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Transplantation  1989;47(6):978-984.
Orthotopic liver transplantation is frequently associated with hyperfibrinolysis, the origin and clinical relevance of which is largely unknown. In 20 orthotopic liver transplantations, we studied the occurrence and systemic effects of hyperfibrinolysis. Severe fibrinolysis was defined to be present when the euglobulin-clot lysis time and the whole-blood-clot lysis time, as measured by thrombelastography, were shorter than 60 and 90 min, respectively, at some time during the operation. Based on these criteria, 7 patients had minimal fibrinolysis (group I), and 13 patients had severe fibrinolysis (group II). In group II a gradual increase of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity was seen during the anhepatic stage, followed by an “explosive” increase immediately after graft reperfusion (P=0.0004, compared with group I), and a reduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity. Plasma degradation products of fibrinogen and fibrin increased parallel to t-PA activity, and levels were significantly higher at 45 min after graft reperfusion in group II compared with group I (P<0.04). Thrombin-antithrombin III complexes showed an identical steady increase in both groups, indicating that increased t-PA activity was not related to thrombin formation. A combination of increased endothelial release and reduced hepatic clearance may have caused the increased t-PA activity. The t-PA—associated destruction of fibrinogen and fibrin after graft reperfusion is consistent with the clinical signs of severe oozing often seen in this period. These observations may have important clinical implications for the treatment of bleeding in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation.
PMCID: PMC3184640  PMID: 2499962
2.  Hepatitis C Testing 
Plasma samples from 1,182 patients undergoing primary liver transplantation were tested for anti-hepatitis C (HCV) virus by two methods: Ortho HCV ELISA Test System (EIA) and Chiron RIBA HCV Test System (RIBA II). The EIA results, 0 or +, were recorded first, followed by RIBA results, N = negative, P = positive, or I = indeterminate. Concordant results—0N, + P, + I—were found in 1,076 (91%), and discordant results were found in 106 (9%). The EIA optical density did not relate to concordant or discordant results. Band patterns were described by stating the band position (1, 2, 3, or 4) and insetting a dash (−) if no band was visualized. Most + P samples fell into two patterns: 47% showed all four bands, pattern 1234, and 15% showed the two-band pattern, 34. When the EIA was negative, 0P, the opposite was seen: 8% showed the 1234 pattern and 81% showed the 34 pattern. There were 226 samples that formed bands (+ P, 149; 0P, 31; + I, 15; 0I, 31). The frequency of bands was as follows: 4, 32%; 3, 31%; 2, 19%; and 1, 18%. Band 2 and the EIA test detected antibodies to the same c100-3 fragment and showed 74% concordance. No explanation is apparent for the lower concordance rate here than that between the EIA test and bands 3 = 96% or 4 = 88%. The EIA and RIBA II tests, together with positive liver function tests and abnormal tissue pathologic findings, provide a basis for the diagnosis of HCV.
PMCID: PMC3034369  PMID: 1377442
Hepatitis C; Non-A,non-B hepatitis; Anti-HCV; RIBA II band patterns
3.  Liver Transplantation: Intraoperative Changes in Coagulation Factors in 100 First Transplants 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)  1989;9(5):710-714.
Six intraoperative blood samples were obtained at intervals from each of 100 individuals undergoing their first liver transplants. The patients fell into the following diagnostic categories: postnecrotic cirrhosis 28, primary biliary cirrhosis 20, sclerosing cholangitis 19, miscellaneous diseases 14, carcinoma/neoplasia 12 and fulminant hepatitis 7. Coagulation factor values in the initial (baseline) blood samples varied by patient diagnosis. In general, all factor levels were reduced except factor VIII:C, which was increased to almost twice normal. The slight intraoperative changes in factors II, VII, IX, X, XI and XII suggested that a steady-state relationship existed between depletion (consumption/bleeding) and repletion (transfusion, transit from extra- to intravascular space), even in the anhepatic state. In contrast, there were rapid and very significant falls in factor VIII and fibrinogen and a less pronounced decrease in factor V, all reaching their nadirs in early to mid-Stage III. The cause of these coagulation changes appears to be activation of the fibrinolytic system.
PMCID: PMC3032392  PMID: 2651269
Transplantation  1985;39(5):532-536.
A group of 70 adults with end-stage liver disease received 87 homologous liver transplants from 7/11/81 and 7/11/83. The recipients fell into the following diagnostic categories: postnecrotic cirrhosis (PNC) in 22, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) in 18, cancer or neoplasia (CA) in 11, sclerosing cholangitis (SC) in 8 and miscellaneous (MISC) in 11. Survival for six months or longer was 46%: survival by group was PBC=67%, CA=55%, PNC=45%, SC=25%, and MISC=18%. Preoperative coagulation profiles were evaluated on 64 of the 70 first transplant patients by assigning a score derived from one point per abnormality in each of 8 tests. Mean coagulation abnormality scores (CAS) were strikingly elevated in the PNC and MISC groups. Mean intraoperative blood product usage was 43 units of RBCs, 40 units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), 21 units of platelets, and 9 bags of cryoprecipitate. Direct correlations were found between CAS and RBC usage (+0.454, P=<.001), CAS, and survival of 6 months or longer (−0.281, P=<.02), and RBC usage and survival (−0.408, P=<.001). These findings indicate that the degree of coagulation abnormality and the type of liver disease may be predictive of intraoperative blood usage and survival in liver transplantation in adults.
