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1.  A Scoping Review of Intimate Partner Violence Screening Programs for Health Care Professionals 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(12):e0168502.
Between 38 and 59 percent of women presenting to health care professionals have experienced intimate partner violence. Consequently, multiple intimate partner violence identification or screening programs within health care settings have been developed; however, substantial variations in program content and interpretation of program effectiveness has resulted in conflicting practice guidelines. The purpose of our scoping review is to broadly identify and synthesize the available literature evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings to identify key areas for potential evidence-based recommendations and to focus research priorities in the field.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and psycINFO. We used broad eligibility criteria to identify studies that evaluated intimate partner violence identification programs in health care settings. We completed all screening and data extraction independently and in duplicate. We used descriptive statistics to summarize all data.
We identified 59 eligible studies evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings. The most commonly reported outcome themes were IPV disclosure (69%, n = 35), number of patients screened (39%, n = 20), HCP opinions towards screening (37%, n = 19), and patient opinions towards screening (29%, n = 15). The majority of studies (36 studies (70.6%)) reported positive program evaluation results.
The majority of studies reported positive program evaluation results. This may suggest that many different intimate partner violence identification programs are beneficial for identifying victims of abuse, however, it remains unknown as to whether identification programs prevent future episodes of abuse. Additionally, the substantial heterogeneity of the intervention characteristics, study methodology, and outcome measures assessed limits the ability to make clear recommendations as to the optimal method(s) of screening.
PMCID: PMC5158065  PMID: 27977769
2.  Gabapentinoids for chronic low back pain: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials 
BMJ Open  2016;6(11):e013200.
Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a common condition and causes significant pain, distress and disability across the world. It is multifactorial in aetiology and is challenging to manage. Although the underlying mechanism of pain is predominantly non-specific, many argue that there is a substantial neuropathic pain element. Neuropathic pain is more severe, with significant disability. Gabapentinoids, including gabapentin and pregabalin, have proven efficacy in some neuropathic pain conditions. Despite no clear evidence, a substantial population of patients with CLBP are treated with gabapentinoids.
We aim to assess whether the use of gabapentinoids is effective and safe in the treatment of predominant CLBP, by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised control trials (RCTs).
We will search the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane for RCTs published in English language and have used gabapentinoids for the treatment of CLBP. Study selection and data extraction will be performed independently by paired reviewers using structured electronic forms, piloted between pairs of reviewers. The review outcomes will be guided by Initiative on Methods, Measurement and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials guidelines, with pain relief as the primary outcome. We propose to carry out meta-analysis if there are three or more studies in a particular outcome domain, using a random effects model. Pooled outcomes will be reported as weighted mean differences or standardised mean differences and risk ratios with their corresponding 95% CIs, for continuous outcomes and dichotomous outcomes, respectively. Rating of quality of evidence will be reported using GRADE summary of findings table.
The proposed systematic review will be able to provide valuable evidence to help decision-making in the use of gabapentinoids for the treatment of CLBP. This will help advance patient care and potentially highlight limitations in existing evidence to direct future research.
Ethics and dissemination
Being a systematic review, this study would not necessitate ethical review and approval. We plan to report and publish our study findings in a high impact medical journal, with online access.
Trial registration number
PMCID: PMC5128988
4.  Intramedullary Nailing Versus Plate Fixation for the Treatment Displaced Midshaft Clavicular Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:34912.
The two commonly performed surgical techniques used to repair displaced midshaft clavicle fractures are plate fixation or intramedullary nailing; however, despite recent evidence, the optimal method to treat such fractures remains a continued topic of debate. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate long term function, complications, and operative duration in adult patients receiving intramedullary nailing in comparison to plating. Seven RCTs and three quasi-randomized trials were included. No significant difference was found in long-term function between the two groups (MD: −0.66, 95% CI: −2.03 to 0.71, I2 = 62%, p = 0.34). Patients who received plating had a 2.19 times increased risk of treatment failure, but this failed to reach significance (95% CI: 0.93 to 5.15, I2 = 0%, p = 0.07). The risk of non-operative complications was 2.11 times higher in patients who received plating and this reached statistical significance (95% CI: 1.38 to 3.23, I2 = 53%, p = 0.0006). Finally, plating significantly prolonged operative duration by 20.16 minutes (95% CI: 16.87 to 23.44, I2 = 56%, p < 0.00001). Our results suggest that intramedullary nailing and plating provide equivalent long-term functional outcomes; however, plating may lead to a higher risk of treatment failure and non-operative complications.
