Little is known of vitamin D concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and its relation with CSF acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, a marker of cholinergic function.
A cross-sectional study of 52 consecutive patients under primary evaluation of cognitive impairment and 17 healthy controls. The patients had AD dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosed with AD dementia upon follow-up (n = 28), other dementias (n = 12), and stable MCI (SMCI, n = 12). We determined serum and CSF concentrations of calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and CSF activities of AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE).
CSF 25OHD level was reduced in AD patients (P < 0.05), and CSF AChE activity was decreased both in patients with AD (P < 0.05) and other dementias (P < 0.01) compared to healthy controls. None of the measured variables differed between BuChE K-variant genotypes whereas the participants that were homozygous in terms of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele had decreased CSF AChE activity compared to subjects lacking the APOE ε4 allele (P = 0.01). In AD patients (n=28), CSF AChE activity correlated positively with CSF levels of total tau (T-tau) (r = 0.44, P < 0.05) and phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau) (r = 0.50, P < 0.01), but CSF activities of AChE or BuChE did not correlate with serum or CSF levels of 25OHD.
In this pilot study, both CSF 25OHD level and CSF AChE activity were reduced in AD patients. However, the lack of correlations between 25OHD levels and CSF activities of AChE or BuChE might suggest different mechanisms of action, which could have implications for treatment trials.
Diagnosis of mild TBI is hampered by the lack of imaging or biochemical measurements for identifying or quantifying mild TBI in a clinical setting. We have previously shown increased biomarker levels of protein reflecting axonal (neurofilament light protein and tau) and glial (GFAP and S-100B) damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after a boxing bout. The aims of this study were to find other biomarkers of mild TBI, which may help clinicians diagnose and monitor mild TBI, and to calculate the role of APOE ε4 allele genotype which has been associated with poor outcome after TBI.
Materials and Methods
Thirty amateur boxers with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included in a prospective cohort study. CSF and blood were collected at one occasion between 1 and 6 days after a bout, and after a rest period for at least 14 days (follow up). The controls were tested once. CSF levels of neurofilament heavy (pNFH), amyloid precursor proteins (sAPPα and sAPPβ), ApoE and ApoA1 were analyzed. In blood, plasma levels of Aβ42 and ApoE genotype were analyzed.
CSF levels of pNFH were significantly increased between 1 and 6 days after boxing as compared with controls (p<0.001). The concentrations decreased at follow up but were still significantly increased compared to controls (p = 0.018). CSF pNFH concentrations correlated with NFL (r = 0.57 after bout and 0.64 at follow up, p<0.001). No significant change was found in the other biomarkers, as compared to controls. Boxers carrying the APOE ε4 allele had similar biomarker concentrations as non-carriers.
Subconcussive repetitive trauma in amateur boxing causes a mild TBI that may be diagnosed by CSF analysis of pNFH, even without unconsciousness or concussion symptoms. Possession of the APOE ε4 allele was not found to influence biomarker levels after acute TBI.
Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42, tau and p181tau are widely accepted biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Numerous studies show that CSF tau and p181tau levels are elevated in mild-to-moderate AD compared to age-matched controls. In addition, these increases might predict preclinical AD in cognitively normal elderly. Despite their importance as biomarkers, the molecular nature of CSF tau and ptau is not known. In the current study, reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to enrich and concentrate tau prior to western-blot analysis. Multiple N-terminal and mid-domain fragments of tau were detected in pooled CSF with apparent sizes ranging from <20 kDa to ~40 kDa. The pattern of tau fragments in AD and control samples were similar. In contrast, full-length tau and C-terminal-containing fragments were not detected. To quantify levels, five tau ELISAs and three ptau ELISAs were developed to detect different overlapping regions of the protein. The discriminatory potential of each assay was determined using 20 AD and 20 age-matched control CSF samples. Of the tau ELISAs, the two assays specific for tau containing N-terminal sequences, amino acids 9-198 (numbering based on tau 441) and 9-163, exhibited the most significant differences between AD and control samples. In contrast, CSF tau was not detected with an ELISA specific for a more C-terminal region (amino acids 159-335). Significant discrimination was also observed with ptau assays measuring amino acids 159-p181 and 159-p231. Interestingly, the discriminatory potential of p181 was reduced when measured in the context of tau species containing amino acids 9-p181. Taken together, these results demonstrate that tau in CSF occurs as a series of fragments and that discrimination of AD from control is dependent on the subset of tau species measured. These assays provide novel tools to investigate CSF tau and ptau as biomarkers for other neurodegenerative diseases.
