Rationale: Pulmonary emphysema overlaps partially with spirometrically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is heritable, with moderately high familial clustering.
Objectives: To complete a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the percentage of emphysema-like lung on computed tomography in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung/SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) Study, a large, population-based cohort in the United States.
Methods: We determined percent emphysema and upper-lower lobe ratio in emphysema defined by lung regions less than −950 HU on cardiac scans. Genetic analyses were reported combined across four race/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic white (n = 2,587), African American (n = 2,510), Hispanic (n = 2,113), and Chinese (n = 704) and stratified by race and ethnicity.
Measurements and Main Results: Among 7,914 participants, we identified regions at genome-wide significance for percent emphysema in or near SNRPF (rs7957346; P = 2.2 × 10−8) and PPT2 (rs10947233; P = 3.2 × 10−8), both of which replicated in an additional 6,023 individuals of European ancestry. Both single-nucleotide polymorphisms were previously implicated as genes influencing lung function, and analyses including lung function revealed independent associations for percent emphysema. Among Hispanics, we identified a genetic locus for upper-lower lobe ratio near the α-mannosidase–related gene MAN2B1 (rs10411619; P = 1.1 × 10−9; minor allele frequency [MAF], 4.4%). Among Chinese, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with upper-lower lobe ratio near DHX15 (rs7698250; P = 1.8 × 10−10; MAF, 2.7%) and MGAT5B (rs7221059; P = 2.7 × 10−8; MAF, 2.6%), which acts on α-linked mannose. Among African Americans, a locus near a third α-mannosidase–related gene, MAN1C1 (rs12130495; P = 9.9 × 10−6; MAF, 13.3%) was associated with percent emphysema.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that some genes previously identified as influencing lung function are independently associated with emphysema rather than lung function, and that genes related to α-mannosidase may influence risk of emphysema.
emphysema; computed tomography; multiethnic; cohort study; genetic association
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disorder with increasing prevalence and mortality. It is associated with airway obstruction, increased airway hyper‐responsiveness (AHR), and ongoing airway and lung inflammation dominated by CD8 lymphocytes and neutrophils. Single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33) gene have been associated with AHR and COPD.
To assess whether SNPs in ADAM33 are associated with the severity of AHR and airway inflammation in COPD.
Eight SNPs in ADAM33 (F+1, Q‐1, S_1, S_2, ST+5, T_1, T_2, V_4) were genotyped in 111 patients with COPD (96 males, 69 current smokers, mean (standard deviation (SD)), aged 62 (8) years, median pack‐years 42 (IQR 31–55), mean postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)% predicted 63 (9). Provocative concentration of methacholine causing a decrease in FEV1 of 20% (PC20 methacholine), sputum and bronchial biopsies were collected.
Patients with the ST+5 AA genotype had more severe AHR, higher numbers of sputum inflammatory cells and CD8 cells in bronchial biopsies than patients with the GG genotype (p = 0.03, 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). CD8 cell numbers were lower in patients carrying the minor allele of SNP T_1 and T_2, and homozygotic minor variants of SNP S_2 compared with the wild type (p = 0.02, 0.01 and 0.02, respectively).
This is the first study revealing that SNPs in a gene that confers susceptibility to COPD in the general population—that is, ADAM33—are associated with AHR and airway inflammation in COPD. These findings constitute an important step forward in linking gene polymorphisms with COPD pathophysiology, thereby possibly contributing to better treatments for this progressive and disabling disease in the future.
Forced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in 32,917 additional individuals of European ancestry. We found six new regions associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8) with FVC in or near EFEMP1, BMP6, MIR-129-2/HSD17B12, PRDM11, WWOX, and KCNJ2. Two (GSTCD and PTCH1) loci previously associated with spirometric measures were related to FVC. Newly implicated regions were followed-up in samples of African American, Korean, Chinese, and Hispanic individuals. We detected transcripts for all six newly implicated genes in human lung tissue. The new loci may inform mechanisms involved in lung development and pathogenesis of restrictive lung disease.
There are indications that a history of allergy may offer some protection against cancer. We studied the relation of three objectively determined allergy markers with cancer mortality and hospitalization risk.