PMCID: PMC5071841  PMID: 27762393
5.  Five things they don’t teach you in medical school 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2016;59(5):296-298.
You graduate from medical school with dreams of beginning your residency, during which you will study and train within the specialty you love more than any other. While you may be book-smart at this point in your career, medical school does not teach you everything you need to know. During residency you will learn the didactic and technical requirements for your future staff job, but medical school won’t explicitly address many of the crucial “dos and don’ts” of a successful 2- to 5-year postgraduate training voyage. Here we discuss a few of the important things about residency that you’ll need to know that they don’t teach you in medical school.
PMCID: PMC5042714  PMID: 27668328
6.  Does Computed Tomography Change our Observation and Management of Fracture Non-Unions? 
The purpose of this study was to determine whether Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) in addition to plain radiographs influences radiologists’ and orthopedic surgeons’ diagnosis and treatment plans for delayed unions and non-unions.
A retrospective database of 32 non-unions was reviewed by 20 observers. On a scale of 1 to 5, observers rated on X-Ray and a subsequent Multi Detector Helical Computer Tomography (MDCT) scan was performed to determine the following categories: “healed”, “bridging callus present”, “persistent fracture line” or “surgery advised”. Interobserver reliability in each category was calculated using the Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The influence of the MDCT scan on the raters’ observations was determined in each case by subtracting the two scores of both time points.
All four categories show fair interobserver reliability when using plain radiographs. MDCT showed no improvement, the reliability was poor for the categories “bridging callus present” and “persistent fracture line”, and fair for “healed” and “surgery advised”. In none of the cases, MDCT led to a change of management from nonoperative to operative treatment or vice versa. For 18 out of 32 cases, the treatment plans did not alter. In seven cases MDCT led to operative treatment while on X-ray the treatment plan was undecided.
In this study, the interobserver reliability of MDCT scan is not greater than conventional radiographs for determining non-union. However, a MDCT scan did lead to a more invasive approach in equivocal cases. Therefore a MDCT is only recommended for making treatment strategies in those cases.
PMCID: PMC5100449  PMID: 27847846
Computed Tomography; Non-union; Fracture; Reliability
7.  Are Volar Locking Plates Superior to Percutaneous K-wires for Distal Radius Fractures? A Meta-analysis 
Distal radius fractures are common, costly, and increasing in incidence. Percutaneous K-wire fixation and volar locking plates are two of the most commonly used surgical treatments for unstable dorsally displaced distal radius fractures. However, there is uncertainty regarding which of these treatments is superior.
We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine whether patients treated with volar locking plates (1) achieved better function (2) attained better wrist motion, (3) had better radiographic outcomes, and (4) had fewer complications develop than did patients treated with K-wires for dorsally displaced distal radius fractures.
We performed a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (inception to 2014, October Week 2), EMBASE (inception to 2014, Week 42), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify relevant randomized controlled trials; we supplemented these searches with manual searches. We included studies of extraarticular and intraarticular distal radius fractures. Adjunctive external fixation was acceptable as long as the intent was to use only K-wires where possible and external fixation was used in less than 25% of the procedures. We considered a difference in the DASH scores of 10 as the minimal clinically important difference. We performed quality assessment with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and evaluated the strength of recommendations using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Seven randomized trials with a total of 875 participants were included in the meta-analysis.
Patients treated with volar locking plates had slightly better function than did patients treated with K-wires as measured by their DASH scores at 3 months (mean difference [MD], 7.5; 95% CI, 4.4–10.6; p < 0.001) and 12 months (MD, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2–6.3; p = 0.004). Neither of these differences exceeded the a priori-determined threshold for clinical importance (10 points). There was a small early advantage in flexion and supination in the volar locking plate group (3.7° [95% CI, 0.3°–7.1°; p = 0.04] and 4.1° [95% CI, 0.6°–7.6°; p = 0.02] greater, respectively) at 3 months, but not at later followups (6 or 12 months). There were no differences in radiographic outcomes (volar tilt, radial inclination, and radial height) between the two interventions. Superficial wound infection was more common in patients treated with K-wires (8.2% versus 3.2%; RR = 2.6; p = 0.001), but otherwise no difference in complication rates was found.
Despite the small number of studies and the limitations inherent in a meta-analysis, we found that volar locking plates show better DASH scores at 3- and 12-month followups compared with K-wires for displaced distal radius fractures in adults; however, these differences were small and unlikely to be clinically important. Further research is required to better delineate if there are specific radiographic, injury, or patient characteristics that may benefit from volar locking plates in the short term and whether there are any differences in long-term outcomes and complications.