Epidemiological and molecular findings suggest a relationship between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dyslipidemia, although the nature of this association is not well understood.
Using linear mixed effects models, we investigated the relationship between CSF levels of heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP), a lipid binding protein involved with fatty acid metabolism and lipid transport, amyloid-β (Aβ), phospho-tau, and longitudinal MRI-based measures of brain atrophy among 295 non-demented and demented older individuals. Across all participants, we found a significant association of CSF HFABP with longitudinal atrophy of the entorhinal cortex and other AD-vulnerable neuroanatomic regions. However, we found that the relationship between CSF HABP and brain atrophy was significant only among those with low CSF Aβ1–42 and occurred irrespective of phospho-tau181p status.
Our findings indicate that Aβ-associated volume loss occurs in the presence of elevated HFABP irrespective of phospho-tau. This implicates a potentially important role for fatty acid binding proteins in Alzheimer’s disease neurodegeneration.
Alzheimer’s disease; Fatty acids; Lipids; Amyloid; Tau; Brain atrophy
The aim of this study was to develop high-throughput, quantitative and highly selective mass spectrometric, targeted immunoassays for clinically important proteins in human plasma or serum.
Design and methods
The described method coupled mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA), a previously developed technique for immunoenrichment on a monolithic microcolumn activated with an anti-protein antibody and fixed in a pipette tip, to selected reaction monitoring (SRM) detection and accurate quantification of targeted peptides, including clinically relevant sequence or truncated variants.
In this report, we demonstrate the rapid development of MSIA-SRM assays for sixteen different target proteins spanning seven different clinically important areas (including neurological, Alzheimer's, cardiovascular, endocrine function, cancer and other diseases) and ranging in concentration from pg/mL to mg/mL. The reported MSIA-SRM assays demonstrated high sensitivity (within published clinical ranges), precision, robustness and high-throughput as well as specific detection of clinically relevant isoforms for many of the target proteins. Most of the assays were tested with bona-fide clinical samples.
In addition, positive correlations, (R2 0.67–0.87, depending on the target peptide), were demonstrated for MSIA-SRM assay data with clinical analyzer measurements of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1) in clinical sample cohorts.
We have presented a practical and scalable method for rapid development and deployment of MS-based SRM assays for clinically relevant proteins and measured levels of the target analytes in bona fide clinical samples. The method permits the specific quantification of individual protein isoforms and addresses the difficult problem of protein heterogeneity in clinical proteomics applications.
Biomarker; SRM assay; Mass spectrometry; Proteomics; Immunoassay; Clinical proteomics
Weight changes are common in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and post-mortem findings suggested a relation between lower body mass index (BMI) and increased AD brain pathology. In the current multicenter study, we tested whether lower BMI is associated with higher core AD brain pathology as assessed by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) based biological markers of AD in 751 living subjects: 308 patients with AD, 296 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 147 elderly healthy controls (HC). Based upon a priori cutoff values on CSF concentration of total tau and beta-amyloid (Aβ1-42), subjects were binarized into a group with abnormal CSF biomarker signature (CSF+) and those without (CSF−). Results showed that BMI was significantly lower in the CSF+ when compared to the CSF− group (F = 27.7, df = 746, p < 0.001). There was no interaction between CSF signature and diagnosis or ApoE genotype. In conclusion, lower BMI is indicative of AD pathology as assessed with CSF-based biomarkers in demented and non-demented elderly subjects.
Alzheimer’s disease; body mass index; cerebrospinal fluid; tau protein; Aβ1-42
It is not well known whether Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are associated with brain damage in cognitively normal elderly. The combined influence of CSF biomarkers and hypertension (HTN) on the gray matter (GM) is also not well described.
115 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age 62.6±9.5, 62% women) received clinical assessment, a high resolution MRI and a lumbar puncture. The CSF levels of total tau (t-tau), hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau231), amyloid beta (Aβ42/Aβ40), p-tau231/Aβ42 and t-tau/Aβ42 were dichotomized as ‘high’ and ‘low’ based on accepted cut-off values. Statistical parametric mapping was used to examine MRI scans for regional GM density, studied as a function of the CSF markers, HTN and combination of both. Global and medial temporal lobe (MTL) GM was also assessed. Voxel based morphometry revealed that higher t-tau was associated with lower GM density in the precunei. Subjects with higher p-tau231 and p-tau231/Aβ42 had less GM in temporal lobes. Low Aβ42/Aβ40 was related to less GM in the thalami, caudate and midbrain. Subjects with hypertension showed more GM atrophy in the cerebellum, occipital and frontal regions. Simultaneous presence of elevated CSF AD biomarkers and HTN was associated with more GM atrophy than either marker individually, but no interaction effects were identified.
