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author:("bolism, G.")
1.  Hodgkin's lymphoma: the pathologist's viewpoint 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2002;55(3):162-176.
Despite its well known histological and clinical features, Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) has recently been the object of intense research activity, leading to a better understanding of its phenotype, molecular characteristics, histogenesis, and possible mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. There is complete consensus on the B cell derivation of the tumour in most cases, and on the relevance of Epstein-Barr virus infection and defective cytokinesis in at least a proportion of patients. The REAL/WHO classification recognises a basic distinction between lymphocyte predominance HL (LP-HL) and classic HL (CHL), reflecting the differences in clinical presentation and behaviour, morphology, phenotype, and molecular features. CHL has been classified into four subtypes: lymphocyte rich, nodular sclerosing, with mixed cellularity, and lymphocyte depleted. The borders between CHL and anaplastic large cell lymphoma have become sharper, whereas those between LP-HL and T cell rich B cell lymphoma remain ill defined. Treatments adjusted to the pathobiological characteristics of the tumour in at risk patients have been proposed and are on the way to being applied.
PMCID: PMC1769601  PMID: 11896065
Hodgkin's lymphoma; differential diagnosis; subtypes; Epstein-Barr virus
2.  Survival and prognostic factors of early ovarian cancer. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;77(1):123-124.
Survival and prognostic factors were analysed in 150 patients with histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer stage IA-IIA. The relapse-free and overall survival rates were, respectively, 81% and 88% after 3 and 74% and 84% after 5 years. The analysis of various prognostic factors indicates as the main factor the grade differentiation of the tumour.
PMCID: PMC2151268  PMID: 9459156
3.  Chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer: four systematic meta-analyses of individual patient data from 37 randomized trials. Advanced Ovarian Cancer Trialists' Group. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;78(11):1479-1487.
The purpose of this systematic study was to provide an up to date and reliable quantitative summary of the relative benefits of various types of chemotherapy (non-platinum vs platinum, single-agent vs combination and carboplatin vs cisplatin) in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. Also, to investigate whether well-defined patient subgroups benefit more or less from cisplatin- or carboplatin-based therapy. Meta-analyses were based on updated individual patient data from all available randomized controlled trials (published and unpublished), including 37 trials, 5667 patients and 4664 deaths. The results suggest that platinum-based chemotherapy is better than non-platinum therapy, show a trend in favour of platinum combinations over single-agent platinum, and suggest that cisplatin and carboplatin are equally effective. There is no good evidence that cisplatin is more or less effective than carboplatin in any particular subgroup of patients.
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PMCID: PMC2063202  PMID: 9836481
4.  Determinants of risk of invasive cervical cancer in young women. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;77(5):838-841.
We analysed determinants of risk of cervical cancer in women aged less than 45 years using data from a case-control study conducted in Italy. Cases were 261 women aged < 45 years with histologically confirmed invasive cervical cancer. Controls were 257 women aged < 45 years, with acute, non-neoplastic conditions, judged to be unrelated to any of the known or suspected risk factors for cervical cancer. In comparison with women reporting one or no sexual partner, the multivariate odds ratio (OR) of cervical cancer was 2.4 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.3-4.6), for women reporting two or more sexual partners, and, in comparison with women reporting their first intercourse at 17 years of age or before, the multivariate OR was 0.5 (95% CI 0.3-0.9) in women aged > or =23 years at first intercourse. The risk of cervical cancer was higher in parous women and increased with number of births (OR = 8.1 for three or more births). Among parous women the risk tended to increase with later age at last birth; in comparison with parous women reporting their last birth before age 25, the OR was 1.9 in those reporting their last birth at > or =35 years. No clear association emerged between oral contraceptive use, smoking, education, social class and risk of cervical cancer.
PMCID: PMC2149946  PMID: 9514067
5.  Case-control study of oestrogen replacement therapy and risk of cervical cancer. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1997;315(7100):85-88.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between use of oestrogen replacement therapy and risk of cervical cancer. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Northern Italy. SUBJECTS: 645 women aged 40-75 years with cervical cancer admitted between 1981 and 1993 to university and general hospitals. The control group consisted of 749 women aged 40-75 years admitted to the same hospitals with acute conditions judged to be unrelated to any of the known or suspected risk factors for cervical cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Use of oestrogen replacement therapy and risk of cervical cancer. RESULTS: 40 cases versus 86 controls had ever used oestrogens, and the corresponding multivariate odds ratio was 0.5 (95% confidence interval 0.3 to 0.8). The odds ratios of cervical cancer decreased with duration of use, being 0.6 (0.4 to 1.1) for less than 12 months' use and 0.5 (0.2 to 1.0) for use for 12 months or more compared with never users. The protection tended to be somewhat stronger for women reporting first oestrogen use before age 50. The odds ratio was 0.9 (0.5 to 1.7) for women who had taken oestrogens within the past 10 years and 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) for those who had taken them 10 or more years ago. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that exogenous oestrogens do not increase the risk of cervical cancer and may decrease the risk.
PMCID: PMC2127095  PMID: 9240046
7.  Prognostic factors in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. (Gruppo Interregionale Cooperativo di Oncologia Ginecologica (GICOG)). 
British Journal of Cancer  1990;62(3):444-450.
The data on 914 patients enrolled in four randomised trials in advanced ovarian cancer, consecutively conducted by the same cooperative group between 1978 and 1986, were analysed with the aims of: (1) determining the impact of selected prognostic variables on survival; (2) finding, from the interaction of favourable prognostic factors and treatment, an approximate estimate of the magnitude of the survival advantage associated with the use of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. The overall 3-year survival in this series of patients is twice that reported historically (22%; 95% CL 18.7-25.4). The proportional hazard regression model was used to perform the analysis on survival. Residual tumour size, age, FIGO stage and cell type were all independent determinants of survival. Differences in survival from the various prognostic groups were impressive with 5-year survival rates ranging from 7 to 62%. However, these differences were not qualitative (i.e. the kinetics of survival were similar for the best and the worst groups) suggesting that current prognostic factors are of little use for selecting 'biologically' different sub-populations. Platinum-based regimens were associated to an overall prolonged median survival, but this benefit was not observable in the subgroup with most favourable prognosis (less than 2 cm residual tumour size). The implications of these observations for clinical research and ovarian cancer patients care are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1971438  PMID: 2119684

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