Level of Evidence
Level I, therapeutic study.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-015-4347-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4523532  PMID: 25981715
9.  Efficacy of Electrical Stimulators for Bone Healing: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Sham-Controlled Trials 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:31724.
Electrical stimulation is a common adjunct used to promote bone healing; its efficacy, however, remains uncertain. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized sham-controlled trials to establish the efficacy of electrical stimulation for bone healing. We identified all trials randomizing patients to electrical or sham stimulation for bone healing. Outcomes were pain relief, functional improvement, and radiographic nonunion. Two reviewers assessed eligibility and risk of bias, performed data extraction, and rated the quality of the evidence. Fifteen trials met our inclusion criteria. Moderate quality evidence from 4 trials found that stimulation produced a significant improvement in pain (mean difference (MD) on 100-millimeter visual analogue scale = −7.7 mm; 95% CI −13.92 to −1.43; p = 0.02). Two trials found no difference in functional outcome (MD = −0.88; 95% CI −6.63 to 4.87; p = 0.76). Moderate quality evidence from 15 trials found that stimulation reduced radiographic nonunion rates by 35% (95% CI 19% to 47%; number needed to treat = 7; p < 0.01). Patients treated with electrical stimulation as an adjunct for bone healing have less pain and are at reduced risk for radiographic nonunion; functional outcome data are limited and requires increased focus in future trials.
PMCID: PMC4990885  PMID: 27539550
10.  Magnitude and variability of effect sizes for the associations between chronic pain and cognitive test performances: a meta-analysis 
British Journal of Pain  2016;10(3):141-155.
Objectives and Methods:
A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to estimate the size and variability of the association between chronic pain (CP) and poorer cognitive test performances as a function of individual tests, pain sub-types, and study sources on 22 studies having (1) a control group, (2) reported means and standard deviations (SDs) and (3) tests studied at least 3 times.
CP patients performed significantly poorer with small to moderate effects (d = −.31 to −.57) on Digit Span Backward; STROOP Word; Color and Color-Word; Digit Symbol; Trail Making A and B; Rey Auditory Learning Immediate and Delayed Recall and Recognition. For these 10 measures, single effects (no interaction) were supported (I2 = 0%–8%) and Random and Fixed models yielded similar results. No group differences were found for Corsi Blocks Forward or Wisconsin Cart Sorting Test Categories Achieved, or Perseveration. Effects for the Rey Complex Figure Immediate and Delayed Recall were significant, but effect size was inconclusive, given moderate to high heterogeneity and lack of consistency between Random and Fixed models. For the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, there was a homogeneous (I2 = 0%) and significantly lower performance in fibromyalgia (d = −.47), but no effect in diagnostically undifferentiated pain samples, and wide variability across studies of whiplash (d = −.15 to −1.04, I2 = 60%).
The magnitude and consistency of the CP – cognition effect depended on the test, pain subgroup and study source.
Summary points
Among tests showing a chronic pain (CP) – cognition effect, the magnitude of this association was consistently small to moderate across tests.
Effect size estimation was inconclusive for Digit Span Forwards, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and the Rey Complex Figure Test.
Variance was too heterogeneous for testing cognitive domain specificity of the CP – cognition effect.
PMCID: PMC4994775  PMID: 27583141
Chronic pain; memory; cognitive testing; cognitive performances; meta-analysis
11.  Orthopaedic Trainees Retain Knowledge After a Partner Abuse Course: An Education Study 
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious global issue that results in a large number of injuries and deaths among women. Educating clinicians about IPV can help providers identify, prevent, and treat victims, and, ultimately, improve care for victims of abuse. We sought to determine the effect of a half-day educational course on IPV for orthopaedic surgical trainees on knowledge and attitudes.
We asked (1) whether a half-day educational course on IPV can improve orthopaedic surgical trainees’ knowledge and (2) attitudes regarding IPV; and (3) whether a course on IPV can be accepted and viewed as valuable by trainees?
Using published research on IPV in patients with musculoskeletal injuries, we developed a half-day educational course. The curriculum included lectures and discussion regarding the basics of IPV, the current state of IPV research, what to do when a patient is a victim or perpetrator, and the orthopaedic surgeon’s role in recognizing, preventing, and assisting with IPV. All 33 course participants (30 men and three women), all orthopaedic surgical trainees, completed a questionnaire that included general true or false or agree or disagree statements regarding their knowledge, attitudes, and practices of IPV in the musculoskeletal setting; the questionnaire also included a knowledge test of 25 true or false statements. The questionnaire was administered immediately before, immediately after, and 3 months after the course; 76% (25 of 33) took the test immediately after the course and 82% (27 of 33) completed the test at 3 months. Participant knowledge scores were compared across the three different times to determine the effect of the course.