In conclusion, in normal elderly CSF tau markers were associated predominantly with lower GM estimates in structures typically affected early in the AD process. In this presymptomatic stage when no cognitive impairment is present, AD pathology and HTN have additive effects on gray matter damage.
Aging; Biomarkers; MRI; Alzheimer’s Disease; Cerebrospinal Fluid; Hypertension
Bipolar disorder is a common psychiatric mood disorder that is defined by recurrent episodes of abnormally elevated mood and depression. Progressive structural brain changes in individuals with bipolar disorder have been suggested to be associated with defects in the secretion of neurotrophic factors. We sought to assess how the regulated secretory pathway in the brain is affected in patients with bipolar disorder by measuring chromogranin B and secretogranin II, which are 2 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biological markers for this process.
We measured the concentrations of chromogranin B (peptide 439–451) and secretogranin II (peptide 154–165) in the CSF of patients with well-defined bipolar disorder and healthy controls. The lifetime severity of bipolar disorder was rated using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale.
We included 126 patients with bipolar disorder and 71 healthy controls in our analysis. Concentrations of secretogranin II were significantly lower in patients with bipolar disorder type I than in healthy controls. The reduction was most pronounced in patients with high CGI scores (i.e., severe disease).
The cross-sectional design of the current study limits the ability to pinpoint the causalities behind the observed associations.
This study shows that the CSF marker secretogranin II has the potential to act as a biological marker for severe forms of bipolar disorder. Our findings indicate that patients with bipolar disorder possess defects in the regulatory secretory pathway, which may be of relevance to the progressive structural brain changes seen in those with severe forms of the disease.
The diagnostic guidelines of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have recently been updated to include brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, with the aim of increasing the certainty of whether a patient has an ongoing AD neuropathologic process or not. The CSF biomarkers total tau (T-tau), hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau) and the 42 amino acid isoform of amyloid β (Aβ42) reflect the core pathologic features of AD, which are neuronal loss, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular senile plaques. Since the pathologic processes of AD start decades before the first symptoms, these biomarkers may provide means of early disease detection. The updated guidelines identify three different stages of AD: preclinical AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD and AD with dementia. In this review, we aim to summarize the CSF biomarker data available for each of these stages. We also review results from blood biomarker studies. In summary, the core AD CSF biomarkers have high diagnostic accuracy both for AD with dementia and to predict incipient AD (MCI due to AD). Longitudinal studies on healthy elderly and recent cross-sectional studies on patients with dominantly inherited AD mutations have also found biomarker changes in cognitively normal at-risk individuals. This will be important if disease-modifying treatment becomes available, given that treatment will probably be most effective early in the disease. An important prerequisite for this is trustworthy analyses. Since measurements vary between studies and laboratories, standardization of analytical as well as pre-analytical procedures will be essential. This process is already initiated. Apart from filling diagnostic roles, biomarkers may also be utilized for prognosis, disease progression, development of new treatments, monitoring treatment effects and for increasing the knowledge about pathologic processes coupled to the disease. Hence, the search for new biomarkers continues. Several candidate biomarkers have been found in CSF, and although biomarkers in blood have been harder to find, some recent studies have presented encouraging results. But before drawing any major conclusions, these results need to be verified in independent studies.
Alzheimer’s disease; Cerebrospinal fluid; Blood; Biomarker; Amyloid β; Total tau; Phosphorylated tau; Diagnosis; Disease stages
The current study evaluated amyloid-β oligomers (Aβo) in cerebrospinal fluid as a clinical biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We developed a highly sensitive Aβo ELISA using the same N-terminal monoclonal antibody (82E1) for capture and detection. CSF samples from patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls were examined. The assay was specific for oligomerized Aβ with a lower limit of quantification of 200 fg/ml, and the assay signal showed a tight correlation with synthetic Aβo levels. Three clinical materials of well characterized AD patients (n = 199) and cognitively healthy controls (n = 148) from different clinical centers were included, together with a clinical material of patients with MCI (n = 165). Aβo levels were elevated in the all three AD-control comparisons although with a large overlap and a separation from controls that was far from complete. Patients with MCI who later converted to AD had increased Aβo levels on a group level but several samples had undetectable levels. These results indicate that presence of high or measurable Aβo levels in CSF is clearly associated with AD, but the overlap is too large for the test to have any diagnostic potential on its own.