Associations between three allergy markers (number of peripheral blood eosinophil counts, skin test positivity, and serum total IgE) with mortality and hospitalization from any type and four common types of cancer (lung, colorectal, prostate, and breast cancer) were assessed in the Vlagtwedde–Vlaardingen cohort (1965–1990), with follow-up of mortality until 31 December 2008. Hospitalization data were available since 1 January 1995.
There were no significant associations between objective allergy markers and cancer mortality or hospitalization. We found several associations in specific subgroups. A higher number of eosinophils was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer mortality in ever smokers HR (95 % CI) = 0.61 (0.45–0.83) and in males 0.59 (0.42–0.83); however, no overall association was observed 0.84 (0.64–1.09). Skin test positivity was associated with a decreased risk of any cancer mortality only among females 0.59 (0.38–0.91) and showed no overall association 0.83 (0.67–1.04). Serum total IgE levels were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality among females 4.64 (1.04–20.70), but with a decreased risk of cancer hospitalization in ever smokers 0.77 (0.61–0.97) and males 0.72 (0.55–0.93); however, no overall associations were observed [mortality 0.99 (0.79–1.25), and hospitalization 0.86 (0.71–1.04)].
We found no associations between objective allergy markers and cancer in the total population. However, skin test positivity and a high number of eosinophils were associated with a reduced risk to die of cancer in specific subgroups. Hence, it seems important to study specific subgroups defined by gender and smoking habits in order to identify allergy markers of predictive value for cancer mortality.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10552-014-0489-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cancer mortality; Cancer hospitalization; Eosinophils; IgE; Skin test positivity
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are thought to share a genetic background (“Dutch hypothesis”).
We investigated whether asthma and COPD have common underlying genetic factors, performing genome-wide association studies for both asthma and COPD and combining the results in meta-analyses.
Three loci showed potential involvement in both diseases: chr2p24.3, chr5q23.1 and chr13q14.2, containing DDX1, COMMD10 (both participating in the NFκβ pathway) and GNG5P5, respectively. SNP rs9534578 in GNG5P5 reached genome-wide significance after first stage replication (p=9.96·*10−9). The second stage replication in seven independent cohorts provided no significant replication. eQTL analysis in blood and lung on the top 20 associated SNPs identified two SNPs in COMMD10 influencing gene expression.
Inflammatory processes differ in asthma and COPD and are mediated by NFκβ, which could be driven by the same underlying genes, COMMD10 and DDX1. None of the SNPs reached genome-wide significance. Our eQTL studies support a functional role of two COMMD10 SNPs, since they influence gene expression in both blood cells and lung tissue. Our findings either suggest that there is no common genetic component in asthma and COPD or, alternatively, different environmental factors, like lifestyle and occupation in different countries and continents may have obscured the genetic common contribution.
Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Only a subgroup of smokers develops COPD and it is unclear why these individuals are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoking. The risk to develop COPD is known to be higher in individuals with familial aggregation of COPD. This study aimed to investigate if acute systemic and local immune responses to cigarette smoke differentiate between individuals susceptible or non-susceptible to develop COPD, both at young (18-40 years) and old (40-75 years) age.
All participants smoked three cigarettes in one hour. Changes in inflammatory markers in peripheral blood (at 0 and 3 hours) and in bronchial biopsies (at 0 and 24 hours) were investigated. Acute effects of smoking were analyzed within and between susceptible and non-susceptible individuals, and by multiple regression analysis.
Young susceptible individuals showed significantly higher increases in the expression of FcγRII (CD32) in its active forms (A17 and A27) on neutrophils after smoking (p = 0.016 and 0.028 respectively), independently of age, smoking status and expression of the respective markers at baseline. Smoking had no significant effect on mediators in blood or inflammatory cell counts in bronchial biopsies. In the old group, acute effects of smoking were comparable between healthy controls and COPD patients.
