Self-inflicted eye injuries among psychiatric patients are rare but important group of ophthalmic conditions that require close cooperation between different medical specialties to ensure optimum care of the severely disturbed patient. They have been associated with a variety of disorders, including paranoid schizophrenia, drug-induced psychosis, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, mental retardation, and ritualistic behavior. It has been described in both adults and children, but occurs most commonly in young adults with acute or chronic psychoses.
Self-inflicted; ocular injury; needle
Accumulating evidence(s) indicate that CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling cascade plays an important role in the process of invasion and metastasis that accounts for more than 80% of deaths in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Thus, identification of novel agents that can downregulate CXCR4 expression and its associated functions have a great potential in the treatment of metastatic HCC. In the present report, we investigated an anthraquinone derivative, emodin for its ability to affect CXCR4 expression as well as function in HCC cells. We observed that emodin downregulated the expression of CXCR4 in a dose-and time-dependent manner in HCC cells. Treatment with pharmacological proteasome and lysosomal inhibitors did not have substantial effect on emodin-induced decrease in CXCR4 expression. When investigated for the molecular mechanism(s), it was observed that the suppression of CXCR4 expression was due to downregulation of mRNA expression, inhibition of NF-κB activation, and abrogation of chromatin immunoprecipitation activity. Inhibition of CXCR4 expression by emodin further correlated with the suppression of CXCL12-induced migration and invasion in HCC cell lines. In addition, emodin treatment significantly suppressed metastasis to the lungs in an orthotopic HCC mice model and CXCR4 expression in tumor tissues. Overall, our results show that emodin exerts its anti-metastatic effect through the downregulation of CXCR4 expression and thus has the potential for the treatment of HCC.
Background. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical profile, microbiological flora and radiological features in primary atrophic rhinitis patients and to identify their association with the etiology of primary atrophic rhinitis. Study design. Prospective case study. Materials and methods. Patients with primary atrophic rhinitis over a two years period were included in the study. Complete blood count, total protein and microbiological analysis from nasal swab were done to evaluate iron deficiency anemia, nutritional status and identification of the pathogenic bacteria respectively. Radiological evaluation was done to study the radiological features of primary atrophic rhinitis.
Observations. Ninety cases of primary atrophic rhinitis were studied. The most common symptom was nasal crusting. Nasal crust, odour and atrophy of mucosa were the most consistent finding. Nasal myiasis was found in 26.6% cases. The nasal mucociliary clearance time was markedly increased. On investigation there were low value of hemoglobin and total protein in 46.6% and 25.5% patients, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37%) was the commonest organism isolated from culture. On radiological evaluation evidence of different grade of sinusitis was seen in 87.7% case.
Conclusion. The present study suggested that certain bacterial infections, anemia, poor nutrition and hereditary factor may contribute significantly to the etiology of primary atrophic rhinitis.
DNA gyrase is an essential enzyme in bacteria, and its inhibition results in the disruption of DNA synthesis and, subsequently, cell death. The pyrrolamides are a novel class of antibacterial agents targeting DNA gyrase. These compounds were identified by a fragment-based lead generation (FBLG) approach using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) screening to identify low-molecular-weight compounds that bind to the ATP pocket of DNA gyrase. A pyrrole hit with a binding constant of 1 mM formed the basis of the design and synthesis of a focused library of compounds that resulted in the rapid identification of a lead compound that inhibited DNA gyrase with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3 μM. The potency of the lead compound was further optimized by utilizing iterative X-ray crystallography to yield DNA gyrase inhibitors that also displayed antibacterial activity. Spontaneous mutants were isolated in Staphylococcus aureus by plating on agar plates containing pyrrolamide 4 at the MIC. The resistant variants displayed 4- to 8-fold-increased MIC values relative to the parent strain. DNA sequencing revealed two independent point mutations in the pyrrolamide binding region of the gyrB genes from these variants, supporting the hypothesis that the mode of action of these compounds was inhibition of DNA gyrase. Efficacy of a representative pyrrolamide was demonstrated against Streptococcus pneumoniae in a mouse lung infection model. These data demonstrate that the pyrrolamides are a novel class of DNA gyrase inhibitors with the potential to deliver future antibacterial agents targeting multiple clinical indications.
