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author:("bern, Linda")
1.  The birth prevalence of lysosomal storage disorders in the Czech Republic: comparison with data in different populations 
The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) in the Czech Republic. The data on cases diagnosed between 1975 and 2008 were collected and analyzed. The overall prevalence of LSDs in the Czech population (12.25 per 100,000) is comparable to that reported for the countries with well-established and advanced diagnostics of LSDs such as the Netherlands (14 per 100,000), Australia (12.9 per 100,000) and Italy (12.1 per 100,000). Relatively higher prevalence of LSDs was reported in the north of Portugal (25 per 100,000). Thirty-four different LSDs were diagnosed in a total of 478 individuals. Gaucher disease was the most frequent LSD with a birth prevalence of 1.13 per 100,000 births. The most frequent LSD groups were lipidoses, mucopolysaccharidoses, and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, with combined prevalences of 5.0, 3.72, and 2.29 per 100,000 live births, respectively. Glycoproteinoses (0.57 per 100,000 live births), glycogenosis type II (0.37), and mucolipidoses (0.31) rarely occur in the Czech population, and a range of other LSDs have not been detected at all over the past three decades. Knowledge of the birth prevalence and carrier frequency of particular disorders is important in genetic counselling for calculation of the risk for the disorder in the other members of affected families. Earlier diagnosis of these disorders will permit timely intervention and may also result in lowering of the number of newborns with LSDs.
PMCID: PMC2903693  PMID: 20490927
2.  Replacement of α-galactosidase A in Fabry disease: effect on fibroblast cultures compared with biopsied tissues of treated patients 
Virchows Archiv  2008;452(6):651-665.
The function and intracellular delivery of enzyme therapeutics for Fabry disease were studied in cultured fibroblasts and in the biopsied tissues of two male patients to show diversity of affected cells in response to treatment. In the mutant fibroblasts cultures, the final cellular level of endocytosed recombinant α-galactosidases A (agalsidases, FabrazymeTM, and ReplagalTM) exceeded, by several fold, the amount in control fibroblasts and led to efficient direct intra-lysosomal hydrolysis of (3H)Gb3Cer. In contrast, in the samples from the heart and some other tissues biopsied after several months of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with FabrazymeTM, only the endothelial cells were free of storage. Persistent Gb3Cer storage was found in cardiocytes (accompanied by increase of lipopigment), smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, sweat glands, and skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemistry of cardiocytes demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of a considerable amount of the active enzyme in intimate contact with the storage compartment. Factors responsible for the limited ERT effectiveness are discussed, namely post-mitotic status of storage cells preventing their replacement by enzyme supplied precursors, modification of the lysosomal system by longstanding storage, and possible relative lack of Sap B. These observations support the strategy of early treatment for prevention of lysosomal storage.
PMCID: PMC2956889  PMID: 18351385
α-Galactosidase A deficiency; Enzyme replacement therapy; Persistent storage; Enzyme targeting; Clearance of storage lysosomes
3.  Prosaposin Deficiency and Saposin B Deficiency (Activator-Deficient Metachromatic Leukodystrophy): Report on Two Patients Detected by Analysis of Urinary Sphingolipids and Carrying Novel PSAP Gene Mutations 
Prosaposin deficiency (pSap-d) and saposin B deficiency (SapB-d) are both lipid storage disorders caused by mutations in the PSAP gene that codes for the 65–70 kDa prosaposin protein, which is the precursor for four sphingolipid activator proteins, saposins A–D. We report on two new patients with PSAP gene defects; one, with pSap-d, who had a severe neurovisceral dystrophy and died as a neonate, and the other with SapB-d, who presented with a metachromatic leukodystrophy-like disorder but had normal arylsulfatase activity. Screening for urinary sphingolipids was crucial to the diagnosis of both patients, with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry also providing quantification. The pSap-d patient is the first case with this condition where urinary sphingolipids have been investigated. Multiple sphingolipids were elevated, with globotriaosylceramide showing the greatest increase. Both patients had novel mutations in the PSAP gene. The pSap-d patient was homozygous for a splice-acceptor site mutation two bases upstream of exon 10. This mutation led to a premature stop codon and yielded low levels of transcript. The SapB-d patient was a compound heterozygote with a splice-acceptor site variant exclusively affecting the SapB domain on one allele, and a 2 bp deletion leading to a null, that is, pSap-d mutation, on the other allele. Phenotypically, pSap-d is a relatively uniform disease of the neonate, whereas SapB-d is heterogeneous with a spectrum similar to that in metachromatic leukodystrophy. The possible existence of genotypes and phenotypes intermediate between those of pSap-d and the single saposin deficiencies is speculated. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PMCID: PMC3437469  PMID: 19267410
sphingolipid activator proteins; prosaposin; urinary lipids; mass spectrometry; PSAP gene; saposin deficiency; metachromatic leukodystrophy

Results 1-3 (3)