We show for the first time that COPD susceptibility at young age associates with an increased systemic innate immune response to cigarette smoking. This suggests a role of systemic inflammation in the early induction phase of COPD.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12931-014-0121-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Acute smoking; COPD; Susceptibility; Biomarkers; Inflammation
The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2 or NRF2) gene regulates transcription of enzymes involved in cellular detoxification and lipids homeostasis. NFE2L2 is associated with pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore we studied the relation between NFE2L2 and all-cause, cardiovascular, and COPD mortality and its associations with triglyceride and cholesterol levels. We genotyped five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4243387, rs2364723, rs13001694, rs1806649, and rs6726395) in NFE2L2 in 1,390 subjects from the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort. Participants were examined in 1989/1990 and followed up till the vital status evaluation on December 31st, 2008. Associations between SNPs and mortality were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression, and associations between SNPs and triglyceride and cholesterol levels were tested with linear regression. After 18 yr, 284 (20.4%) subjects had died, 107 from cardiovascular disease and 20 from COPD. Minor allele carriers of rs13001694 had a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality compared with wild types: hazard ratio (HR) 0.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6 to 1.0]. Minor allele carriers of rs2364723 had significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality: HR = 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3–0.7). This result was consistent in stratified analyses: females 0.4 (0.2–0.7), males 0.6 (0.3–0.9), never smokers 0.5 (0.2–1.1), ever smokers 0.5 (0.3–0.8). Minor allele carriers of rs1806649 had a markedly reduced COPD mortality: HR = 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1–0.9). Rs2364723 was associated with lower triglyceride levels. None of the SNPs was associated with cholesterol levels. This study shows for the first time that NFE2L2 is associated with reduced risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and COPD mortality in humans.
NFE2L2; all-cause mortality; general population; cardiovascular mortality; COPD mortality
Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is associated with an increased frequency of respiratory infections, excess lung function decline, and increased hospitalisation and mortality rates in the general population. It is associated with smoking, but it is unknown why only a minority of smokers develops CMH. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is a predisposing genetic constitution. Therefore, we performed a genome wide association (GWA) study of CMH in Caucasian populations.
GWA analysis was performed in the NELSON-study using the Illumina 610 array, followed by replication and meta-analysis in 11 additional cohorts. In total 2,704 subjects with, and 7,624 subjects without CMH were included, all current or former heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years). Additional studies were performed to test the functional relevance of the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).
A strong association with CMH, consistent across all cohorts, was observed with rs6577641 (p = 4.25×10−6, OR = 1.17), located in intron 9 of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 locus (SATB1) on chromosome 3. The risk allele (G) was associated with higher mRNA expression of SATB1 (4.3×10−9) in lung tissue. Presence of CMH was associated with increased SATB1 mRNA expression in bronchial biopsies from COPD patients. SATB1 expression was induced during differentiation of primary human bronchial epithelial cells in culture.
Our findings, that SNP rs6577641 is associated with CMH in multiple cohorts and is a cis-eQTL for SATB1, together with our additional observation that SATB1 expression increases during epithelial differentiation provide suggestive evidence that SATB1 is a gene that affects CMH.
Both asthma and obesity are complex disorders that are influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Shared genetic factors between asthma and obesity have been proposed to partly explain epidemiological findings of co-morbidity between these conditions.
To identify genetic variants that are associated with body mass index (BMI) in asthmatic children and adults, and to evaluate if there are differences between the genetics of BMI in asthmatics and healthy individuals.
In total, 19 studies contributed with genome-wide analysis study (GWAS) data from more than 23,000 individuals with predominantly European descent, of whom 8,165 are asthmatics.
We report associations between several DENND1B variants (p=2.2×10−7 for rs4915551) on chromosome 1q31 and BMI from a meta-analysis of GWAS data using 2,691 asthmatic children (screening data). The top DENND1B SNPs were next evaluated in seven independent replication data sets comprising 2,014 asthmatics, and rs4915551 was nominally replicated (p<0.05) in two of the seven studies and of borderline significance in one (p=0.059). However, strong evidence of effect heterogeneity was observed and overall, the association between rs4915551 and BMI was not significant in the total replication data set, p=0.71. Using a random effects model, BMI was overall estimated to increase by 0.30 kg/m2 (p=0.01 for combined screening and replication data sets, N=4,705) per additional G allele of this DENND1B SNP. FTO was confirmed as an important gene for adult and childhood BMI regardless of asthma status.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance
DENND1B was recently identified as an asthma susceptibility gene in a GWAS on children, and here we find evidence that DENND1B variants may also be associated with BMI in asthmatic children. However, the association was overall not replicated in the independent data sets and the heterogeneous effect of DENND1B points to complex associations with the studied diseases that deserve further study.