Trypanosoma cruzi, a blood-borne parasite, is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. T. cruzi trypomastigotes, the infectious life cycle stage, can be detected in blood of infected individuals using PCR-based methods. However, soon after a natural infection, or during the chronic phase of Chagas disease, the number of parasites in blood may be very low and thus difficult to detect by PCR. To facilitate PCR-based detection methods, a parasite concentration approach was explored. A whole cell SELEX strategy was utilized to develop serum stable RNA aptamers that bind to live T. cruzi trypomastigotes. These aptamers bound to the parasite with high affinities (8–25 nM range). The highest affinity aptamer, Apt68, also demonstrated high specificity as it did not interact with the insect stage epimastigotes of T. cruzi nor with other related trypanosomatid parasites, L. donovani and T. brucei, suggesting that the target of Apt68 was expressed only on T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Biotinylated Apt68, immobilized on a solid phase, was able to capture live parasites. These captured parasites were visible microscopically, as large motile aggregates, formed when the aptamer coated paramagnetic beads bound to the surface of the trypomastigotes. Additionally, Apt68 was also able to capture and aggregate trypomastigotes from several isolates of the two major genotypes of the parasite. Using a magnet, these parasite-bead aggregates could be purified from parasite-spiked whole blood samples, even at concentrations as low as 5 parasites in 15 ml of whole blood, as detected by a real-time PCR assay. Our results show that aptamers can be used as pathogen specific ligands to capture and facilitate PCR-based detection of T. cruzi in blood.
Otolaryngology, although considered a surgical specialty, also covers many diseases that are not cured by surgery. These are treated medically and thus the otolaryngologist should have a good knowledge of drug treatments. It also entails ability to recognize, when an ENT symptom may be caused by one of the patient’s medications, particularly as this is easily remedied by changing the drug. Although most of us know the common drugs that can cause otological side effects, there are many others that we may not be aware of. Here we have tried to consolidate a list of some commonly used drugs having otological side effects.
Ototoxicity; Ototoxic drugs; Hearing loss
Advanced cancer patients are managed by palliative care and its main aim is to provide best possible quality of life to the patients by symptom management. Pain is the most agonizing symptom experienced by advanced head and neck cancer patients. Control of pain hence requires more attention by the caregiver in order to improve their quality of life. Recently quality of life issues have emerged as a main focus of cancer treatment as compared to conventional increase in survival rate. This study mainly focuses on the effect of palliative drug therapy on quality of life.
Advanced head and neck cancer; Quality of life; Palliative drug therapy
The purpose of this study was to classify various types of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions presenting as sinonasal mass and characterize their clinico-pathological profile in a tertiary care center in the state of Uttarakhand.
Materials and Methods:
This was a prospective study where 110 cases of sinonasal masses were included over a period of 12 months. Clinico-pathological study was carried out in these cases. A provisional diagnosis was made after clinical assessment and radiologic investigations, but final diagnosis was made after histopathologic examination.
The number of non-neoplastic lesions were more than the neoplastic lesion, 60% versus 40% respectively. In the neoplastic group, 19.8% and 23.76% patients presented with benign and malignant lesion, respectively. The incidence was more predominant in the age group of 11-20 years (22.72%) with male to female ratio of 1.08:1. In our study, among non-neoplastic lesions the occurrence of sinonasal polyps was highest seen in 80.30% cases. In neoplastic lesions, angiofibroma was most common benign lesion seen in 35% cases. Carcinoma nasal cavity was the commonest malignant lesion seen in 45.83% cases. In 3.63% patients, clinical and radiologic diagnosis was not correlated with histopathologic diagnosis. Only two cases required immuno-histocytochemistry to confirm the final diagnosis.
We concluded that for proper evaluation of a sinonasal mass, clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic evaluation should be carried out conjointly in all the cases. Histopathology always gives a confirmatory diagnosis but in few cases immuno-histocytochemistry becomes the ultimate diagnostic technique for correct and timely intervention.