Alzheimer disease (AD) can now be diagnosed in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using biomarkers. However, little is known about the rate of decline in those subjects. In this cohort study, we aimed to assess the conversion rate to dementia and identify prognostic markers in subjects with MCI and evidence of amyloid pathology.
We pooled subjects from the VU University Medical Center Alzheimer Center and the Development of Screening Guidelines and Criteria for Predementia Alzheimer's Disease (DESCRIPA) study. We included subjects with MCI, an abnormal level of β-amyloid1−42 (Aβ1–42) in the CSF, and at least one diagnostic follow-up visit. We assessed the effect of APOE genotype, CSF total tau (t-tau) and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau) and hippocampal volume on time to AD-type dementia using Cox proportional hazards models and on decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) using linear mixed models.
We included 110 subjects with MCI with abnormal CSF Aβ1–42 and a mean MMSE score of 26.3 ± 2.8. During a mean follow-up of 2.2 ± 1.0 (range 0.4–5.0) years, 63 subjects (57%) progressed to AD-type dementia. Abnormal CSF t-tau (hazard ratio [HR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–4.6, p = 0.03) and CSF p-tau (HR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3–9.2, p = 0.01) concentration and hippocampal atrophy (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1–5.6, p = 0.02) predicted time to dementia. For subjects with both abnormal t-tau concentration and hippocampal atrophy, HR was 7.3 (95% CI 1.0–55.9, p = 0.06). Furthermore, abnormal CSF t-tau and p-tau concentrations and hippocampal atrophy predicted decline in MMSE score.
In subjects with MCI and evidence of amyloid pathology, the injury markers CSF t-tau and p-tau and hippocampal atrophy can predict further cognitive decline.
Amyloid-β (Aβ) producing enzymes are key targets for disease-modifying Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapies since Aβ trafficking is at the core of AD pathogenesis. Development of such drugs might benefit from the identification of markers indicating in vivo drug effects in the central nervous system. We have previously shown that Aβ1-15 is produced by concerted β- and α-secretase cleavage of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP). Here, we test the hypothesis that this pathway is more engaged upon γ-secretase inhibition in humans and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ1-15/16 represent a biomarker for this effect. Twenty healthy men were treated with placebo (n=5) or the γ-secretase inhibitor semagacestat (100 mg [n=5], 140 mg [n=5], or 280 mg [n=5]). CSF samples were collected hourly over 36 hours and 10 time points were analyzed by immunoassay for Aβ1-15/16, Aβx-38, Aβx-40, Aβx-42, sAβPPα and sAβPPβ. The CSF concentration of Aβ1-15/16 showed a dose-dependent response over 36 hours. In the 280 mg treatment group, a transient increase was seen with a maximum of 180% relative to baseline at 9 hours post administration of semagacestat. The concentrations of Aβx-38, Aβx-40 and Aβx-42 decreased the first 9 hours followed by increased concentrations after 36 hours relative to baseline. No significant changes were detected for CSF sAβPPα and sAβPPβ.Our data shows that CSF levels of Aβ1-15/16 increase during treatment with semagacestat supporting its feasibility as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for drug candidates aimed at inhibiting γ-secretase-mediated AβPP-processing.
Alzheimer’s; Aβ; Amyloid; γ-secretase
Major depressive disorder is common in the elderly, and symptoms are often not responsive to conventional antidepressant treatment, especially in the long term. Soluble oligomeric and aggregated forms of amyloid beta peptides, especially amyloid beta 42, impair neuronal and synaptic function. Amyloid beta 42 is the main component of plaques and is implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid beta peptides also induce a depressive state in rodents and disrupt major neurotransmitter systems linked to depression. The authors assessed whether major depression was associated with CSF levels of amyloid beta, tau protein, and F2-isoprostanes in elderly individuals with major depressive disorder and age-matched nondepressed comparison subjects.
CSF was obtained from 47 cognitively intact volunteers (major depression group, N=28; comparison group, N=19) and analyzed for levels of soluble amyloid beta, total and phosphorylated tau proteins, and isoprostanes.