Participants increased their knowledge after the course, and the increased knowledge was retained at retesting at 3 months; the mean percentage of correct answers before the course was 57%, which increased to 73% after the course, and was 68% 3 months later (F = 9.505; p = 0.001). Before the course, most of the course participants (30 of 32; 94%) agreed that IPV is an important issue; agreement increased to 100% immediately after the course. The largest change in attitude was in response to the statement: “I am skeptical that the health care system has the resources to screen for IPV.” Before the course, 53% (17 of 32) of trainees endorsed this statement, but the percent decreased to 36% (nine of 25) after the course and remained low at 33% (nine of 27), at the 3-month test.
Our findings show that a short course on IPV in patients with musculoskeletal injuries led to an improvement and retention of knowledge 3 months after the course. Based on our findings, we recommend that IPV education be integrated in training programs for orthopaedic surgeons. Future projects should focus on developing and implementing a sustainable education program that can affect practice for healthcare professionals and trainees in multiple clinical settings.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-015-4325-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4457738  PMID: 25917425
12.  Which Surgical Treatment for Open Tibial Shaft Fractures Results in the Fewest Reoperations? A Network Meta-analysis 
Open tibial shaft fractures are one of the most devastating orthopaedic injuries. Surgical treatment options include reamed or unreamed nailing, plating, Ender nails, Ilizarov fixation, and external fixation. Using a network meta-analysis allows comparison and facilitates pooling of a diverse population of randomized trials across these approaches in ways that a traditional meta-analysis does not.
Our aim was to perform a network meta-analysis using evidence from randomized trials on the relative effect of alternative approaches on the risk of unplanned reoperation after open fractures of the tibial diaphysis. Our secondary study endpoints included malunion, deep infection, and superficial infection.
A network meta-analysis allows for simultaneous consideration of the relative effectiveness of multiple treatment alternatives. To do this on the subject of surgical treatments for open tibial fractures, we began with systematic searches of databases (including EMBASE and MEDLINE) and performed hand searches of orthopaedic journals, bibliographies, abstracts from orthopaedic conferences, and orthopaedic textbooks, for all relevant material published between 1980 and 2013. Two authors independently screened abstracts and manuscripts and extracted the data, three evaluated the risk of bias in individual studies, and two applied Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria to bodies of evidence. We included all randomized and quasirandomized trials comparing two (or more) surgical treatment options for open tibial shaft fractures in predominantly (ie, > 80%) adult patients. We calculated pooled estimates for all direct comparisons and conducted a network meta-analysis combining direct and indirect evidence for all 15 comparisons between six stabilization strategies. Fourteen trials published between 1989 and November 2011 met our inclusion criteria; the trials comprised a total of 1279 patients surgically treated for open tibial shaft fractures.
Moderate confidence evidence showed that unreamed nailing may reduce the likelihood of reoperation compared with external fixation (network odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.23–0.62; p < 0.05), although not necessarily compared with reamed nailing (direct OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.45–1.24; p = 0.25). Only low- or very low-quality evidence informed the primary outcome for other treatment comparisons, such as those involving internal plate fixation, Ilizarov external fixation, and Ender nailing. Method ranking based on reoperation data showed that unreamed nailing had the highest probability of being the best treatment, followed by reamed nailing, external fixation, and plate fixation. CIs around pooled estimates of malunion and infection risk were very wide, and therefore no conclusive results could be made based on these data.
Current evidence suggests that intramedullary nailing may be superior to other fixation strategies for open tibial shaft fractures. Use of unreamed nails over reamed nails also may be advantageous in the setting of open fractures, but this remains to be confirmed. Unfortunately, these conclusions are based on trials that have had high risk of bias and poor precision. Larger and higher-quality head-to-head randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these conclusions and better inform clinical decision-making.
