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1.  Healing of the Goat Anterior Cruciate Ligament After a New Suture Repair Technique and Bioscaffold Treatment 
Tissue Engineering. Part A  2013;19(19-20):2292-2299.
Primary suture repair of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been used clinically in an attempt to heal the ruptured ACL. The results, however, were not satisfactory, which in retrospect can be attributed to the used suturing technique and the suboptimal healing conditions. These constraining conditions can be improved by introducing a new suturing technique and by using small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a bioscaffold. It is hypothesized that the suturing technique keep the torn ends together and that SIS enhance and promote the healing of the ACL. The goat was used as the study model. In the Suture group, the left ACL was transected and suture repaired with a new locking suture repair technique (n=5) allowing approximation and fixation under tension. The Suture-SIS group underwent the same procedure with the addition of SIS (n=5). The right ACL served as control. After 12 weeks of healing, anterior–posterior translation and in situ force of the healing ACL were measured, followed by the measurement of the cross-sectional area and structural stiffness. Routine histology was performed on tissue samples. Gross morphology showed that the healing ACL was continuous with collagenous tissue in both groups. The cross-sectional area of the Suture and the Suture-SIS group was 35% and 50% of the intact control, respectively. The anterior–posterior translations at different flexion angles were statistically not different between the Suture group and the Suture-SIS group. Only the in situ force at 30° in the Suture-SIS group was higher than in the Suture group. Tensile tests showed that the stiffness for the Suture group was not different from the Suture-SIS group (31.1±8.1 N/mm vs. 41.9±18.0 N/mm [p>0.05]). Histology showed longitudinally aligned collagen fibers from origo to insertion. More fibroblasts were present in the healing tissue than in the control intact tissue. The study demonstrated the proof of concept of ACL repair in a goat model with a new suture technique and SIS. The mechanical outcome is not worse than previously reported for ACL reconstruction. In conclusion, the approach of using a new suture technique, with or without a bioscaffold to heal the ACL is promising.
PMCID: PMC3761389  PMID: 23725556
2.  What Is the Evidence for Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation Therapy in the Treatment of Ankle Sprains in Adults? 
Journal of Athletic Training  2012;47(4):435-443.
Ankle sprains are common problems in acute medical care. The variation in treatment observed for the acutely injured lateral ankle ligament complex in the first week after the injury suggests a lack of evidence-based management strategies for this problem.
To analyze the effectiveness of applying rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) therapy begun within 72 hours after trauma for patients in the initial period after ankle sprain.
Study Selection:
Eligible studies were published original randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials concerning at least 1 of the 4 subtreatments of RICE therapy in the treatment of acute ankle sprains in adults.
Data Sources:
MEDLINE, Cochrane Clinical Trial Register, CINAHL, and EMBASE. The lists of references of retrieved publications also were checked manually.
Data Extraction:
We extracted relevant data on treatment outcome (pain, swelling, ankle mobility or range of motion, return to sports, return to work, complications, and patient satisfaction) and assessed the quality of included studies. If feasible, the results of comparable studies were pooled using fixed- or random-effects models.
Data Synthesis:
After deduction of the overlaps among the different databases, evaluation of the abstracts, and contact with some authors, 24 potentially eligible trials remained. The full texts of these articles were retrieved and thoroughly assessed as described. This resulted in the inclusion of 11 trials involving 868 patients. The main reason for exclusion was that the authors did not describe a well-defined control group without the intervention of interest.
Insufficient evidence is available from randomized controlled trials to determine the relative effectiveness of RICE therapy for acute ankle sprains in adults. Treatment decisions must be made on an individual basis, carefully weighing the relative benefits and risks of each option, and must be based on expert opinions and national guidelines.
PMCID: PMC3396304  PMID: 22889660
ankle ligament injury; cryotherapy; bandages
3.  Probing forces of menisci: what levels are safe for arthroscopic surgery 
To facilitate effective learning, feedback on performance during arthroscopic training is essential. Less attention has been paid to feedback on monitoring safe handling of delicate tissues such as meniscus. The goal is to measure in vitro probing forces of menisci and compare them with a theoretical maximum probing force (TMPF).