Association; Asthma; BMI; Genetics; Genome-wide; Obesity
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airflow limitation caused by ongoing inflammatory and remodeling processes of the airways and lung tissue. Inflammation can be targeted by corticosteroids. However, airway inflammation is generally less responsive to steroids in COPD than in asthma. The underlying mechanisms are yet unclear. This study aimed to assess whether skin corticosteroid insensitivity is associated with COPD and COPD severity using the corticosteroid skin blanching test.
COPD patients GOLD stage I–IV (n = 27, 24, 22, and 16 respectively) and healthy never-smokers and smokers (n = 28 and 56 respectively) were included. Corticosteroid sensitivity was assessed by the corticosteroid skin blanching test. Budesonide was applied in 8 logarithmically increasing concentrations (0–100 μg/ml) on subject's forearm. Assessment of blanching was performed after 7 hours using a 7-point scale (normal skin to intense blanching). All subjects performed spirometry and body plethysmography.
Both GOLD III and GOLD IV COPD patients showed significantly lower skin blanching responses than healthy never-smokers and smokers, GOLD I, and GOLD II patients. Their area under the dose-response curve values of the skin blanching response were 586 and 243 vs. 1560, 1154, 1380, and 1309 respectively, p<0.05. Lower FEV1 levels and higher RV/TLC ratios were significantly associated with lower skin blanching responses (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004 respectively). GOLD stage I, II, III and IV patients had similar age and packyears.
In this study, severe and very severe COPD patients had lower skin corticosteroid sensitivity than mild and moderate COPD patients and non-COPD controls with comparable age and packyears. Our findings together suggest that the reduced skin blanching response fits with a subgroup of COPD patients that has an early-onset COPD phenotype.
Accelerated lung function decline is a key COPD phenotype; however its genetic control remains largely unknown.
We performed a genome-wide association study using the Illumina Human660W-Quad v.1_A BeadChip. Generalized estimation equations were used to assess genetic contributions to lung function decline over a 5-year period in 4,048 European-American Lung Health Study participants with largely mild COPD. Genotype imputation was performed using reference HapMap II data. To validate regions meeting genome-wide significance, replication of top SNPs was attempted in independent cohorts. Three genes (TMEM26, ANK3 and FOXA1) within the regions of interest were selected for tissue expression studies using immunohistochemistry.
Measurements and Main Results
Two intergenic SNPs (rs10761570, rs7911302) on chromosome 10 and one SNP on chromosome 14 (rs177852) met genome-wide significance after Bonferroni. Further support for the chromosome 10 region was obtained by imputation, the most significantly associated imputed SNPs (rs10761571, rs7896712) being flanked by observed markers rs10761570 and rs7911302. Results were not replicated in four general population cohorts or a smaller cohort of subjects with moderate to severe COPD; however, we show novel expression of genes near regions of significantly associated SNPS, including TMEM26 and FOXA1 in airway epithelium and lung parenchyma, and ANK3 in alveolar macrophages. Levels of expression were associated with lung function and COPD status.
We identified two novel regions associated with lung function decline in mild COPD. Genes within these regions were expressed in relevant lung cells and their expression related to airflow limitation suggesting they may represent novel candidate genes for COPD susceptibility.
COPD; lung function decline; GWAS; genome wide association; genes; polymorphisms
The clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors is known as metabolic syndrome (MetS). The risk of having MetS is strongly associated with increased adiposity and can be further modified by smoking behavior. Apolipoproteins (apo) associated with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) may be altered in MetS. This study aimed to examine the association between smoking and the following parameters: MetS and its components, levels of apolipoproteins and estimated lipoprotein particle size, separately for men and women, and in different body mass index (BMI) classes.
We included 24,389 men and 35,078 women aged between 18 and 80 years who participated in the LifeLines Cohort Study between December 2006 and January 2012; 5,685 men and 6,989 women were current smokers. Participants were categorized into three different body mass index (BMI) classes (BMI <25; BMI 25 to 30; BMI ≥30 kg/m2). MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP:ATPIII) criteria. Blood pressure, anthropometric and lipid measurements were rigorously standardized, and the large sample size enabled a powerful estimate of quantitative changes. The association between smoking and the individual MetS components, and apoA1 and apoB, was tested with linear regression. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of smoking and daily tobacco smoked on risk of having MetS. All models were age adjusted and stratified by sex and BMI class.