Amyloid beta 42 levels were significantly lower in the major depression group relative to the comparison group, and amyloid beta 40 levels were lower but only approaching statistical significance. In contrast, isoprostane levels were higher in the major depression group. No differences were observed in total and phosphorylated tau proteins across conditions. Antidepressant use was not associated with differences in amyloid beta 42 levels.
Reduction in CSF levels of amyloid beta 42 may be related to increased brain amyloid beta plaques or decreased soluble amyloid beta production in elderly individuals with major depression relative to nondepressed comparison subjects. These results may have implications for our understanding of the patho-physiology of major depression and for the development of treatment strategies.
A proposed key event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the formation of neurotoxic amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers and amyloid plaques in specific brain regions that are affected by the disease. The main plaque component is the 42 amino acid isoform of Aβ (Aβ1-42), which is thought to initiate plaque formation and AD pathogenesis. Numerous isoforms of Aβ, e.g., Aβ1-42, Aβ1-40 and the 3-pyroglutamate derivate of Aβ3-42 (pGluAβ3-42), have been detected in the brains of sporadic AD (SAD) and familial AD (FAD) subjects. However, the relative importance of these isoforms in the pathogenesis of AD is not fully understood. Here, we report a detailed study using immunoprecipitation in combination with mass spectrometric analysis to determine the Aβ isoform pattern in the cerebellum, cortex and hippocampus in AD, including subjects with a mutation in the presenilin (M146V) or amyloid precursor protein (KM670/671NL) genes, SAD subjects and non-demented controls. We show that the dominating Aβ isoforms in the three different brain regions analyzed from control, SAD, and FAD are Aβ1-42, pGluAβ3-42, Aβ4-42 and Aβ1-40 of which Aβ1-42 and Aβ4-42 are the dominant isoforms in the hippocampus and the cortex in all groups analyzed, controls included. No prominent differences in Aβ isoform patterns between FAD and SAD patients were seen, underscoring the similarity in the amyloid pathology of these two disease entities.
Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid precursor protein; Brain; Immunoprecipitation; Mass spectrometry
The two genetic polymorphisms, rs7412 and rs429358, that collectively form the ε2, ε3, and ε4 alleles of apolipoprotein E (APOE)are among the most widely studied sequence variants in the genome. The predominant model for testing APOE involves the haplotype combinations of ε2, ε3, and ε4 and has been basis of associations with dementia, atherosclerosis, and serum lipid levels. Here, we demonstrate the functional independence of these two component sites, with rs7412 contributing to the majority of variance in serum LDL (p = 10−20), whereas rs429358 alone influences variance in CSF Aβ42(p = 10 −17). This latter relationship is also reflected in the association of APOE with dementia, where rs429358 strongly influences disease (p = 10−67), but rs7412 does not. Models based upon ε2, ε3, and ε4 explained less variance for both dementia risk and CSF Aβ42 than did rs429358 alone. When adjusted for CSF Aβ42, the association of rs429358 with dementia is greatly reduced but remains significant indicating that APOE polymorphism influences disease by additional mechanisms distinct from Aβ42 metabolism. We reach four principal conclusion from this study; 1) rs429358 alone is responsible for the association of APOE with dementia 2) The association of APOE with dementia is substantially mediated by its effect on CNS Aβ42 levels 3) The association of APOE with dementia is not mediated by its impact on peripheral lipid metabolism 4) The dichotomy of effects of rs429358 and rs7412 represents one of the best examples of genetic pleiotropy for complex traits known and illustrates the importance of allelic heterogeneity in APOE.
LDL; Alzheimer Disease; amyloid; association; CSF
It has been suggested that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CXCL13 is a diagnostic marker of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), as its levels have been shown to be significantly higher in LNB than in several other CNS infections. Levels have also been shown to decline after treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone, but levels after treatment with oral doxycycline have previously not been studied. Like Borrelia burgdorferi, HIV also has neurotropic properties. Elevated serum CXCL13 concentrations have been reported in HIV patients, but data on CSF levels are limited.
We longitudinally analysed CSF CXCL13 concentrations in 25 LNB patients before and after oral doxycycline treatment. Furthermore, we analysed CSF CXCL13 concentrations in 16 untreated LNB patients, 27 asymptomatic untreated HIV-1 infected patients and 39 controls with no signs of infectious or inflammatory disease.