Menisci samples of ten cadavers were mounted on force platforms to measure probing forces up to 20 N in three directions. Nineteen subjects participated: six novices (experience <60 arthroscopies), ten intermediates (>60 arthroscopies), and three faculty (>250 a year). All had to perform three tasks on each meniscus sample with an arthroscopic probe: push three times on the superior meniscal surface, perform one continuous run on the superior meniscal surface, and push three times on the inferior meniscal surface. The absolute maximum probing force (AMPF) was determined for each condition. A multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of experience on the force magnitude (P < 0.05). AMPFs were compared to the TMPF (estimated to be 8.5 N).
The AMPF of the push task was on average 2.8 N (standard deviation (SD) of 0.8 N), of the continuous run task 2.5 N (SD 0.9 N), and of the pull task 3.9 N (SD 2.0 N). Significant difference was present between experts and novices (P < 0.05). The AMPFs are in the same order of magnitude as the TMPF.
The results indicate the necessity of using a safety level for tissue manipulation when training arthroscopy and a value for is magnitude.
PMCID: PMC3023859  PMID: 20814661
Safety; Force; Meniscus; Arthroscopy
4.  Novel metallic implantation technique for osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(4):495-502.
Background and purpose
A metallic inlay implant (HemiCAP) with 15 offset sizes has been developed for the treatment of localized osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome. The aim of this study was to test the following hypotheses: (1) a matching offset size is available for each talus, (2) the prosthetic device can be reproducibly implanted slightly recessed in relation to the talar cartilage level, and (3) with this implantation level, excessive contact pressures on the opposite tibial cartilage are avoided.
The prosthetic device was implanted in 11 intact fresh-frozen human cadaver ankles, aiming its surface 0.5 mm below cartilage level. The implantation level was measured at 4 margins of each implant. Intraarticular contact pressures were measured before and after implantation, with compressive forces of 1,000–2,000 N and the ankle joint in plantigrade position, 10° dorsiflexion, and 14° plantar flexion.
There was a matching offset size available for each specimen. The mean implantation level was 0.45 (SD 0.18) mm below the cartilage surface. The defect area accounted for a median of 3% (0.02–18) of the total ankle contact pressure before implantation. This was reduced to 0.1% (0.02–13) after prosthetic implantation.
These results suggest that the implant can be applied clinically in a safe way, with appropriate offset sizes for various talar domes and without excessive pressure on the opposite cartilage.
PMCID: PMC2917574  PMID: 20515434
5.  Biomechanical evaluation of fixation of comminuted olecranon fractures: one-third tubular versus locking compression plating 
New concepts in plate fixation have led to an evolution in plate design for olecranon fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the stiffness and strength of locking compression plate (LCP) fixation to one-third tubular plate fixation in a cadaveric comminuted olecranon fracture model with a standardised osteotomy.
Materials and methods
Five matched pairs of cadaveric elbows were randomly assigned for fixation by either a contoured LCP combined with an intramedullary screw and unicortical locking screws or a one-third tubular plate combined with bicortical screws. Construct stiffness was measured by subjecting the specimens to cyclic loading while measuring gapping at the osteotomy site. Construct strength was measured by subjecting specimens to ramp load until failure.
There was no significant difference in fixation stiffness and strength between the two fixation methods. All failures consisted of failure of the bone and not of the hardware.
Contoured LCP and intramedullary screw fixation can be used as an alternative treatment method for comminuted olecranon fractures as its stiffness and strength were not significantly different from a conventional plating technique.
PMCID: PMC2826637  PMID: 19823857
Locking compression plate; Comminuted; Olecranon fracture; Biomechanics; Cyclic loading
6.  Pulsed electromagnetic fields after arthroscopic treatment for osteochondral defects of the talus: double-blind randomized controlled multicenter trial 
Osteochondral talar defects usually affect athletic patients. The primary surgical treatment consists of arthroscopic debridement and microfracturing. Although this is mostly successful, early sport resumption is difficult to achieve, and it can take up to one year to obtain clinical improvement. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) may be effective for talar defects after arthroscopic treatment by promoting tissue healing, suppressing inflammation, and relieving pain. We hypothesize that PEMF-treatment compared to sham-treatment after arthroscopy will lead to earlier resumption of sports, and aim at 25% increase in patients that resume sports.