Prevalence of MetS increased with higher BMI levels. A total of 64% of obese men and 42% of obese women had MetS. Current smoking was associated with a higher risk of MetS in both sexes and all BMI classes (odds ratio 1.7 to 2.4 for men, 1.8 to 2.3 for women, all P values <0.001). Current smokers had lower levels of HDL cholesterol and apoA1, higher levels of triglycerides and apoB, and higher waist circumference than non-smokers (all P <0.001). Smoking had no consistent association with blood pressure or fasting blood glucose. In all BMI classes, we found a dose-dependent association of daily tobacco consumption with MetS prevalence as well as with lower levels of HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and lower ratios of HDL cholesterol/apoA1 and, only in those with BMI <30, LDL cholesterol/apoB (all P <0.001).
Smoking is associated with an increased prevalence of MetS, independent of sex and BMI class. This increased risk is mainly related to lower HDL cholesterol, and higher triglycerides and waist circumference. In addition, smoking was associated with unfavorable changes in apoA1 and apoB, and in lipoprotein particle size.
Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/196.
Metabolic syndrome; Smoking; HDL; Cholesterol; Apolipoproteins; Triglycerides; Obesity; Cross-sectional; BMI classes
Lung growth in utero and lung function loss during adulthood can be affected by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Both ETS exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Omega genes have been associated with the level of lung function. This study aimed to assess if GSTO SNPs interact with ETS exposure in utero and during adulthood on the level of lung function during adulthood.
We used cross-sectional data of 8,128 genotyped participants from the LifeLines cohort study. Linear regression models (adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, current smoking, ex-smoking and packyears smoked) were used to analyze the associations between in utero, daily and workplace ETS exposure, GSTO SNPs, the interaction between ETS and GSTOs, and level of lung function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC). Since the interactions between ETS and GSTOs may be modified by active tobacco smoking we additionally assessed associations in never and ever smokers separately. A second sample of 5,308 genotyped LifeLines participants was used to verify our initial findings.
Daily and workplace ETS exposure was associated with significantly lower FEV1 levels. GSTO SNPs (recessive model) interacted with in utero ETS and were associated with higher levels of FEV1, whereas the interactions with daily and workplace ETS exposure were associated with lower levels of FEV1, effects being more pronounced in never smokers. The interaction of GSTO2 SNP rs156697 with in utero ETS associated with a higher level of FEV1 was significantly replicated in the second sample. Overall, the directions of the interactions of in utero and workplace ETS exposure with the SNPs found in the second (verification) sample were in line with the first sample.
GSTO genotypes interact with in utero and adulthood ETS exposure on adult lung function level, but in opposite directions.
Genes; Environmental tobacco smoke; Lung function
The ADAM33 gene is associated with the pathophysiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and atherosclerosis. In this study we investigated all-cause, COPD and cardiovascular mortality, in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADAM33 (Q_1, S_1, S_2, T_1 and T_2) that were genotyped in 1,390 subjects from the Vlagtwedde/Vlaardingen cohort. Participants were examined at entry in 1989/1990 and followed up till evaluation of the vital status on December 31st, 2008. Using Cox proportional hazards regression we estimated the risk of the SNPs in relation to mortality, adjusting for gender, age, FEV1, height, place of residence and packyears of smoking. Additionally, we performed stratified analyses according to gender and smoking habits. After 18 years, 284 (20.4%) subjects had died (107 due to cardiovascular disease and 20 due to COPD). Individuals homozygous for the minor allele of SNP T_2 had an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared to wild types: hazard ratio 3.6 (95% confidence interval 2.0 to 6.7) and 3.4 (1.2 to 9.5) respectively. Individuals homozygous for the minor allele of S_1, S_2, T_2 or Q_1 had a significantly increased risk of COPD mortality. In stratified analyses the risk of all-cause mortality associated with SNP T_2 did not change: females 3.5 (1.5 to 8.3), males 3.1 (1.2 to 7.6), never smokers 3.8 (0.9 to 16.3), ever smokers 3.6 (1.8 to 7.2). This study shows for the first time that ADAM33 is a pleiotropic gene that is associated with all-cause, COPD and cardiovascular mortality, independent of potential confounders.
