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1.  Tibial plateau fractures: compared outcomes between ARIF and ORIF 
The purpose of this study is to compare arthroscopic assisted reduction internal fixation (ARIF) treatment with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) treatment in patients with tibial plateau fractures. We studied 100 patients with tibial plateau fractures (54 men and 46 women) examined by X-rays and CT scans, divided into 2 groups. Group A with associated meniscus tear was treated by ARIF technique, while in group B ORIF technique was used. The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 116 months. The patients were evaluated both clinically and radiologically according to the Rasmussen and HSS (The Hospital for Special Surgery knee-rating) scores. In group A, the average Rasmussen clinical score is 27.62 ± 2.60 (range, 19–30), while in group B is 26.81 ± 2.65 (range, 21–30). HSS score in group A was 76.36 ± 14.19 (range, 38–91) as the average clinical result, while in group B was 73.12 ± 14.55 (range, 45–91). According to Rasmussen radiological results, the average score for group A was 16.56 ± 2.66 (range, 8–18), while in group B was 15.88 ± 2.71 (range, 10–18). Sixty-nine of 100 patients in our study had associated intra-articular lesions. We had 5 early complications and 36 late complications. The study suggests that there are no differences between ARIF and ORIF treatment in Schatzker type I fractures. ARIF technique may increase the clinical outcome in Schatzker type II–III–IV fractures. In Schatzker type V and VI fractures, ARIF and ORIF techniques have both poor medium- and long-term results but ARIF treatment, when indicated, is the best choice for the lower rate of infections.
PMCID: PMC3482433  PMID: 23086660
Tibial plateau fractures; ARIF; Arthroscopically assisted reduction; Post-traumatic arthrosis; External fixation
2.  Distinct profiles of brain and cognitive changes in the very old with Alzheimer disease 
Neurology  2011;77(8):713-721.
To determine whether age-standardized brain morphometric and cognitive profiles differ in young-old (aged 60–75 years) and very-old (aged 80–91 years) patients with Alzheimer disease (AD).
Using a case-control retrospective design, we compared hippocampal volume and cortical gray matter thickness in areas known to be affected by AD in 105 patients with AD and 125 healthy control (HC) participants divided into young-old and very-old subgroups. Brain morphometric and cognitive scores of the AD groups were standardized to their respective age-appropriate HC subgroup and then compared.
Several cognitive domains (executive function, immediate memory, and attention/processing speed) were less abnormal in the very old with AD than in the young old with AD. Similarly, the very old with AD showed less severe cortical thinning than the young old with AD in the left posterior cingulate cortex, right lateral temporal cortex, and bilateral parietal cortex and in overall cortical thickness. This effect is partially explained by an age-related decrease in cortical thickness in these brain regions in the HC participants.
The typical pattern of AD-related cognitive and morphometric changes seen in the young old appear to be less salient in the very old. Thus, mild cases of AD in the very old may go undetected if one expects to see the prototypical pattern and severity of cognitive or brain changes that occur in the young old with AD. These results underscore the importance of interpreting neuropsychological test performance and morphometric brain measures in reference to the individual's age. Neurology® 2011;77:713–721
PMCID: PMC3164395  PMID: 21832223
3.  Three-Dimensional Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocytes Implantation for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus: Midterm Results 
Advances in Orthopedics  2012;2012:942174.
Introduction. We evaluate the midterm results of thirty patients who underwent autologous chondrocytes implantation for talus osteochondral lesions treatment. Materials and Methods. From 2002 to 2009, 30 ankles with a mean lesion size of 2,36 cm2 were treated. We evaluated patients using American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Surgery and Coughlin score, Van Dijk scale, recovering time, and Musculoskeletal Outcomes Data Evaluation and Management System. Results. The mean AOFAS score varied from 36.9 to 83.9 at follow-up. Average of Van Dijk scale was 141.1. Coughlin score was excellent/good in 24 patients. MOCART score varied from 6.3 to 3.8. Discussion. This matrix is easy to handle conformable to the lesion and apply by arthroscopy. No correlation between MRI imaging and clinical results is found. Conclusions. Our results, compared with those reported in literature with other surgical procedures, show no superiority evidence for our technique compared to the others regarding the size of the lesions.