Level of Evidence
Level I, therapeutic study.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-015-4224-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4457757  PMID: 25724836
13.  Network Meta-analysis: Users’ Guide for Surgeons: Part I – Credibility 
Conventional meta-analyses quantify the relative effectiveness of two interventions based on direct (that is, head-to-head) evidence typically derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). For many medical conditions, however, multiple treatment options exist and not all have been compared directly. This issue limits the utility of traditional synthetic techniques such as meta-analyses, since these approaches can only pool and compare evidence across interventions that have been compared directly by source studies. Network meta-analyses (NMA) use direct and indirect comparisons to quantify the relative effectiveness of three or more treatment options. Interpreting the methodologic quality and results of NMAs may be challenging, as they use complex methods that may be unfamiliar to surgeons; yet for these surgeons to use these studies in their practices, they need to be able to determine whether they can trust the results of NMAs. The first judgment of trust requires an assessment of the credibility of the NMA methodology; the second judgment of trust requires a determination of certainty in effect sizes and directions. In this Users’ Guide for Surgeons, Part I, we show the application of evaluation criteria for determining the credibility of a NMA through an example pertinent to clinical orthopaedics. In the subsequent article (Part II), we help readers evaluate the level of certainty NMAs can provide in terms of treatment effect sizes and directions.
PMCID: PMC4457779  PMID: 25869061
14.  Network Meta-analysis: Users’ Guide for Surgeons: Part II – Certainty 
In the previous article (Network Meta-analysis: Users’ Guide for Surgeons—Part I, Credibility), we presented an approach to evaluating the credibility or methodologic rigor of network meta-analyses (NMA), an innovative approach to simultaneously addressing the relative effectiveness of three or more treatment options for a given medical condition or disease state. In the second part of the Users’ Guide for Surgeons, we discuss and demonstrate the application of criteria for determining the certainty in effect sizes and directions associated with a given treatment option through an example pertinent to clinical orthopaedics.
PMCID: PMC4457777  PMID: 25869062
15.  Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee with Bracing: A Scoping Review 
Orthopedic Reviews  2016;8(2):6256.
Knee osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability around the world. Knee bracing provides a conservative management option for symptom relief. A variety of different bracing types, manufacturers and products are currently available on the market. The goal of this study is to examine the current state of the literature regarding the treatment of knee osteoarthritis with unloader bracing, specifically examining the representation of specific brace types, manufacturers and models within the literature.
A scoping review technique was used because of its ability to evaluate research activity within an area of study and identify gaps within the literature. A thorough search of the MEDLINE database was conducted for articles where a knee brace model was identified, and we identified characteristics of the studies to evaluate important information about the body of literature related to knee bracing for the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Fifty eligible studies were identified. The majority of studies have been published in the United States, and a large increase in the number of publications in this field was seen between 2010-2014. The most prominent study type was prospective comparative studies (44%), however there is a lack of randomized controlled trials (6%) within the literature. The most prominent hinge type within the literature is the dual hinge push brace, followed by the single hinge pull.
While a large increase in the number of studies evaluating the treatment of knee osteoarthritis with bracing has occurred in the past 5 years, there is a lack of high quality studies evaluating the efficacy of the technique, as well as a lack of studies comparing bracing types and models.
PMCID: PMC4933815  PMID: 27433297
Knee bracing; osteoarthritis; literature review
16.  Quality of Web-based Information for the 10 Most Common Fractures 
In today's technologically advanced world, 75% of patients have used Google to search for health information. As a result, health care professionals fear that patients may be misinformed. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the quality and readability of Web-based health information on fractures.
In this study, we assessed the quality and readability of Web-based health information related to the 10 most common fractures.
Using the Google search engine, we assessed websites from the first results page for the 10 most common fractures using lay search terms. Website quality was measured using the DISCERN instrument, which scores websites as very poor (15-22.5), poor (22.5-37.5), fair (37.5-52.5), good (52.5-67.5), or excellent (67.5-75). The presence of Health on the Net code (HONcode) certification was assessed for all websites. Website readability was measured using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (0-100), where 60-69 is ideal for the general public, and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL; −3.4 to ∞), where the mean FKGL of the US adult population is 8.
Overall, website quality was “fair” for all fractures, with a mean (standard deviation) DISCERN score of 50.3 (5.8). The DISCERN score correlated positively with a higher website position on the search results page (r2=0.1, P=.002) and with HONcode certification (P=.007). The mean (standard deviation) Flesch Reading Ease Score and FKGL for all fractures were 62.2 (9.1) and 6.7 (1.6), respectively.
The quality of Web-based health information on fracture care is fair, and its readability is appropriate for the general public. To obtain higher quality information, patients should select HONcode-certified websites. Furthermore, patients should select websites that are positioned higher on the results page because the Google ranking algorithms appear to rank the websites by quality.
PMCID: PMC4930531  PMID: 27317159
fractures; quality; readability; patient; online; information; HONcode; DISCERN; Google
17.  Moving forward through consensus: protocol for a modified Delphi approach to determine the top research priorities in the field of orthopaedic oncology 
BMJ Open  2016;6(5):e011780.