Little is known about the factors associated with CT-quantified emphysema progression in heavy smokers. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of length of smoking cessation and clinical / demographical factors on the rate of emphysema progression and FEV1-decline in male heavy smokers.
3,670 male smokers with mean (SD) 40.8 (17.9) packyears underwent chest CT scans and pulmonary function tests at baseline and after 1 and 3 years follow-up. Smoking status (quitted ≥5, ≥1-<5, <1 years or current smoker) was noted. Rate of progression of emphysema and FEV1-decline after follow-up were assessed by analysis of variance adjusting for age, height, baseline pulmonary function and emphysema severity, packyears, years in study and respiratory symptoms. The quitted ≥5 group was used as reference.
Median (Q1-Q3) emphysema severity,<-950 HU, was 8.8 (5.1 – 14.1) and mean (SD) FEV1 was 3.4 (0.73) L or 98.5 (18.5) % of predicted. The group quitted ‘>5 years’ showed significantly lower rates of progression of emphysema compared to current smokers, 1.07% and 1.12% per year, respectively (p<0.001). Current smokers had a yearly FEV1-decline of 69 ml, while subjects quit smoking >5 years had a yearly decline of 57.5 ml (p<0.001).
Quit smoking >5 years significantly slows the rate of emphysema progression and lung function decline.
Registered at http://www.trialregister.nl with trial number ISRCTN63545820.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); Emphysema; Smoking; Pulmonary function testing
Rationale: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci influencing lung function, but fewer genes influencing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are known.
Objectives: Perform meta-analyses of GWAS for airflow obstruction, a key pathophysiologic characteristic of COPD assessed by spirometry, in population-based cohorts examining all participants, ever smokers, never smokers, asthma-free participants, and more severe cases.
Methods: Fifteen cohorts were studied for discovery (3,368 affected; 29,507 unaffected), and a population-based family study and a meta-analysis of case-control studies were used for replication and regional follow-up (3,837 cases; 4,479 control subjects). Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV1 and its ratio to FVC (FEV1/FVC) both less than their respective lower limits of normal as determined by published reference equations.
Measurements and Main Results: The discovery meta-analyses identified one region on chromosome 15q25.1 meeting genome-wide significance in ever smokers that includes AGPHD1, IREB2, and CHRNA5/CHRNA3 genes. The region was also modestly associated among never smokers. Gene expression studies confirmed the presence of CHRNA5/3 in lung, airway smooth muscle, and bronchial epithelial cells. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in HTR4, a gene previously related to FEV1/FVC, achieved genome-wide statistical significance in combined meta-analysis. Top single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADAM19, RARB, PPAP2B, and ADAMTS19 were nominally replicated in the COPD meta-analysis.
Conclusions: These results suggest an important role for the CHRNA5/3 region as a genetic risk factor for airflow obstruction that may be independent of smoking and implicate the HTR4 gene in the etiology of airflow obstruction.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; single-nucleotide polymorphism; genes
Mutations that increase activity of Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) are associated with extended lifespan of yeast, fruit flies and worms. SIRT1, the human homolog of Sir2, that controls numerous physiological processes including the glucose metabolism, is considered a candidate gene for predicting variation in human lifespan. Whereas the role of Sir2 has been extensively investigated in model organisms, less is known about the relation between SIRT1 and lifespan in humans. In the current study we included 1,390 subjects from a general population-based cohort with 18 years of follow-up to investigate associations between variation in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SIRT1 gene and human survival. Additionally in 535 male subjects with available data we investigated associations between SIRT1 and glucose tolerance. Carriers of the minor allele of rs12778366 had a significantly reduced mortality risk compared to the wild types: Hazard Ratio 0.69 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.96; p = 0.025). The directions of the effect were the same in females and males, never and ever smokers and the effect was significantly protective in overweight/obese subjects. Carriers of the minor allele of SNP rs12778366 had better glucose tolerance indicated by 0.34 mmol/l lower glucose levels compared to wild type subjects (p = 0.03). This study shows that SIRT1 affects human long-term survival and therefore may be an important factor in modulating lifespan not only in lower organisms, but also in humans.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. Although COPD is a complex disease, diagnosis and staging are still based on simple spirometry measurements. Different COPD phenotypes exist based on clinical, physiological, immunological and radiological observations. Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for COPD, but only 15–20% of smokers develop the disease, suggesting a genetic predisposition. Unfortunately, little is known about the pathogenesis of COPD, and even less on the very first steps that are associated with an aberrant response to smoke exposure. This study aims to investigate the underlying local and systemic inflammation of different clinical COPD phenotypes, and acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure in individuals susceptible and non-susceptible for the development of COPD. Furthermore, we will investigate mechanisms associated with corticosteroid insensitivity. Our study will provide valuable information regarding the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the natural course of COPD.