PMCID: PMC2988424  PMID: 3887694
5.  Intraoperative Changes in Blood Coagulation and Thrombelastographic Monitoring in Liver Transplantation 
Anesthesia and analgesia  1985;64(9):888-896.
The blood coagulation system of 66 consecutive patients undergoing consecutive liver transplantations was monitored by thrombelastograph and analytic coagulation profile. A poor preoperative coagulation state, decrease in levels of coagulation factors, progressive fibrinolysis, and whole blood clot lysis were observed during the preanhepatic and anhepatic stages of surgery. A further general decrease in coagulation factors and platelets, activation of fibrinolysis, and abrupt decrease in levels of factors V and VIII occurred before and with reperfusion of the homograft. Recovery of blood coagulability began 30–60 min after reperfusion of the graft liver, and coagulability had returned toward baseline values 2 hr after reperfusion. A positive correlation was shown between the variables of thrombelastography and those of the coagulation profile. Thrombelastography was shown to be a reliable and rapid monitoring system. Its use was associated with a 33% reduction of blood and fluid infusion volume, whereas blood coagulability was maintained without an increase in the number of blood product donors.
PMCID: PMC2979326  PMID: 3896028
BLOOD—coagulation; LIVER—transplantation
6.  Hepatitis Viral Markers in Patients Undergoing Primary Liver Transplants 
Digestive diseases and sciences  1993;38(3):457-461.
The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence in liver transplant (OLTx) patients of the hepatitis markers (anti-A, anti-B, anti-C, anti-D and HBsAg) and the interrelationships between markers and patients’ sexes, ages, dates of transplant, clinicopathological diagnoses, and short-term survivals. Slightly more than half of the patients were male. Anti-A and anti-B were about evenly distributed between male and female. Anti-C, anti-D, and HBsAg were far more common in males. Age and year of transplant showed only a moderate increase in anti-A with increasing age. Anti-A was found in 57% of all patients, anti-B in 18%, anti-C in 17%, and HBsAg in 17%. Anti-D was tested only in patients who were positive for anti-B or HBsAg and occurred in 21 (11%) of 185. The poorest short-term survival occurred in males who showed both anti-A and HBsAg.
PMCID: PMC2967191  PMID: 8444076
hepatitis viruses; anti-HAV; anti-HBV; anti-HCV; anti-HDV; hepatitis B surface antigen; liver transplants
The New England journal of medicine  1985;312(18):1189-1190.
PMCID: PMC2965446  PMID: 3920523
8.  Epsilon-aminocaproic Acid for Treatment of Fibrinolysis during Liver Transplantation 
Anesthesiology  1987;66(6):766-773.
In 97 adult patients receiving liver transplants, the coagulation system was monitored by thrombelastography and by coagulation profile including PT; aPTT; platelet count; level of factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII; fibrin degradation products; ethanol gel test; protamine gel test; and euglobulin lysis time. Preoperatively, fibrinolysis defined as a whole blood clot lysis index of less than 80% was present in 29 patients (29.9%), and a euglobulin lysis time of less than 1 h was present in 13 patients. Fibrinolysis increased progressively during surgery in 80 patients (82.5%) and was most severe on reperfusion of the graft liver in 33 patients (34%). When whole blood clot lysis (F < 180 min) was observed during reperfusion of the graft liver, blood coagulability was tested by thrombelastography using both a blood sample treated in vitro with ε-aminocaproic acid (0.09%) and an untreated sample. Blood treated with ε-aminocaproic acid showed improved coagulation without fibrinolytic activity in all 74 tests. When whole blood clot lysis time was less than 120 min, generalized oozing occurred, and the effectiveness of ε-aminocaproic acid was demonstrated in vitro during the pre-anhepatic and post-anhepatic stages, ε-aminocaproic acid (1 g, single intravenous dose) was administered. In all 20 patients treated with ε-aminocaproic acid, fibrinolytic activity disappeared; whole blood clot lysis was not seen on thrombelastography during a 5-h observation period, and whole blood clot lysis index improved from 28.5 ± 29.5% to 94.8 ± 7.4% (mean ± SD, P < 0.001). None of the treated patients had hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications. In patients undergoing liver transplantation, the judicious use of a small dose of ε-aminocaproic acid, when its efficacy was confirmed in vitro, effectively treated the severe fibrinolysis without clinical thrombotic complications.