PMCID: PMC3337586  PMID: 22570793
4.  Global clinical dementia rating of 0.5 in MCI masks variability related to level of function 
Neurology  2011;76(7):652-659.
To evaluate whether ratings on Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) items related to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are associated with cognitive or brain morphometric characteristics of participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and global CDR scores of 0.5.
Baseline cognitive and morphometric data were analyzed for 283 individuals with MCI who were divided into 2 groups (impaired and intact) based on their scores on the 3 CDR categories assessing IADL. Rates of progression to Alzheimer disease (AD) over 2 years were also compared in the 2 groups.
The impaired IADL MCI group showed a more widespread pattern of gray matter loss involving frontal and parietal regions, worse episodic memory and executive functions, and a higher percentage of individuals progressing to AD than the relatively intact IADL MCI group.
The results demonstrate the importance of considering functional information captured by the CDR when evaluating individuals with MCI, even though it is not given equal weight in the assignment of the global CDR score. Worse impairment on IADL items was associated with greater involvement of brain regions beyond the mesial temporal lobe. The conventional practice of relying on the global CDR score as currently computed underutilizes valuable IADL information available in the scale, and may delay identification of an important subset of individuals with MCI who are at higher risk of clinical decline.
PMCID: PMC3053336  PMID: 21321338
5.  Elevated pulse pressure is associated with age-related decline in language ability 
Recent research suggests that pulse pressure (PP), a putative marker of vascular integrity, may be associated with brain microvascular damage and age-related cognitive decline. Thus, the present study examined the relationship between PP and cognition in a sample of healthy nondemented older adults. One hundred nine participants were administered neurological and neuropsychological evaluations and determined to be nondemented. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among pulse pressure (PP) [systolic blood pressure (SBP) – diastolic blood pressure (DBP)], age, and cognition. PP and related measures were inversely correlated with global cognitive functioning and scores on a composite measure of language function, even after adjusting for age, education, and relevant vascular risk factors. Results indicate that increases in the pulsatile component of blood pressure may convey added risk of global cognitive decline and specific impairment in language abilities.
PMCID: PMC3008594  PMID: 20663268
Blood pressure; Hypertension; Aging; Cognition; Stroke; Arterial stiffness
6.  Decreased white matter integrity in late-myelinating fiber pathways in Alzheimer's disease supports retrogenesis 
NeuroImage  2008;45(1):10-16.
The retrogenesis model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) posits that white matter (WM) degeneration follows a pattern that is the reverse of myelogenesis. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test this model, we predicted greater loss of microstructural integrity in late-myelinating WM fiber pathways in AD patients than in healthy older adults, whereas differences in early-myelinating WM fiber pathways were not expected. We compared 16 AD patients and 14 demographically-matched healthy older adults with a whole-brain approach via tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), and a region of interest (ROI) approach targeting early-myelinating (posterior limb of internal capsule, cerebral peduncles) and late-myelinating (inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], superior longitudinal fasciculus [SLF]) fiber pathways. Permutation-based voxelwise analysis supported the retrogenesis model. There was significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in AD patients compared to healthy older adults in late-myelinating but not early-myelinating pathways. These group differences appeared to be driven by loss of myelin integrity based on our finding of greater radial diffusion in AD than in healthy elderly. ROI analyses were generally in agreement with whole-brain findings, with significantly lower FA and increased radial diffusion in the ILF in the AD group. Consistent with the retrogenesis model, AD patients showed demonstrable changes in late-myelinating WM fiber pathways. Given greater change in the ILF than the SLF, wallerian degeneration secondary to cortical atrophy may also be a contributing mechanism. Knowledge of the pattern of WM microstructural changes in AD and its underlying mechanisms may contribute to earlier detection and intervention in at-risk groups.
PMCID: PMC2782417  PMID: 19100839

Results 1-6 (6)