Orthopaedic oncology researchers face several obstacles in the design and execution of randomised controlled trials, including finite fiscal resources to support the rising costs of clinical research and insufficient patient volume at individual sites. As a result, high-quality research to guide clinical practice has lagged behind other surgical subspecialties. A focused approach is imperative to design a research programme that is economical, streamlined and addresses clinically relevant endpoints. The primary objective of this study will be to use a consensus-based approach to identify research priorities for international clinical trials in orthopaedic oncology.
Methods and analysis
We will conduct a 3-phase modified Delphi method consisting of 2 sequential rounds of anonymous web-based questionnaires (phases I and II), and an in-person consensus meeting (phase III). Participants will suggest research questions that they believe are of particular importance to the field (phase I), and individually rate each proposed question on 5 criteria (phase II). Research questions that meet predetermined consensus thresholds will be brought forward to the consensus meeting (phase III) for discussion by an expert panel. Following these discussions, the expert panel will be asked to assign scores for each research question, and research questions meeting predetermined criteria will be brought forward for final ranking. The expert panel will then be asked to rank the top 3 research questions, and these 3 research questions will be distributed to the initial group of participants for validation.
Ethics and dissemination
An ethics application is currently under review with the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The results of this initiative will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.
PMCID: PMC4885431  PMID: 27221129
Consensus; Delphi study; Research priorities
18.  Curved versus Straight Stem Uncemented Total Hip Arthroplasty Osteoarthritis Multicenter trial (CUSTOM): design of a prospective blinded randomised controlled multicentre trial 
BMJ Open  2016;6(3):e010472.
Answering the demands of an increasingly young and active patient population, recent developments in total hip arthroplasty (THA) have shifted towards minimising tissue damage. The Collum Femoris Preserving (CFP) stem was developed to preserve the trochanteric region of the femur, which potentially preserves the insertion of the gluteus musculature. This might accelerate early postoperative rehabilitation and improve functional outcome. Currently the functional results of the CFP stem have not been compared with conventional straight stems in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). The primary purpose of this trial is to compare the functional result of CFP stem THA with conventional uncemented straight stem THA, measured by the Dutch Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) at 3-month follow-up.
A prospective blinded multicentre RCT will be performed. We aim to recruit 150 patients. The patients will be randomly allocated to a THA with a straight or a curved stem. All patients, research assistants, clinical assessors and investigators will be blinded for the type of prosthesis for 5 years. Clinical assessments and roentgenograms will be taken preoperative, at 6 weeks after surgery, at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years after surgery. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) will be obtained at the same follow-up moments. In addition, the PROMs will also be sent to the patients at 3 and 6 months after surgery. The HOOS at 3-month follow-up will be our primary outcome.
Ethics and dissemination
This trial will be performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. A local ethics committee has approved this trial. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participating patients. All serious adverse events will be reported to the ethics committee.
Results will be submitted for publication to an orthopaedics related journal.
Trial registration number
PMCID: PMC4809092  PMID: 27009147
20.  Early Definitive Fixation of an Open Periprosthetic Femur Fracture in the Polytraumatized Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Periprosthetic fractures of the femur after total hip arthroplasty are increasing in frequency. In the polytraumatized patient with long-bone fracture, an ongoing debate exists regarding early definitive stabilization versus initial damage control orthopaedics, followed by delayed fixation. It remains to be seen whether this rationale applies to the polytraumatized patient with periprosthetic fracture.
Case presentation:
We present the case of a 73-years old Caucasian woman who sustained bilateral Gustillo-Anderson grade III open femur fractures; the fracture on the right was a Vancouver C open periprosthetic fracture after cemented total hip arthroplasty. After massive fluid resuscitation in the trauma bay she was taken to the intensive care unit in a hemodynamically unstable condition. She was subsequently operated and underwent early definitive fixation of both femurs with the rationale of potentially reducing pulmonary complications and promoting early mobilization.
Early definitive stabilization versus delayed fixation in the polytraumatized patient with an open periprosthetic femur fracture is reviewed. Although several treatment algorithms based on fracture classification and implant stability exist, further study is required to delineate the preferred method and timeline of fixation for this growing cohort of patients.
PMCID: PMC4845407  PMID: 27299122
Periprosthetic fracture; open fracture; damage control orthopaedics
21.  A Double-Blinded Placebo Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Short-term Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Reducing Postoperative Pain After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair 
Sports Health  2015;7(1):58-66.