In the longitudinal LNB study, initially high CSF CXCL13 levels declined significantly after doxycycline treatment, which correlated to a decreased CSF mononuclear cell count. In the cross-sectional study, all the LNB patients had CSF CXCL13 levels elevated above the lowest standard point of the assay (7.8 pg/mL), with a median concentration of 500 pg/mL (range 34–11,678). Of the HIV patients, 52% had elevated CSF CXCL13 levels (median 10 pg/mL, range 0–498). There was a clear overlap in CSF CXCL13 concentrations between LNB patients and asymptomatic HIV patients. All but one of the 39 controls had CSF CXCL13 levels below 7.8 pg/mL.
We confirm previous reports of highly elevated CSF CXCL13 levels in LNB patients and that these levels decline after oral doxycycline treatment. The same pattern is seen for CSF mononuclear cells. CSF CXCL13 levels are elevated in neurologically asymptomatic HIV patients and the levels overlap those of LNB patients. The diagnostic value of CSF CXCL13 in LNB remains to be established.
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are currently treated with cholinesterase inhibitors, such as galantamine, without actual knowledge of its concentration in plasma. Our objective was to analyse potential relationships between galantamine concentration, galantamine dose, socio-demographic characteristics, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and treatment response.
Eighty-four patients with AD recruited from the Memory Clinic, Malmö, Sweden, and treated with galantamine were included in the study. Efficacy measures, including cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog)) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), were evaluated at baseline, 2 months after treatment initiation (MMSE only) and semi-annually over 3 years. At these assessments, blood samples were obtained for the analysis of the galantamine concentration, and body weight, BMI, drug dose and time from drug intake were recorded.
All patients had a measurable concentration of galantamine at all assessments. The mean plasma concentration of the drug exhibited a positive linear association with dose (r = 0.513, P < 0.001). The dose did not differ between sexes. Negative linear associations between the galantamine plasma concentration and BMI (r = -0.454, P = 0.001) or body weight (r = -0.310, P = 0.034) were found exclusively in the male group. When mixed-effects models were used, the dose of galantamine (P < 0.001), time from drug intake (P < 0.001), and BMI (P = 0.021) or weight (P = 0.002) were factors that predicted the concentration, whereas sex, age, and cognitive and functional changes were not.
High compliance to galantamine treatment was found among all patients in this naturalistic AD study. The impact of BMI or body weight on the plasma concentration of galantamine was important only among males. No relationship was observed between concentration and short-term treatment response or progression rate in terms of cognitive and functional abilities.
Little is known whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can predict both memory decline and associated longitudinal medial temporal lobe (MTL) gray matter (GM) reductions in cognitively healthy individuals. 57 normal elderly subjects received comprehensive evaluation at baseline and 2 years later. The baseline phosphorylated tau231 (p-tau231), total tau, the amyloid beta (Aβ) Aβ42/Aβ40, t-tau/Aβ42 and p-tau231/Aβ42 ratios were examined as predictors of memory change and reductions in the global and MTL GM, determined from T1-weighted MRI. Twenty out of 57 participants experienced reduced memory performance at follow-up. The group with decreased memory performance showed higher baseline p-tau231 (Z=−2.2, p=.03), lower Aβ42/Aβ40 (t=−2.2 , p=.04) and greater longitudinal MTL GM reductions (t= −2.70, p=.01). Higher baseline p-tau231 was also associated with the absolute decrease in memory scores (rho=−.30, p=.02) and with longitudinal MTL GM reduction (F[2, 52]=4.4, p=.04, age corrected). Our results indicate that in normal individuals, elevated p-tau231, a marker of neurofibrillary pathology is related to both a decrease in declarative memory and progressive atrophy of the MTL, suggesting its diagnostic potential in preclinical stage.
Alzheimer’s disease; aging; memory performance; prediction; biomarkers; phosphorylated tau 231; cerebrospinal fluid; medial temporal lobe
Surgery launches an inflammatory reaction in the body, as seen through increased peripheral levels of cytokines and cortisol. However, less is known about perioperative inflammatory changes in the central nervous system (CNS).
Our aim was to compare inflammatory markers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) before and after surgery and evaluate their association with measures of blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity.
Thirty-five patients undergoing knee arthroplastic surgery with spinal anesthesia had CSF and serum samples drawn before, after and on the morning following surgery. Cytokines and albumin in serum and CSF and cortisol in CSF were assessed at all three points.