Methods and analysis
This cross-sectional study will include young and old individuals susceptible or non-susceptible to develop COPD. At a young age (18–40 years) 60 ‘party smokers’ will be included who are called susceptible or non-susceptible based on COPD prevalence in smoking family members. In addition, 30 healthy smokers (age 40–75 years) and 110 COPD patients will be included. Measurements will include questionnaires, pulmonary function, low-dose CT scanning of the lung, body composition, 6 min walking distance and biomarkers in peripheral blood, sputum, urine, exhaled breath condensate, epithelial lining fluid, bronchial brushes and biopsies. Non-biased approaches such as proteomics will be performed in blood and epithelial lining fluid.
Ethics and dissemination
This multicentre study was approved by the medical ethical committees of UMC Groningen and Utrecht, the Netherlands. The study findings will be presented at conferences and will be reported in peer-reviewed journals.
ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00807469 (study 1) and NCT00850863 (study 2).
COPD; Inflammation; Susceptibility; Corticosteroid insensitivity; Smoking
Genetic variation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes (nAChRs) is associated with lung function level and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unknown whether these variants also predispose to an accelerated lung function decline. We investigated the association of nAChR susceptibility variants with lung function decline and COPD severity. The rs1051730 and rs8034191 variants were genotyped in a population-based cohort of 1,226 heavy smokers (COPACETIC) and in an independent cohort of 883 heavy smokers, of which 653 with COPD of varying severity (LEUVEN). Participants underwent pulmonary function tests at baseline. Lung function decline was assessed over a median follow-up of 3 years in COPACETIC. Current smokers homozygous for the rs1051730 A-allele or rs8034191 G-allele had significantly greater FEV1/FVC decline than homozygous carriers of wild-type alleles (3.3% and 4.3%, p = 0.026 and p = 0.009, respectively). In the LEUVEN cohort, rs1051730 AA-carriers and rs8034191 GG-carriers had a two-fold increased risk to suffer from COPD GOLD IV (OR 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11–4.75; p = 0.025 and OR = 2.42, 95% [CI] = 1.18–4.95; p = 0.016, respectively). The same risk alleles conferred, respectively, a five- and four-fold increased risk to be referred for lung transplantation because of end-stage COPD (OR = 5.0, 95% [CI] = 1.68–14.89; p = 0.004 and OR = 4.06, 95% [CI] = 1.39–11.88; p = 0.010). In Europeans, variants in nAChRs associate with an accelerated lung function decline in current smokers and with clinically relevant COPD.
Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic loci for spirometic measures of pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). Given that cigarette smoking adversely affects pulmonary function, we conducted genome-wide joint meta-analyses (JMA) of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) associations on FEV1 and FEV1/FVC across 19 studies (total N = 50,047). We identified three novel loci not previously associated with pulmonary function. SNPs in or near DNER (smallest PJMA = 5.00×10−11), HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQA2 (smallest PJMA = 4.35×10−9), and KCNJ2 and SOX9 (smallest PJMA = 1.28×10−8) were associated with FEV1/FVC or FEV1 in meta-analysis models including SNP main effects, smoking main effects, and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) interaction. The HLA region has been widely implicated for autoimmune and lung phenotypes, unlike the other novel loci, which have not been widely implicated. We evaluated DNER, KCNJ2, and SOX9 and found them to be expressed in human lung tissue. DNER and SOX9 further showed evidence of differential expression in human airway epithelium in smokers compared to non-smokers. Our findings demonstrated that joint testing of SNP and SNP-by-environment interaction identified novel loci associated with complex traits that are missed when considering only the genetic main effects.