We aimed to determine whether patients with arthroscopically repaired rotator cuff (RC) tears would have reduced pain and improved function after ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections compared with placebo injection.
PRP compared with placebo (saline) was more effective in reducing pain at the site of an RC injury that has undergone arthroscopic repair.
Study Design:
Randomized controlled trial.
Level of Evidence:
Level 2.
We conducted a 2-centered, blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing the level of pain in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair. Patients were randomized to either PRP or saline (placebo). They received 2 ultrasound-guided injections of the randomized product: 1 intraoperatively and 1 at 4 weeks postoperatively. The primary outcome measure was shoulder pain demonstrated using a visual analog scale (VAS) at 6 weeks postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D); the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC); and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Score (DASH), as well as adverse events and revision surgeries. Patients were assessed clinically preoperatively and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks postsurgery. A prespecified interim analysis was conducted after 50% of patients were recruited and followed.
We recruited 25 patients when interim power analysis led to an early trial termination. Follow-up was 96%. The mean difference between groups was not statistically significant (–1.81; 95% CI, –4.3 to 1.2; P = 0.16). The EQ-5D, WORC, and DASH scores also did not show significant differences between groups at week 6 (P = 0.5, 0.99, and 0.9, respectively). There were no revision surgeries, and 4 adverse events (3 PRP, 1 saline).
There was no statistical difference in outcome measures when augmenting arthroscopically repaired RC tears with PRP.
Clinical Relevance:
Identifying therapies that improve outcomes in patients with RC tears remains a challenge and deserves ongoing investigation.
PMCID: PMC4272693  PMID: 25553214
platelet-rich plasma; arthroscopy; rotator cuff; pain
22.  Re-evaluation of low intensity pulsed ultrasound in treatment of tibial fractures (TRUST): randomized clinical trial 
The BMJ  2016;355:i5351.
Objective To determine whether low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), compared with sham treatment, accelerates functional recovery and radiographic healing in patients with operatively managed tibial fractures.
Design A concealed, randomized, blinded, sham controlled clinical trial with a parallel group design of 501 patients, enrolled between October 2008 and September 2012, and followed for one year.
Setting 43 North American academic trauma centers.
Participants Skeletally mature men or women with an open or closed tibial fracture amenable to intramedullary nail fixation. Exclusions comprised pilon fractures, tibial shaft fractures that extended into the joint and required reduction, pathological fractures, bilateral tibial fractures, segmental fractures, spiral fractures >7.5 cm in length, concomitant injuries that were likely to impair function for at least as long as the patient’s tibial fracture, and tibial fractures that showed <25% cortical contact and >1 cm gap after surgical fixation. 3105 consecutive patients who underwent intramedullary nailing for tibial fracture were assessed, 599 were eligible and 501 provided informed consent and were enrolled.
Interventions Patients were allocated centrally to self administer daily LIPUS (n=250) or use a sham device (n=251) until their tibial fracture showed radiographic healing or until one year after intramedullary fixation.
Main outcome measures Primary registry specified outcome was time to radiographic healing within one year of fixation; secondary outcome was rate of non-union. Additional protocol specified outcomes included short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) scores, return to work, return to household activities, return to ≥80% of function before injury, return to leisure activities, time to full weight bearing, scores on the health utilities index (mark 3), and adverse events related to the device.
Results SF-36 PCS data were acquired from 481/501 (96%) patients, for whom we had 2303/2886 (80%) observations, and radiographic healing data were acquired from 482/501 (96%) patients, of whom 82 were censored. Results showed no impact on SF-36 PCS scores between LIPUS and control groups (mean difference 0.55, 95% confidence interval −0.75 to 1.84; P=0.41) or for the interaction between time and treatment (P=0.30); minimal important difference is 3-5 points) or in other functional measures. There was also no difference in time to radiographic healing (hazard ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.86 to 1.34; P=0.55). There were no differences in safety outcomes between treatment groups. Patient compliance was moderate; 73% of patients administered ≥50% of all recommended treatments.
Conclusions Postoperative use of LIPUS after tibial fracture fixation does not accelerate radiographic healing and fails to improve functional recovery.
Study registration ClinicalTrialGov Identifier: NCT00667849
PMCID: PMC5080447  PMID: 27797787
23.  Clinical and Cost Implications of Inpatient Versus Outpatient Orthopedic Surgeries: A Systematic Review of the Published Literature 
Orthopedic Reviews  2015;7(4):6177.