Cytokines and cortisol were significantly increased in serum and CSF after surgery (Ps <0.01) and CSF increases were greater than in serum. Ten individuals had an increased cytokine response and significantly higher CSF/serum albumin ratios (Ps <0.01), five of whom had albumin ratios in the pathological range (>11.8). Serum and CSF levels of cytokines were unrelated, but there were strong correlations between CSF IL-2, IL-10 and IL-13, and albumin ratios (Ps <0.05) following surgery.
Cytokine increases in the CNS were substantially greater than in serum, indicating that the CNS inflammatory system is activated during peripheral surgery and may be regulated separately from that in the peripheral body. CSF cytokine increase may indicate sensitivity to trauma and is linked to BBB macromolecular permeability.
Cytokine; Blood–brain barrier; Central nervous system; Arthroplastic surgery; Cortisol; Albumin; Interleukin; Inflammation
We performed a survey of sequence variation in a series of 20 genes involved in inflammation-related pathways for association with dementia risk in twin and unrelated case-control samples consisting in total of 1462 Swedish dementia cases and 1929 controls. For a total of 218 tested genetic markers, strong evidence was obtained implicating a region near AGER and NOTCH4 on chromosome 6p with replication across both samples and maximum combined significance at marker rs1800625 (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.19–1.56, p = 1.36 × 10−6). Imputation of the associated genomic interval provided an improved signal at rs8365, near the 3'UTR of AGER (p = 7.34 × 10−7). The associated region extends 120kb encompassing 11 candidate genes. While AGER encodes a key receptor for β-amyloid protein, an analysis of network context based upon genes now confirmed to contribute to dementia risk (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, CR1, CLU, PICALM, and APOE) suggested strong functional coupling to NOTCH4, with no significant coupling to the remaining candidates. The implicated region occurs in the broad HLA locus on chromosome 6p, but associated markers were not in strong LD with known variants that regulate HLA gene function, suggesting that this may represent a signal distinct from immune-system pathways.
Dementia; NOTCH4; gene; association; inflammation
The relationship between neurodegeneration and the two hallmark proteins of Alzheimer's disease, amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau, is still unclear. Here, we examined 286 non-demented participants (107 cognitively normal older adults and 179 memory impaired individuals) who underwent longitudinal MR imaging and lumbar puncture. Using mixed effects models, we investigated the relationship between longitudinal entorhinal cortex atrophy, CSF p-tau181p and CSF Aβ1-42. We found a significant relationship between elevated entorhinal cortex atrophy and decreased CSF Aβ1-42 only with elevated CSF p-tau181p. Our findings indicate that Aβ-associated volume loss occurs only in the presence of phospho-tauin humans at risk for dementia.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated not only with focal inflammatory lesions but also diffuse pathology in the central nervous system (CNS). Since there is no firm association between the amount of focal inflammatory lesions and disease severity, diffuse pathology in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) may be crucial for disease progression. Immunomodulating treatments for MS reduce the number of focal lesions, but possible effects on diffuse white matter pathology are less studied. Furthermore, it is not known whether intrathecal levels of inflammatory or neurodegenerative markers are associated with development of pathology in NAWM.
Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to investigate NAWM in 27 patients with relapsing MS before and after one year of treatment with natalizumab as well as NAWM in 20 healthy controls at baseline. Changes in 1H-MRS metabolite concentrations during treatment were also correlated with a panel of intrathecal markers of inflammation and neurodegeneration in 24 of these 27 patients.
The group levels of 1H-MRS metabolite concentrations were unchanged pre-to posttreatment, but a pattern of high magnitude correlation coefficients (r = 0.43–0.67, p<0.0005–0.03) were found between changes in individual metabolite concentrations (total creatine and total choline) and levels of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-1β and CXCL8).
Despite a clinical improvement and a global decrease in levels of inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid during treatment, high levels of pro-inflammatory CXCL8 and IL-1β were associated with an increase in 1H-MRS metabolites indicative of continued gliosis development and membrane turnover in NAWM.
We report on the analysis of endogenous peptides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by mass spectrometry. A method was developed for preparation of peptide extracts from CSF. Analysis of the extracts by offline LC-MALDI MS resulted in the detection of 3,000–4,000 peptide-like features. Out of these, 730 peptides were identified by MS/MS. The majority of these peptides have not been previously reported in CSF. The identified peptides were found to originate from 104 proteins, of which several have been reported to be involved in different disorders of the central nervous system. These results support the notion that CSF peptidomics may be viable complement to proteomics in the search of biomarkers of CNS disorders.