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1.  Smoking, diet, pregnancy and oral contraceptive use as risk factors for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in relation to human papillomavirus infection 
British Journal of Cancer  2000;82(7):1332-1338.
Smoking, nutrition, parity and oral contraceptive use have been reported as major environmental risk factors for cervical cancer. After the discovery of the very strong link between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer, it is unclear whether the association of these environmental factors with cervical cancer reflect secondary associations attributable to confounding by HPV, if they are independent risk factors or whether they may act as cofactors to HPV infection in cervical carcinogenesis. To investigate this issue, we performed a population-based case–control study in the Västerbotten county of Northern Sweden of 137 women with high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN 2–3) and 253 healthy age-matched women. The women answered a 94-item questionnaire on diet, smoking, oral contraceptive use and sexual history and donated specimens for diagnosis of present HPV infection (nested polymerase chain reaction on cervical brush samples) and for past or present HPV infections (HPV seropositivity). The previously described protective effects of dietary micronutrients were not detected. Pregnancy appeared to be a risk factor in the multivariate analysis (P< 0.0001). Prolonged oral contraceptive use and sexual history were associated with CIN 2–3 in univariate analysis, but these associations lost significance after taking HPV into account. Smoking was associated with CIN 2–3 (odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7–4.0), the effect was dose-dependent (P = 0.002) and the smoking-associated risk was not affected by adjusting for HPV, neither when adjusting for HPV DNA (OR 2.5, CI 1.3–4.9) nor when adjusting for HPV seropositivity (OR 3.0, CI 1.9–4.7). In conclusion, after taking HPV into account, smoking appeared to be the most significant environmental risk factor for cervical neoplasia. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
doi:10.1054/bjoc.1999.1100
PMCID: PMC2374476  PMID: 10755410
risk factors; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; human papillomavirus infection
2.  Long-term carcinogenicity study in Syrian golden hamster of particulate emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants. 
Male Syrian golden hamsters were given 15 weekly intratracheal instillations with suspensions of coal fly ash or oil fly ash. Controls were instilled with saline containing gelatine (0.5 g/100 mL) or to check particle effects with suspensions of hematite (Fe2O3). The common weekly dose was 4.5 mg/hamster. In addition, one subgroup of hamsters was treated with oil fly ash at a weekly dose of 3.0 mg/hamster and another with coal fly ash at a weekly dose of 6.0 mg/hamster. Other groups of hamsters were treated with suspensions of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or with suspensions on coal fly ash, oil fly ash, or Fe2O3 coated with BaP. The mass median aerodynamic diameters of the coal and oil fly ashes were 4.4 microns and 28 microns, respectively. Hamsters treated with oil fly ash showed a higher frequency of bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia than hamsters in the other treatment groups. Squamous dysplasia and squamous metaplasia were most frequent in animals treated with suspensions of BaP or BaP-coated particles. The earliest appearance of a tumor, the highest incidence of tumors, and the highest incidence of malignant tumors were observed in hamsters treated with oil fly ash coated with BaP. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma were the most frequent malignant tumors. No malignant tumors and only few benign tumors were observed in hamsters instilled with suspensions of fly ash not coated with BaP. The present study gives no indication that coal fly ash could create more serious health problems than oil fly ash.
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PMCID: PMC1474526  PMID: 3383816
3.  Histological types of lung cancer among smelter workers exposed to arsenic. 
The histological distribution of lung cancer was investigated in 93 men who had worked at a Swedish smelter with high levels of arsenic. A comparison was made with a group of 136 patients with lung cancer from the county where the smelter was located. Company records provided information on occupational exposure and data on smoking habits were obtained from a next of kin of each subject. No pronounced differences in the histological types of lung carcinomas between smelter workers and the reference group could be seen for smokers. Some analyses indicated an increased proportion of adenocarcinomas among the smelter workers, which confirmed earlier data, but these findings were difficult to interpret. Cases among smelter workers who had never smoked showed a histological distribution resembling that in smokers, indicating that the work environment at the smelter and smoking had a similar influence on the risk for different types of lung cancer.
PMCID: PMC1007859  PMID: 3040072

Results 1-3 (3)