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author:("bonner, A. L.")
1.  Flunisolide Decreases Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Nitrotyrosine Levels in Asthmatic Children 
Mediators of Inflammation  2006;2006(4):31919.
Background. Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has been reported to be elevated in the oxidative stress involved in asthmatic patients, and the reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with superoxide anions results in the formation of nitrotyrosine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of inhaled steroid treatment on nitrotyrosine levels collected by exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and on FeNO. Methods. This was a single-blind placebo-controlled study. The lung function, FeNO, and nitrotyrosine levels were evaluated in 10 asthmatic children. Results. The nitrotyrosine levels were stable during the placebo period (T0 = 1.16 ng/ml versus T1 = 1.05 ng/ml; NS.), whereas they decreased after the treatment with flunisolide (T2 = 1.14 ng/ml versus T3 = 0.88 ng/ml; P < .001). No significant reduction in FeNO levels was observed after placebo treatment (T0 = 38.4 ppb versus T1 = 34.7 ppb, NS.). In contrast, FeNO values decreased significantly being at T3 = 14.9 ppb (T1 versus T3; P = .024). Conclusions. This study shows that corticosteroid treatment reduces nitrotyrosine levels in EBC of asthmatic subjects.
PMCID: PMC1618944  PMID: 17047290
2.  Association of the FcepsilonRIbeta gene with bronchial hyper-responsiveness in an Italian population. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1998;35(8):680-681.
A study of two DNA polymorphisms (i2 RsaI, E237G) in the gene for the beta subunit of the IgE high affinity receptor (FcepsilonRIbeta) was performed in 168 Italian families with atopic asthmatic children. The prevalence of the E237G allele in the Italian population was 4%, so this polymorphism was unsuitable for this study. The i2 RsaI polymorphism minor allele frequency was 44%, and it had a PIC value of 0.37. Linkage analysis indicated a significant allele sharing in affected sib pairs for bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR, p=0.048), but not for allergic asthma. These data indicate an association of bronchial hyper-responsiveness with the FcepsilonRIbeta gene.
PMCID: PMC1051398  PMID: 9719379
3.  Nebulised sodium cromoglycate and verapamil in methacholine induced asthma. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1987;62(3):264-268.
Fifteen children with asthma underwent challenges with methacholine on separate days after double blind administration by nebuliser of either verapamil (5 mg), cromoglycate (20 mg), or saline (placebo). The provocation doses that produced a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PD20) were analysed. There was variation in the protective effects of verapamil and cromoglycate among the patients. Although cromoglycate produced an increase in PD20 in 53% of the children tested, the protection was not significant when compared with the placebo. Verapamil was partially protective, however, in 80% of children and achieved significantly better results than the placebo. We suggest that this is likely to be due to a direct effect on bronchial smooth muscle.
PMCID: PMC1778310  PMID: 3105472
4.  Cromoglycate and Nedocromil: Influence on Airway Reactivity 
Mediators of Inflammation  1994;3(7):S15-S19.
Although basic mechanisms of bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) are still incompletely understood, inflammation of airways is likely to play a fundamental role in modulating BHR in patients with asthma. The involvement of several inflammatory cells (eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and platelets) and of bioactive mediators secreted by these cells in the pathogenesis of asthma is well documented. Sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium are two pharmacological agents which have anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties. Their clinical effectiveness in mild to moderate asthma, and the capacity to reduce BHR under different natural and experimental conditions, make them valuable drugs for maintenance therapy in patients with asthma.
PMCID: PMC2365598  PMID: 18475597

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