Histopathology; neoplastic lesion; sinonasal mass
Primary atrophic rhinitis is a progressive chronic nasal disease and histopathologically characterized by squamous metaplasia and two characteristic types of vascular involvement (type I and type II). Despite its chronicity and squamous transformation, nothing is known about the occurrence of malignancy in atrophic rhinitis. The present work was undertaken to study the histopathological characteristics in primary atrophic rhinitis and identify whether it has any association with malignant transformation. Nasal biopsies obtained from 90 patients diagnosed as primary atrophic rhinitis were studied. Squamous metaplasia was noted in 89% of patients, and type I and type II vascular involvement were seen in 67% and 33% of patients, respectively. This preliminary report suggests that there is no association between atrophic rhinitis and precancerous lesions of nasal cavity despite squamous metaplasia and confirms the presence of two types of vascular changes in the disease which is helpful to decide the treatment modality.
Gout is a metabolic disorder characterized by elevated uric acid levels in the body, associated with painful arthritis, tophi and nephropathy. The most frequently used pharmacologic urate lowering strategies involve reducing urate production with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and enhancing urinary excretion of uric acid with a uricosuric agent. Urate lowering agents are limited in number, availability and effectiveness. The emergence of a new medication, febuxostat, to lower serum urate levels is welcome as no new drug have been approved since the introduction of allopurinol, in 1964, and the drugs that are available have limitations owing to inefficacy or toxicity. Febuxostat is a novel, nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, is a potential alternative to allopurinol for patients with hyperuricemia and gout.
Gout; hyperuricemia; xanthine oxidase inhibitor
This study was conducted to find out the status of the ossicles in cases of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). One hundred and fifty cases of CSOM, who underwent surgery, were included and their intra-operative ossicular chain findings noted. Ossicular erosion was found to be much more common in unsafe CSOM than in safe CSOM. Malleus was found to be the most resistant ossicle to erosion whereas incus was found to be the most susceptible.
Increasing evidence indicates that the interaction between the CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and its ligand CXCL12 is critical in the process of metastasis that accounts for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. Thus, novel agents that can downregulate the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis have therapeutic potential in inhibiting cancer metastasis.
In this report, we investigated the potential of an agent, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone), for its ability to modulate CXCR4 expression and function in various tumor cells using Western blot analysis, DNA binding assay, transient transfection, real time PCR analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and cellular migration and invasion assays.
We found that plumbagin downregulated the expression of CXCR4 in breast cancer cells irrespective of their HER2 status. The decrease in CXCR4 expression induced by plumbagin was not cell type-specific as the inhibition also occurred in gastric, lung, renal, oral, and hepatocellular tumor cell lines. Neither proteasome inhibition nor lysosomal stabilization had any effect on plumbagin-induced decrease in CXCR4 expression. Detailed study of the underlying molecular mechanism(s) revealed that the regulation of the downregulation of CXCR4 was at the transcriptional level, as indicated by downregulation of mRNA expression, inhibition of NF-κB activation, and suppression of chromatin immunoprecipitation activity. In addition, using a virtual, predictive, functional proteomics-based tumor pathway platform, we tested the hypothesis that NF-κB inhibition by plumbagin causes the decrease in CXCR4 and other metastatic genes. Suppression of CXCR4 expression by plumbagin was found to correlate with the inhibition of CXCL12-induced migration and invasion of both breast and gastric cancer cells.
Overall, our results indicate, for the first time, that plumbagin is a novel blocker of CXCR4 expression and thus has the potential to suppress metastasis of cancer.
Management of anterior skull base tumors is complex due to the anatomic detail of the region and the variety of tumors that occur in this area. Currently, the “gold standard” for surgery is the anterior craniofacial approach. Craniofacial resection represents a major advance in the surgical treatment of tumors of the paranasal sinuses involving anterior skull base. It allows wide exposure of the complex anatomical structures at the base of skull permitting monobloc tumor resection. This study presents a series of 18 patients with anterior skull base tumors, treated by a team of head-neck surgeons and neurosurgeons. The series included 15 malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses and 3 extensive benign lesions. All tumors were resected by a combined bi-frontal craniotomy and rhinotomy. The skull base was closed with a pediculated pericranial flap and a split-thickness free skin graft underneath. There were no postoperative problems of wound infection, cerebrospinal fluid-leakage or meningitis. Recurrent tumor growth or systemic metastasis occurred in 3 out of 15 patients with malignant tumors, 6 months to 2 years postoperatively. Craniofacial resection was thus found to give excellent results with low morbidity in malignant lesions and can also be adapted for benign tumors of anterior skull base.
Craniofacial approach; Anterior skull base tumor
Background and Objective:
Though well recognized in the West, palliative care and quality of life are relatively newer concepts in a developing country like India. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of palliative care on pain and quality of life and to identify the association between the two.