The number of outpatient orthopedic surgeries performed within North America continues to increase. The impact of this change in services on patient outcomes is largely unknown. The objective of this review is to compare patient outcomes and associated costs for outpatient orthopedic surgeries traditionally performed in hospital to inpatient surgeries, as well as to summarize the eligibility and preoperative education requirements for outpatient orthopedic surgery in North America. We performed a systematic review of Medline, Pubmed and Embase databases for articles comparing the clinical and economic impact of outpatient orthopedic surgical procedures versus inpatient procedures in North America. We reported on requirements for inpatient versus outpatient care, preoperative education requirements, complications and patient outcomes, patient satisfaction, and when available total mean costs. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Eligibility requirements for outpatient orthopedic surgery within the included studies varied, but generally included: patient consent, a caregiver at home following surgery, close proximity to an outpatient center, and no history of serious medical problems. Preoperative education programs were not always compulsory and practices varied between outpatient centers. All of the reviewed studies reported that outpatient surgeries had similar or improved level of pain and rates of nausea. Outpatients reported increased satisfaction with the care they received. As expected, outpatient procedures were less expensive than inpatient procedures. This review found that outpatient procedures in North America appear to be less expensive and safe alternatives to inpatient care for patients who are at lower risk for complications and procedures that do not necessarily require close hospital level care monitoring following same day surgery.
PMCID: PMC4703913  PMID: 26793295
Orthopedic surgery; cost implication; inpatient; outpatient;
24.  Functional outcome after successful internal fixation versus salvage arthroplasty of patients with a femoral neck fracture 
Journal of orthopaedic trauma  2014;28(12):e273-e280.
To determine patient independency, health-related and disease-specific quality of life (QOL), gait pattern, and muscle strength in patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture.
Secondary cohort study to a randomized controlled trial.
Multicenter trial in the Netherlands, including 14 academic and non-academic hospitals
Patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture were studied. A comparison was made with patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation.
None (observatory study)
Main outcome measurements
Patient characteristics, SF-12, and WOMAC scores were collected. Gait parameters were measured using plantar pressure measurement. Maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Groups were compared using univariate analysis.
Of 248 internal fixation patients (median age 72 years), salvage arthroplasty was performed in 68 patients (27%). Salvage arthroplasty patients had a significantly lower WOMAC score (median 73 versus 90, P=0.016) than patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Health-related QOL (SF-12) and patient independency did not differ significantly between the groups. Gait analysis showed a significantly impaired progression of the center of pressure in the salvage surgery patients (median ratio −8.9 versus 0.4, P=0.013) and a significant greater loss of abduction strength (median −25.4 versus −20.4 N, P=0.025).
Despite a similar level of dependency and QOL, salvage arthroplasty patients have inferior functional outcome than patients who heal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture.
PMCID: PMC4233012  PMID: 24835623
femoral neck fracture; hip fracture; Internal fixation; salvage arthroplasty; functional outcome
25.  Operative vs non-operative management of displaced proximal humeral fractures in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2015;6(10):838-846.
AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing operative vs non-operative treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures in elderly patients.
METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using EMBASE and MEDLINE through the OVID interface, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Proquest, Web of Science, SAE digital library, and Transportation Research Board’s TRID database. Searches of conference proceedings were also conducted. All available randomized controlled trials comparing operative vs non-operative management of displaced three- and four-part proximal humerus fractures in elderly patients were included. The primary outcomes measures included physical function, pain, health related quality of life, mortality, and the re-operation rate.
RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials (n = 287) were included. There was no statistically significant difference in function (MD = 1.72, 95%CI: -2.90-6.34, P = 0.47), as measured by the Constant score, between the operative and the non-operative treatment groups. There was no statistically significance difference in secondary outcomes of health related quality of life (standardized MD = 0.27, 95%CI: -0.05-0.59, P = 0.09), and mortality (relative risk 1.29, 95%CI: 0.50- 3.35, P = 0.60). Operative treatment had a statistically significant higher re-operation rate (relative risk 4.09, 95%CI: 1.50-11.15, P = 0.006), and statistically significant decreased pain (MD = 1.26, 95%CI: 0.02- 2.49, P = 0.05).
CONCLUSION: There is moderate quality evidence to suggest that there is no difference in functional outcomes between the two treatments. Further high quality randomized controlled trials are required to determine if certain subgroup populations benefit from surgical management.
PMCID: PMC4644872  PMID: 26601066
Proximal humerus fracture; Outcomes; Operative treatment; Non-operative treatment; Meta-analysis

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