PMCID: PMC2965586  PMID: 3296855
Blood; coagulation; fibrinolysis; Liver; transplantation; Measurement techniques; thrombelastography; Pharmacology; ε-aminocaproic acid
9.  Liver Transplantation in Hemophilia A 
Blood  1987;69(6):1721-1724.
Four patients with hemophilia A have undergone liver transplantation in our institution, three successfully. The first was a 21-year-old man with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) in whom the effects of previous abdominal operations prevented the satisfactory technical insertion of the new liver. He died intraoperatively. The second patient was a 15-year-old boy with CAH who began to synthesize factor VIII coagulant activity (F VIII:C) within 18 hours of successful liver transplantation and has continued to do so for almost 2 years (F VIII:C range 0.89 to 3.20 U/mL). The first 2 months of his postoperative course were complicated by infections, but since that time he has done well and has returned to school. The third patient was a 48-year-old man with portal fibrosis and severe ascites. He synthesized F VIII:C (range 0.96 to 1.50 U/mL) within six hours after reestablishment of circulation through the new liver. His postoperative course was complicated by numerous infections, and he died with sepsis and an acquired immunodeficiency-like syndrome 4 months after transplantation. The fourth patient was a 47-year-old mild hemophiliac with CAH who produced adequate factor VIII:C levels following transplantation (range 0.79 to 2.80 U/mL). These patients demonstrate that liver transplantation in hemophiliacs with end-stage liver disease may be lifesaving and results in correction of the F VIII:C deficiency and associated hemorrhagic tendency.
PMCID: PMC2965591  PMID: 3107632
10.  APOH Promoter Polymorphisms in Relation to Lupus and Lupus-Related Phenotypes 
The Journal of rheumatology  2009;36(2):315-322.
Sequence variation in gene promoters is often associated with disease risk. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that common promoter variation in the APOH gene (encoding for β2-glycoprotein I) is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk and SLE-related clinical phenotypes in a Caucasian cohort.
We used a case-control design and genotyped 345 SLE women and 454 healthy control women for 8 APOH promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (−1284C>G, −1219G>A, −1190G>C, −759 A>G, − 700C>A, −643T>C, −38G>A, and −32C>A). Association analyses were performed on single SNPs and haplotypes. Haplotype analyses were performed using EH (Estimate Haplotype-frequencies) and Haploview programs. In vitro reporter gene assay was performed in COS-1 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed using HepG2 nuclear cells.
Overall haplotype distribution of the APOH promoter SNPs was significantly different between cases and controls (P = 0.009). The −643C allele was found to be protective against carotid plaque formation (adjusted OR = 0.37, P = 0.013) among SLE patients. The −643C allele was associated with a ~ 2-fold decrease in promoter activity as compared to wild-type −643T allele (mean ± standard deviation: 3.94 ± 0.05 vs. 6.99 ± 0.68, P = 0.016). EMSA showed that the −643T>C SNP harbors a binding site for a nuclear factor. The −1219G>A SNP showed a significant association with the risk of lupus nephritis (age-adjusted OR = 0.36, P = 0.016).
Our data indicate that APOH promoter variants may be involved in the etiology of SLE, especially the risk for autoimmune-mediated cardiovascular disease.
PMCID: PMC2667221  PMID: 19132787
APOH; β2-glycoprotein I; promoter; SLE; lupus; polymorphism
11.  Genetic Variation in the C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Gene may be Associated with the Risk of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and CRP Levels 
The Journal of rheumatology  2008;35(11):2171-2178.
The gene coding for C-reactive protein (CRP) is located on chromosome 1q23.2, which falls within a linkage region thought to harbor a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility gene. Recently, two SNPs in the CRP gene (+838, +2043) have been shown to be associated with CRP levels and/or SLE risk in a British family-based cohort. The current study was done to confirm the reported association in an independent population-based case-control cohort, and also to investigate the impact of three additional CRP tagSNPs (-861, -390, +90) on SLE risk and serum CRP levels.
DNA from 337 white women who met the ACR criteria for definite (n = 324) or probable (n = 13) SLE and 448 white female healthy controls was genotyped for five CRP tagSNPs (-861, -390, +90, +838, +2043). Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP, pyrosequencing or TaqMan assays. Serum CRP levels were measured using ELISA. Association studies were performed using the χ2 distribution, Z-test, Fisher's exact test and ANOVA. Haplotype analysis was performed using EH software and haplo.stats package in R 2.1.2.
While none of the SNPs were found to be associated with SLE risk individually, there was an association with the five-SNP haplotypes (p<0.000001). Three SNPs (-861, -390, +90) were found to significantly influence serum CRP level in SLE cases, both independently and as haplotypes.
Our data suggests that unique haplotype combinations in the CRP gene may modify the risk of developing SLE and influence circulating CRP levels.
PMCID: PMC2582591  PMID: 18793001

Results 1-11 (11)