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1.  An Elective Course to Engage Student Pharmacists in Elementary School Science Education 
Objective. To develop and assess the impact of an elective course (HealthWISE) on student pharmacists’ skills in communication and health promotion and elementary school students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward science.
Design. Three colleges and schools of pharmacy collaborated to develop a 1-credit elective course that used online and classroom teaching and learning techniques to prepare student pharmacists to teach science in elementary school classrooms. Student pharmacists delivered 6 science lessons to elementary students over the course of 2 months.
Assessment. In weekly journal reflections and a final paper, student pharmacists reported improved communication and health promotion skills. Elementary teachers reported they were satisfied with student pharmacists’ performance in the classroom. On pretest and posttest evaluations, elementary students demonstrated increased science knowledge and enhanced enthusiasm for science following the lessons taught by student pharmacists.
Conclusions. The HealthWISE elective course provided positive benefit for student pharmacists, elementary school teachers, and elementary students.
PMCID: PMC3279034  PMID: 22345722
service-learning; communication skills; health promotion; STEM education
2.  Utility of routine exercise treadmill testing early after percutaneous coronary intervention 
There have been few prospective studies examining the utility of routine exercise treadmill testing (ETT) early after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a routine ETT strategy early after PCI on follow-up cardiac events and procedures.
We examined 136 patients who underwent routine ETT at 6 weeks post-PCI in the ADORE trial. The ETT was classified as positive, indeterminate, or negative. The Duke Treadmill Score (DTS) was calculated for all patients. Follow-up occurred at 9 months.
ETT results at 6 weeks were: 32 (23.5%) positive, 24 (17.6%) indeterminate and 80 (58.8%) negative. At 9 months, the composite event rate was 21.9% in those with a positive ETT, 20.8% in those with an indeterminate ETT and 12.5% in those with a negative ETT (p = 0.25 positive vs. negative ETT). The sensitivity of early ETT for predicting clinical events was 41.2%, the specificity was 73.3%, the positive predictive value was 21.9% and the negative predictive value was 87.5%. At 9 months, the cardiac procedure rate was 18.8% in those with a positive test, 13.0% in those with an indeterminate test, and 6.3% in those with a negative test (p = 0.07 positive vs. negative ETT). In a multivariate logistic regression model, coronary stenting during PCI and a ≥ 85% MPHR achieved were found to be inversely associated with clinical events. However, the DTS did not independently predict clinical events.
Although the statistical power of the study was limited by the small number of clinical events (particularly MI and death), the results of this study support the ACC/AHA guidelines that exercise treadmill testing should not be used routinely after PCI.
PMCID: PMC1855065  PMID: 17394661

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