Observational prospective study.
Materials and Methods:
Patients with advanced cancer, receiving palliative drug therapy, were recruited from a tertiary care hospital. City of Hope Medical Center Quality of Life Survey and visual analog scale (VAS) were used to assess the quality of life and cancer pain severity, respectively.
A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Palliative drug therapy produced a significant reduction in pain scores expressed as mean ± SD in VAS [7.13 ± 2.2 vs. 2.62 ± 2.1 (P<0.001) after 1 month in 93 patients; 7.06 ± 2.1 vs. 2.47 ± 2.1 (P<0.001) after 1 month and 2.02 ± 1.9 (P<0.001) after 2 months in 51 patients]. Also, significant improvement in the quality of life scores [919.78 ± 271.3 vs. 1280.65 ± 306.8 (P<0.01) after 1 month in 93 patients; 950.39 ± 238.2 vs. 1336.67 ± 291 (P<0.01) after 1 month and 1405.49 ± 368.3 (P<0.01) after 2 months in 51 patients] was obtained. There was a high correlation between the average change of pain intensity and quality of life scores (r= −0.53, P<0.02). Overall, a reduction in pain resulted in significant improvement in the quality of life (P<0.001).
This study emphasizes the role of palliative care and, more importantly, pain management in improving the quality of life of advanced cancer patients.
Advanced cancer; cancer pain; quality of life
Adenoid hypertrophy is a normal phenomenon seen in young children. Adenoids may however be of large size or may not reduce in size in adulthood. Large adenoids may cause mouth breathing, overcrowding of teeth or otological symptoms. When adenoids are large and producing these effects, adenoidectomy is necessary. Adenoidectomy immensely benefits such patients but they may still continue to be habitual mouth breathers. This can lead to formation of long narrow face, labially protruded maxillary incisors and class 2 malocclusion. Immediate orthodontic treatment of such patients will improve facial profile and lead to class 1 (Angle) occlusion. We present here a study of 20 patients who were given early orthodontic treatment in postadenoidectomy period as compared to those patients who were not treated by orthodontist.
Adenoidectomy; Class 2 malocclusion; Class 1 occlusion
A Zenker’s diverticulum is a blind pouch that branches off the cervical esophagus. Affected individuals may suffer from long-standing swallowing difficulties, regurgitation, bad breath, weight loss, and even aspiration.. Here we report a 80-years-old male presenting with dysphagia and regurgitation. Barium swallow reported the presence of a Zenker’s diveticulum. In view of the patient’s age, endoscopic diathermy was considered as a therapeutic option for the management.
Zenker’s Diverticulum; Inferior pharyngeal constrictor; Killian dehiscence
Angiogenesis is a fundamental biological process that is regulated by a fine balance between pro- and antiangiogenic molecules, and is deranged in various diseases. Historically, angiogenesis was only implicated in few diseases, such as, cancer, arthritis, and psoriasis. However, in recent years, it has been increasingly evident that excessive, insufficient or abnormal angiogenesis contributes to the pathogenesis of many more disorders. Research in angiogenesis offers a potential to cure a variety of diseases such as Alzheimer's and AIDS. Modulation of angiogenesis may have an impact on diseases in the twenty-first century similar to that which the discovery of antibiotics had in the twentieth century.
Angiogenesis; antiangiogenic drugs; vascular endothelial growth factor
Tubercular laryngitis is a known entity since a long time but it’s presentation, diagnosis and management has undergone a drastic makeover after the advent of chemotherapy in the form of ATT (Anti tubercular treatment), modernized diagnostic aids and early detection of lesions.
Materials and methods
This prospective study was conducted on 180 patients. Each patient were subjected to detailed history and thorough ENT and head neck examination including laryngeal examination by visualization of the vocal cords, possibly using indirect laryngoscopy,. exible naso-laryngoscopy or rigid laryngoscopy Results Tubercular laryngitis was clinically diagnosed by laryngeal endoscopy and diagnosis con. rmed by laryngeal biopsy.
All patients showed remarkable improvement with anti-tubercular treatment.
