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California Medicine (2)
PLoS ONE (1)
Black, Howard A. (2)
Black, Howard L. (1)
Gealy, David R. (1)
Grayson, Charles E. (1)
Jackson, Aaron K. (1)
Tomecek, Martha B. (1)
Ziska, Lewis H. (1)
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Recent and Projected Increases in Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Can Enhance Gene Flow between Wild and Genetically Altered Rice (Oryza sativa)
Ziska, Lewis H.
Gealy, David R.
Tomecek, Martha B.
Jackson, Aaron K.
Although recent and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide can alter plant phenological development, these changes have not been quantified in terms of floral outcrossing rates or gene transfer. Could differential phenological development in response to rising CO2 between genetically modified crops and wild, weedy relatives increase the spread of novel genes, potentially altering evolutionary fitness? Here we show that increasing CO2 from an early 20th century concentration (300 µmol mol−1) to current (400 µmol mol−1) and projected, mid-21st century (600 µmol mol−1) values, enhanced the flow of genes from wild, weedy rice to the genetically altered, herbicide resistant, cultivated population, with outcrossing increasing from 0.22% to 0.71% from 300 to 600 µmol mol−1. The increase in outcrossing and gene transfer was associated with differential increases in plant height, as well as greater tiller and panicle production in the wild, relative to the cultivated population. In addition, increasing CO2 also resulted in a greater synchronicity in flowering times between the two populations. The observed changes reported here resulted in a subsequent increase in rice dedomestication and a greater number of weedy, herbicide-resistant hybrid progeny. Overall, these data suggest that differential phenological responses to rising atmospheric CO2 could result in enhanced flow of novel genes and greater success of feral plant species in agroecosystems.
MYELOGRAPHY—Diagnostic Value in Lesions of the Lumbar Intervertebral Discs with a Variation in Technique
Grayson, Charles E.
Myelography using pantopaque in greater than usual amount with a variation in technique, which is described, is believed to provide increased accuracy in differential diagnosis and precise localization of lesions in the lumbar spine. The need for multiple space exploration is eliminated and more detailed information concerning the size and shape of lesions is provided as compared to that secured by the use of 3 or 6 cc. of opaque medium and fluoroscopic examination alone. In 53 cases in which lumbar myelography was performed and the diagnosis verified or disproved at operation, there was a 5 per cent diagnostic error in 41 instances in which the method outlined was used, as compared with 17 per cent error in 12 cases in which only 3 or 6 cc. of radiopaque material and fluoroscopy alone were used. The accuracy of the procedure would appear to warrant its use in the evaluation of patients suspected of having abnormalities of the lumbar discs associated with nerve root compression.
MASSIVE HERNIATION OF THE INTERVERTEBRAL DISC PRODUCING COMPRESSION OF THE CAUDA EQUINA
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