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1.  Combined Industrial Wastewater Treatment in Anaerobic Bioreactor Posttreated in Constructed Wetland 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:957853.
Constructed wetland (CW) with monoculture of Arundo donax L. was investigated for the posttreatment of anaerobic bioreactor (ABR) treating combined industrial wastewater. Different dilutions of combined industrial wastewater (20, 40, 60, and 80) and original wastewater were fed into the ABR and then posttreated by the laboratory scale CW. The respective removal efficiencies of COD, BOD, TSS, nitrates, and ammonia were 80%, 78–82%, 91.7%, 88–92%, and 100% for original industrial wastewater treated in ABR. ABR was efficient in the removal of Ni, Pb, and Cd with removal efficiencies in the order of Cd (2.7%) > Ni (79%) > Pb (85%). Posttreatment of the ABR treated effluent was carried out in lab scale CW containing A. donax L. CW was effective in the removal of COD and various heavy metals present in ABR effluents. The posttreatment in CW resulted in reducing the metal concentrations to 1.95 mg/L, 0 mg/L, and 0.004 mg/L for Ni, Pb, and Cd which were within the permissible water quality standards for industrial effluents. The treatment strategy was effective and sustainable for the treatment of combined industrial wastewater.
doi:10.1155/2013/957853
PMCID: PMC3876802  PMID: 24396832
2.  2-(Naphthalene-2-sulfonamido)-3-phenyl­propanoic acid 
In the title compound, C19H17NO4S, the phenyl ring and the naphthalene ring system are oriented at a dihedral angle of 4.12 (2)° and the mol­ecule adopts a U-shaped conformation. The Cc—C—N—S (c = carb­oxy) torsion angle is 90.98 (15)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, resulting in (100) chains incorporating centrosymmetric R 2 2(14) and R 2 2(10) loops. Weak aromatic π–π stacking is also observed [centroid–centroid separations = 3.963 (2) and 3.932 (2) Å].
doi:10.1107/S1600536813000081
PMCID: PMC3569255  PMID: 23424478
3.  Interaction of Hepatitis C virus proteins with pattern recognition receptors 
Virology Journal  2012;9:126.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that causes acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. This positive stranded RNA virus is extremely efficient in establishing persistent infection by escaping immune detection or hindering the host immune responses. Recent studies have discovered two important signaling pathways that activate the host innate immunity against viral infection. One of these pathways utilizes members of Toll-like receptor (TLR) family and the other uses the RNA helicase retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) as the receptors for intracellular viral double stranded RNA (dsRNA), and activation of transcription factors. In this review article, we summarize the interaction of HCV proteins with various host receptors/sensors through one of these two pathways or both, and how they exploit these interactions to escape from host defense mechanisms. For this purpose, we searched data from Pubmed and Google Scholar. We found that three HCV proteins; Core (C), non structural 3/4 A (NS3/4A) and non structural 5A (NS5A) have direct interactions with these two pathways. Core protein only in the monomeric form stimulates TLR2 pathway assisting the virus to evade from the innate immune system. NS3/4A disrupts TLR3 and RIG-1 signaling pathways by cleaving Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) and Cardif, the two important adapter proteins of these signaling cascades respectively, thus halting the defense against HCV. NS5A downmodulates the expressions of NKG2D on natural killer cells (NK cells) via TLR4 pathway and impairs the functional ability of these cells. TLRs and RIG-1 pathways have a central role in innate immunity and despite their opposing natures to HCV proteins, when exploited together, HCV as an ever developing virus against host immunity is able to accumulate these mechanisms for near unbeatable survival.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-9-126
PMCID: PMC3538621  PMID: 22726246
Hepatitis C virus; Toll-like receptors; Anti-viral pathways
4.  Molecular epidemiology of hcv among health care workers of khyber pakhtunkhwa 
Virology Journal  2011;8:105.
Background
Studies of the molecular epidemiology and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in health care workers (HCWs) of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region are scarce. Lack of awareness about the transmission of HCV and regular blood screening is contributing a great deal towards the spread of hepatitis C. This study is an attempt to investigate the prevalence of HCV and its possible association with both occupational and non-occupational risk factors among the HCWs of Peshawar.
Results
Blood samples of 824 HCWs, aged between 20-59 years were analysed for anti-HCV antibodies, HCV RNA and HCV genotypes by Immunochromatographic tests and PCR. All relevant information was obtained from the HCWs with the help of a questionnaire. The study revealed that 4.13% of the HCWs were positive for HCV antibodies, while HCV RNA was detected in 2.79% of the individuals. The most predominant HCV genotype was 3a and 2a.
Conclusion
A program for education about occupational risk factors and regular blood screening must be implemented in all healthcare setups of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in order to help reduce the burden of HCV infection.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-105
PMCID: PMC3060846  PMID: 21385397
5.  Hepatitis C in Pakistan: A Review of Available Data 
Hepatitis Monthly  2010;10(3):205-214.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly recognized as a major health care problem, and is found frequently in Pakistani settings. In this article we reviewed published and unpublished data related to the seroepidemiology of HCV infection in Pakistan. For this article, data from 132 published studies and three unpublished data sets published/ presented between the period 1992-2008 were utilized. Data of 1,183,329 individuals were gathered. Blood donors (982,481) and the general population (178,322) constituted the majority of these subjects. The frequency of HCV infection in blood donors and in the general population was 3.0 % (95% CI: 3.0- 3.1) and 4.7 (95% CI: 4.6 -4.8), respectively. The frequency among 6,148 pregnant females was 7.3% (95% CI = 6.7 – 8.0). The frequency in healthy children ranged from 0.4 to 4.1% (95% CI = 1.4 – 2.3). Pakistani HCV serofrequency figures are significantly higher (P < 0.0001) compared to those of the corresponding populations in surrounding countries like India, Nepal, Myanmar, Iran and Afghanistan.
PMCID: PMC3269085  PMID: 22308140
Hepatitis C Virus; Anti-HCV; Pakistan; Serofrequency
6.  2-(3-Methyl­but-2-en-1-yl)-1,2-benziso­thia­zol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide 
In the title compound, C12H13NO3S, a saccharin derivative, the dihedral angle between the aromatic and isothia­zole rings is 2.91 (12)°. The planar 3,3-dimethyl­allyl group [maximum deviation = 0.0086 (16) Å] is oriented at dihedral angles of 71.86 (7) and 74.35 (7)° with respect to the aromatic and isothia­zole rings, respectively. In the crystal structure, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions link the mol­ecules into chains along the c axis. A weak C—H⋯π inter­action is also present.
doi:10.1107/S1600536809012021
PMCID: PMC2977681  PMID: 21584024

Results 1-6 (6)