A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted in five centers throughout the Netherlands and Belgium. 68 patients will be randomized to either active PEMF-treatment or sham-treatment for 60 days, four hours daily. They will be followed-up for one year. The combined primary outcome measures are (a) the percentage of patients that resume and maintain sports, and (b) the time to resumption of sports, defined by the Ankle Activity Score. Secondary outcome measures include resumption of work, subjective and objective scoring systems (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society – Ankle-Hindfoot Scale, Foot Ankle Outcome Score, Numeric Rating Scales of pain and satisfaction, EuroQol-5D), and computed tomography. Time to resumption of sports will be analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests.
This trial will provide level-1 evidence on the effectiveness of PEMFs in the management of osteochondral ankle lesions after arthroscopy.
Trial registration
Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1636)
PMCID: PMC2714496  PMID: 19591674
7.  Less Anterior Knee Pain with a Mobile-bearing Prosthesis Compared with a Fixed-bearing Prosthesis 
Anterior knee pain is one of the major short-term complaints after TKA. Since the introduction of the mobile-bearing TKA, numerous studies have attempted to confirm the theoretical advantages of a mobile-bearing TKA over a fixed-bearing TKA but most show little or no actual benefits. The concept of self-alignment for the mobile bearing suggests the posterior-stabilized mobile-bearing TKA would provide a lower incidence of anterior knee pain compared with a fixed-bearing TKA. We therefore asked whether the posterior-stabilized mobile-bearing knee would in fact reduce anterior knee pain. We randomized 103 patients scheduled for cemented three-component TKA for osteoarthrosis in a prospective, double-blind clinical trial. With a 1-year followup, more patients experienced persistent anterior knee pain in the posterior-stabilized fixed-bearing group (10 of 53, 18.9%) than in the posterior-stabilized mobile-bearing group (two of 47, 4.3%). No differences were observed for range of motion, visual analog scale for pain, Oxford 12-item questionnaire, SF-36, or the American Knee Society score. The posterior-stabilized mobile-bearing knee therefore seems to provide a short-term advantage compared with the posterior-stabilized fixed-bearing knee.
Level of Evidence: Level I, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMCID: PMC2584251  PMID: 18523833
8.  Description of the attachment geometry of the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles of the ACL from arthroscopic perspective for anatomical tunnel placement 
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) consists of an anteromedial bundle (AMB) and a posterolateral bundle (PLB). A reconstruction restoring the functional two-bundled nature should be able to approximate normal ACL function better than the most commonly used single-bundle reconstructions. Accurate tunnel positioning is important, but difficult. The purpose of this study was to provide a geometric description of the centre of the attachments relative to arthroscopically visible landmarks. The AMB and PLB attachment sites in 35 dissected cadaver knees were measured with a 3D system, as were anatomical landmarks of femur and tibia. At the femur, the mean ACL centre is positioned 7.9 ± 1.4 mm (mean ± 1 SD) shallow, along the notch roof, from the most lateral over-the-top position at the posterior edge of the intercondylar notch and from that point 4.0 ± 1.3 mm from the notch roof, low on the surface of the lateral condyle wall. The mean AMB centre is at 7.2 ± 1.8 and 1.4 ± 1.7 mm, and the mean PLB centre at 8.8 ± 1.6 and 6.7 ± 2.0 mm. At the tibia, the mean ACL centre is positioned 5.1 ± 1.7 mm lateral of the medial tibial spine and from that point 9.8 ± 2.1 mm anterior. The mean AMB centre is at 3.0 ± 1.6 and 9.4 ± 2.2 mm, and the mean PLB centre at 7.2 ± 1.8 and 10.1 ± 2.1 mm. The ACL attachment geometry is well defined relative to arthroscopically visible landmarks with respect to the AMB and PLB. With simple guidelines for the surgeon, the attachments centres can be found during arthroscopic single-bundle or double-bundle reconstructions.
PMCID: PMC2082657  PMID: 17899008
Anterior cruciate ligament; Anteromedial bundle; Posterolateral bundle; Anatomic ACL reconstruction; Double-bundle ACL reconstruction; Arthroscopic view; Tunnel placement; ACL anatomy

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