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1.  Comparison of Patient Simulation Methods Used in a Physical Assessment Course 
Objective. To determine whether there is a difference in student pharmacists’ learning or satisfaction when standardized patients or manikins are used to teach physical assessment.
Design. Third-year student pharmacists were randomized to learn physical assessment (cardiac and pulmonary examinations) using either a standardized patient or a manikin.
Assessment. Performance scores on the final examination and satisfaction with the learning method were compared between groups. Eighty and 74 student pharmacists completed the cardiac and pulmonary examinations, respectively. There was no difference in performance scores between student pharmacists who were trained using manikins vs standardized patients (93.8% vs. 93.5%, p=0.81). Student pharmacists who were trained using manikins indicated that they would have probably learned to perform cardiac and pulmonary examinations better had they been taught using standardized patients (p<0.001) and that they were less satisfied with their method of learning (p=0.04).
Conclusions. Training using standardized patients and manikins are equally effective methods of learning physical assessment, but student pharmacists preferred using standardized patients.
PMCID: PMC3663631  PMID: 23716745
physical assessment; cardiac examination; pulmonary examination; manikins; standardized patients
2.  Asthma Friendly Pharmacies: A Model to Improve Communication and Collaboration among Pharmacists, Patients, and Healthcare Providers 
Pharmacists, with expertise in optimizing drug therapy outcomes, are valuable components of the healthcare team and are becoming increasingly involved in public health efforts. Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in diverse community pharmacy settings can implement a variety of asthma interventions when they are brief, supported by appropriate tools, and integrated into the workflow. The Asthma Friendly Pharmacy (AFP) model addresses the challenges of providing patient-focused care in a community pharmacy setting by offering education to pharmacists and pharmacy technicians on asthma-related pharmaceutical care services, such as identifying or resolving medication-related problems; educating patients about asthma and medication-related concepts; improving communication and strengthening relationships between pharmacists, patients, and other healthcare providers; and establishing higher expectations for the pharmacist’s role in patient care and public health efforts. This article describes the feasibility of the model in an urban community pharmacy setting and documents the interventions and communication activities promoted through the AFP model.
PMCID: PMC3042067  PMID: 21337057
Asthma; Community pharmacy; Pharmacists; Pharmaceutical care; Collaboration; Communication
3.  Professional Technical Standards in Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
To determine the prevalence, characteristics, and use of professional technical standards among colleges and schools of pharmacy accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE).
The Web site of every college and school of pharmacy accredited by ACPE was searched to identify information regarding the availability, content, and use of technical standards and to obtain demographic information.
Information was obtained from all of the 114 colleges and schools of pharmacy and 67 (59%) had technical standards in place. Common themes for technical standards were: observation; communication; motor; intellectual, conceptual, integrative and quantitative abilities; and behavioral and social attributes. Of those colleges and schools with technical standards, 61 (91%) had standards that addressed all 5 of these themes and 34 (51%) specified that the technical standards were used in their admission, progression, and graduation procedures.
More than half of the colleges and schools of pharmacy examined in this study have technical standards; however, 41% have yet to develop and implement them. Colleges and schools of pharmacy looking for guidance in technical standards development could use the technical standards themes identified in this study.
PMCID: PMC3109804  PMID: 21655404
technical standards; accreditation; disability; admission
4.  A Pharmacy Faculty Academy to Foster Professional Growth and Long-term Retention of Junior Faculty Members 
Implement a Pharmacy Faculty Academy designed to foster professional growth of new faculty members in an outcomes-oriented, “frames”-based manner and to evaluate the impact on faculty satisfaction and retention rates.
A Faculty Academy was designed based on critical themes relevant to junior faculty members and important symbolic, structural, human resource, and political considerations. The year-long program included concentrated sessions during the first 4 weeks of employment followed by longitudinal activities requiring an advancing level of faculty performance.
Qualitative and quantitative metrics for engagement and professional growth improved dramatically during the implementation period. The 21 faculty members who completed the program from 2005-2007 provided positive feedback.
An individualized, systematic approach to faculty development resulted in more highly engaged and productive faculty members who were more likely to remain long term within the College.
PMCID: PMC2384207  PMID: 18496922
professional growth; faculty development; faculty; orientation; faculty academy

Results 1-4 (4)