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1.  The cytotoxicity evaluation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on human aortic endothelial cells 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):215.
One major obstacle for successful application of nanoparticles in medicine is its potential nanotoxicity on the environment and human health. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity effect of dimercaptosuccinic acid-coated iron oxide (DMSA-Fe2O3) using cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Our results showed that DMSA-Fe2O3 in the culture medium could be absorbed into HAECs, and dispersed in the cytoplasm. The cytotoxicity effect of DMSA-Fe2O3 on HAECs was dose-dependent, and the concentrations no more than 0.02 mg/ml had little toxic effect which were revealed by tetrazolium dye assay. Meanwhile, the cell injury biomarker, lactate dehydrogenase, was not significantly higher than that from control cells (without DMSA-Fe2O3). However, the endocrine function for endothelin-1 and prostacyclin I-2, as well as the urea transporter function, was altered even without obvious evidence of cell injury in this context. We also showed by real-time PCR analysis that DMSA-Fe2O3 exposure resulted in differential effects on the expressions of pro- and anti-apoptosis genes of HAECs. Meanwhile, it was noted that DMSA-Fe2O3 exposure could activate the expression of genes related to oxidative stress and adhesion molecules, which suggested that inflammatory response might be evoked. Moreover, we demonstrated by in vitro endothelial tube formation that even a small amount of DMSA-Fe2O3 (0.01 and 0.02 mg/ml) could inhibit angiogenesis by the HAECs. Altogether, these results indicate that DMSA-Fe2O3 have some cytotoxicity that may cause side effects on normal endothelial cells.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-215
PMCID: PMC3651330  PMID: 23647620
Magnetic nanoparticles; Iron oxide; Endothelial cells; Cell viability; Angiogenesis
2.  The Effect of Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles on Smooth Muscle Cells 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2008;4(1):70-77.
Recently, magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3) have shown an increasing number of applications in the field of biomedicine, but some questions have been raised about the potential impact of these nanoparticles on the environment and human health. In this work, the three types of magnetic nanoparticles (DMSA-Fe2O3, APTS-Fe2O3, and GLU-Fe2O3) with the same crystal structure, magnetic properties, and size distribution was designed, prepared, and characterized by transmission electronic microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, zeta potential analyzer, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy. Then, we have investigated the effect of the three types of magnetic nanoparticles (DMSA-Fe2O3, APTS-Fe2O3, and GLU-Fe2O3) on smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cellular uptake of nanoparticles by SMC displays the dose, the incubation time and surface property dependent patterns. Through the thin section TEM images, we observe that DMSA-Fe2O3 is incorporated into the lysosome of SMCs. The magnetic nanoparticles have no inflammation impact, but decrease the viability of SMCs. The other questions about metabolism and other impacts will be the next subject of further studies.
doi:10.1007/s11671-008-9204-7
PMCID: PMC2894190
Magnetic nanoparticles; Iron oxide; Smooth muscle cells; Cellular uptake; Viability
3.  The Effect of Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles on Smooth Muscle Cells 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2008;4(1):70-77.
Recently, magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3) have shown an increasing number of applications in the field of biomedicine, but some questions have been raised about the potential impact of these nanoparticles on the environment and human health. In this work, the three types of magnetic nanoparticles (DMSA-Fe2O3, APTS-Fe2O3, and GLU-Fe2O3) with the same crystal structure, magnetic properties, and size distribution was designed, prepared, and characterized by transmission electronic microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, zeta potential analyzer, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy. Then, we have investigated the effect of the three types of magnetic nanoparticles (DMSA-Fe2O3, APTS-Fe2O3, and GLU-Fe2O3) on smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cellular uptake of nanoparticles by SMC displays the dose, the incubation time and surface property dependent patterns. Through the thin section TEM images, we observe that DMSA-Fe2O3is incorporated into the lysosome of SMCs. The magnetic nanoparticles have no inflammation impact, but decrease the viability of SMCs. The other questions about metabolism and other impacts will be the next subject of further studies.
doi:10.1007/s11671-008-9204-7
PMCID: PMC2894190
Magnetic nanoparticles; Iron oxide; Smooth muscle cells; Cellular uptake; Viability

Results 1-3 (3)