Tubercular laryngitis; Laryngoscopy
Many young adults are now killed and injured in accidents than from another causes. More than 75% of these injuries are to the head, and the ear being the most frequently injured sensory organ of the body. Temporal bone or basilar skull fractures are extremely common in any head injury. Injuries to the temporal bone may be considered in three groups: Those affecting the external auditory meatus (extralabyranthine fractures), those largely affecting middle ear cleft (tympanolabyranthine) and those affecting the internal ear (labyrinthine fractures). Many injuries, however, involve all these structures.The sudden onset of facial paralysis, vertigo and hearing impairment after a head injury is a matter of great concern for the patients and clinicians. Presence of cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF Otorrhoea) can be a challenge for both the neurosurgeons and otologists. We hereby present 86 patients of temporal bone fractures who presented in the departments of emergency, Neurosurgery or ENT of Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun during last 10 years (1996–2006).
Temporal bone; Facial nerve palsy; CSF otorrhoea
Mucormycosis is a rare but serious fungal infection that rapidly attacks and kills its untreated victims, who are often immunocompromised. It is one of the most fulminant and often fatal mycotic infections known to human beings. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is the commonest presentation and its extension to the orbit and brain is quite usual but the palatal involvement is a rare and late occurrence. Isolated location of mucormycosis on the palate in an immunocompetent host is an unusual clinical entity. Here we report a case of deep hard palate ulcer due to mucormycosis in a 56-year-old man without any predisposing factor. He was successfully treated with a combination of surgical debridement and systemic liposomal amphotericin B administration for six weeks. By presenting this case report we would like to emphasis that mucormycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of the hard palate ulcers even in immunocompetent patient.
Palate; Ulcer; Mucormycosis
Retropharyngeal abscesses were fairly common in preantibiotic era but the advent of antibiotics has reduced the overall incidence of these abscesses. They still continue to occur specially in developing world and carry significant morbidity and even mortality if not managed properly. The prevalence of this abscess in the young children pose a bigger challenge, as the examination of oral cavity is difficult. Emphasis is placed on the age, sex, type, and duration of symptoms, bacteriology, methodology of diagnosis, therapy and complications. With proper antibiotic cover and surgical management, majority of patients today survive without major residual squeal. Hereby we present a series of 15 cases of retropharyngeal abscess.
Retropharyngeal abscess; Pharyngeal abscess
A 10-year-old female presenting with a discharging sinus in the midline of the neck of one month duration was diagnosed to have a thyroglossal sinus. She underwent sistrunk’s operation, intra-operatively a thyroglossal duct cyst was atypically sited in the intrahyoid region. The cyst may be located in the intralingual, suprahyoid, thyrohyoid or suprasternal region. A literature search revealed that this intrahyoid location of a thyroglossal duct cyst is extremely rare and so far only three cases have been reported. A case and review of literature regarding this unusual entity are presented.
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst; Thyroglossal Cyst; Hyoid Bone
Rhinosporidiosis is a disease affecting primarily the mucosa of nose, conjunctiva and urethra. Larynx, trachea, skin and lungs are less frequently involved. It is endemic in some Asiatic regions, affecting people of any age and sex. Its manifestation is a polypoid mass growing inside the affected nasal cavity and the treatment is surgical excision, with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Rhinosporidium seeberi is the aetiological agent. The lesion may recur and sometimes cause osteolytic bone lesions. A case of Rhinosporidiosis with an unusual feature of spread to the nasopharyngeal area and chronicity of 2 years is presented.
Rhinosporidiosis; lacrimal sac; ocular rhinosporidiosis; Rhinosporidium seeberi
Extraskeletal Ewing’s sarcoma is often described as a tumour involving the soft tissues of the lower extremities and the paravertebral region. Primary Ewing’s sarcoma of the cranium is extremely rare, with only 17 cases reported so far . Involvement of the paranasal sinus is a very rare entity. Involvement of facial bones is characterized by clinical and radiological features distinct from those commonly observed in other sites. Because of the above peculiarities a delay in diagnosis and thus in starting treatment is very probable in such cases. Primary Ewings sarcoma rarely arises in the facial skeleton and only occasionally in the maxilla. To date, there have been 22 cases of maxillary Ewing’s sarcoma reported in the English-language literature . We report here a new case of Ewing’s sarcoma localized to the maxillary sinus, nose and the orbit, successfully treated by surgery, local high dosage radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy.
Ewing’s sarcoma; Paranasal sinus