Measures of pulmonary function provide important clinical tools for evaluating lung disease and its progression. Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic risk factors for pulmonary function but have not considered interaction with cigarette smoking, which has consistently been shown to adversely impact pulmonary function. In over 50,000 study participants of European descent, we applied a recently developed joint meta-analysis method to simultaneously test associations of gene and gene-by-smoking interactions in relation to two major clinical measures of pulmonary function. Using this joint method to incorporate genetic main effects plus gene-by-smoking interaction, we identified three novel gene regions not previously related to pulmonary function: (1) DNER, (2) HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQA2, and (3) KCNJ2 and SOX9. Expression analyses in human lung tissue from ours or prior studies indicate that these regions contain genes that are plausibly involved in pulmonary function. This work highlights the utility of employing novel methods for incorporating environmental interaction in genome-wide association studies to identify novel genetic regions.
Dyspnea is a predictor of mortality. The effects of dyspnea severity and changes in dyspnea status on all-cause and cause-specific mortality remain unclear. The Vlagtwedde/Vlaardingen study started in 1965 and subjects were re-examined every 3 years until 1989/1990. Vital status of all 8,465 subjects on December 31st, 2008 was assessed. Associations between mortality and dyspnea severity and changes in dyspnea status were investigated using Cox regression adjusted for gender, age, FEV1 %predicted, place of residence, smoking and BMI. After 43 years of follow-up, 2,883 (39 %) of 7,360 subjects examined for dyspnea severity had died, 1,386 (19 %) due to cardiovascular disease, 267 (4 %) due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Subjects with moderate and severe dyspnea had increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality [moderate: HR = 1.3 (95 % CI 1.2–1.5) and 1.4 (1.1–1.6), severe: 1.5 (1.1–2.0) and 1.9 (1.3–2.6) respectively] compared to asymptomatics. Severe dyspnea was significantly associated with COPD mortality [3.3 (2.0–5.2)]. Subjects who lost dyspnea had hazard ratios for all-cause and cause-specific mortality comparable to asymptomatics. Persistent dyspnea and dyspnea development were risk factors for all-cause, cardiovascular and COPD mortality [persistent: 2.0 (1.4–2.8), 1.9 (1.2–3.3) and 3.3 (1.2–8.9), development: 1.5 (1.2–1.8), 2.0 (1.5–2.6) and 3.8 (2.3–6.3) respectively]. Additionally, dyspnea effects on mortality were more pronounced in overweight/obese and older subjects and in subjects with better lung function. These results show that dyspnea is associated with mortality in a severity-dependent manner. Furthermore this study is the first showing that dyspnea remission normalizes mortality risk. Having or developing dyspnea is a risk factor for mortality.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10654-012-9736-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Dyspnea; Dyspnea severity; Dyspnea remission; Mortality; Risk factor; Longitudinal studies
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) participate in the defence against bacterial infections that are common in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We studied all tagging SNPs in TLR2 and TLR4 and their associations with the level and change over time of both FEV1 and sputum inflammatory cells in moderate-to-severe COPD. Nine TLR2 SNPs and 17 TLR4 SNPs were genotyped in 110 COPD patients. Associations of SNPs with lung function and inflammatory cells in induced sputum were analyzed cross-sectionally with linear regression and longitudinally with linear mixed-effect models. Two SNPs in TLR2 (rs1898830 and rs11938228) were associated with a lower level of FEV1 and accelerated decline of FEV1 and higher numbers of sputum inflammatory cells. None of the TLR4 SNPs was associated with FEV1 level. Eleven out of 17 SNPs were associated with FEV1 decline, including rs12377632 and rs10759931, which were additionally associated with higher numbers of sputum inflammatory cells at baseline and with increase over time. This is the first longitudinal study showing that tagging SNPs in TLR2 and TLR4 are associated with the level and decline of lung function as well as with inflammatory cell numbers in induced sputum in COPD patients, suggesting a role in the severity and progression of COPD.
Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and predict mortality, and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tested genome-wide association with the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) in 48,201 individuals of European ancestry, with follow-up of top associations in up to an additional 46,411 individuals. We identified new regions showing association (combined P<5×10−8) with pulmonary function, in or near MFAP2, TGFB2, HDAC4, RARB, MECOM (EVI1), SPATA9, ARMC2, NCR3, ZKSCAN3, CDC123, C10orf11, LRP1, CCDC38, MMP15, CFDP1, and KCNE2. Identification of these 16 new loci may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating pulmonary function and into molecular targets for future therapy to alleviate reduced lung function.