclusions. A high density of carriage among young subjects might partly explain why children are more efficient than adults in pneumococcal transmission. PCV-7 vaccination lowered the density of VT and of NVT pneumococcal carriage in the before-after vaccination analysis.
Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN51695599.
PMCID: PMC3423933  PMID: 22700830
3.  Incidence of epilepsy 
Neurology  2011;77(10):1005-1012.
To estimate the pooled incidence of epilepsy from published studies and investigate sources of heterogeneity in the estimates.
We searched online databases for incidence studies and used meta-analytic methods to analyze the data.
Thirty-three articles met the entry criteria. The median incidence of epilepsy was 50.4/100,000/year (interquartile range [IQR] 33.6–75.6), while it was 45.0 (IQR 30.3–66.7) for high-income countries and 81.7 (IQR 28.0–239.5) for low- and middle-income countries. Population-based studies had higher incidence estimates than hospital-based studies (p = 0.02) while retrospective study design was associated with lower estimates than prospective studies (p = 0.04).
We provide data that could potentially be used to assess the burden and analyze the trends in incidence of epilepsy. Our results support the need for large population-based incidence studies of epilepsy. Neurology® 2011;77:1005–1012
PMCID: PMC3171955  PMID: 21893672
4.  Integrated clinical service for sexual assault victims in a genitourinary setting 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  1999;75(2):116-119.
BACKGROUND: Reported sexual assault is increasing, and the diverse immediate and longer term needs of the victim are usually met by exposure to a number of healthcare professionals often in different locations, involving delays and travel, increasing the trauma for the victim. OBJECTIVES: To set up a centre to address the immediate and longer term needs of the sexual assault victim and review issues arising during the development of the service. METHODS: Description of setting up the service in the genitourinary medicine department of Kings College Hospital, south London, and the aspects of care offered. RESULTS: The number of victims referred by police increased from 15 in 1992 to 58 in 1996. In 1996, 55 female and three male victims were seen. 23 different police stations brought victims for examination; mean age of the victim was 27 years (range 14-60), median time between assault and examination was 22 hours (range 3 hours-3 months); 23% had genital injuries, 59% had other physical injury, and 11% needed further hospital care. 71% accepted screening for sexually transmitted infection (STI), 21% had an STI diagnosed, 16% of the women required emergency contraception, 26% received prophylactic antibiotics, and 58% saw a health adviser. 70% had a follow up appointment arranged of which 50% attended. CONCLUSION: The high uptake of STI screening, emergency contraception, health adviser consultation, and follow up supports the concept of a comprehensive integrated system to meet the disparate needs of the victim while still obtaining the necessary forensic evidence. The wide catchment area of service users indicates gaps in services available for the assault victim. Earlier genitourinary involvement after sexual assault is becoming increasingly pertinent in relation to HIV prophylaxis. 

PMCID: PMC1758196  PMID: 10448365

Results 1-6 (6)