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Year of Publication
1.  Preventive Long-Term Effects of a Topical Film-Forming Medical Device with Ultra-High UV Protection Filters and DNA Repair Enzyme in Xeroderma Pigmentosum: A Retrospective Study of Eight Cases 
Case Reports in Dermatology  2014;6(3):222-226.
Skin cancer is common in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) due to a DNA repair mechanisms genetic defect. Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is the main cause of increased incidence of actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) observed in XP subjects. Photoprotection is therefore a mandatory strategy in order to reduce skin damage. A topical DNA repair enzyme has been shown to slow down the development of skin lesions in XP. However, there are no data regarding the effects of photoprotection combined with DNA repair strategies in this clinical setting. A film-forming medical device containing the DNA repair enzyme photolyase and very high-protection UV filters (Eryfotona AK-NMSC, Ery) is currently available. We report retrospective data regarding the use of Ery in 8 patients (5 women, 3 men) with a diagnosis of XP treated for at least 12 consecutive months, comparing the rate of new skin lesions (AK, BCC and SCC) during active treatment with Ery and during 12 months just before the use of the product. New AK, BCC and SCC mean lesion numbers during the 1-year Ery treatment were 5, 3 and 0, respectively in comparison with 14, 6.8 and 3 lesions, respectively during the 1-year pre-treatment period. Ery use was associated with a 65% reduction in appearance of new AK lesions and with 56 and 100% reductions in the incidence of new BCC and SCC lesions, respectively. These data suggest that topical use of photoprotection and DNA repair enzyme could help lower skin cancer lesions in XP. Control prospective trials are advisable in this clinical setting.
doi:10.1159/000368182
PMCID: PMC4209282  PMID: 25408650
Xeroderma pigmentosum; Photolyase; Non-melanoma skin cancer; Sunscreen
2.  The Cost Effectiveness of Biologic Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis in Real Practice Settings in Italy 
Biodrugs  2014;28(3):285-295.
Background and Objectives
Biologic therapies are considered to be cost effective by leading Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies and, therefore, eligible for reimbursement by public health services. However, biologic therapies entail sizable incremental costs and, besides, have a considerable financial impact that in Italy amounts to 13.7 % of the national health service’s pharmaceutical expenditure. In the reimbursability decision process, an important role is played by both the drug efficacy data observed in pre-licensing RCTs and the economic modelling assumptions, as they give evidence on cost effectiveness. The administration of therapies in real practice settings is likely to produce a significant deviation from the results predicted by the models, theoretically outweighing the assumption on which the decision process is founded. This is a matter of concern for public health services and, consequently, an interesting topic to investigate.
Methods
To overcome the lack of knowledge concerning the actual cost effectiveness of biologic therapies for the treatment of plaque psoriasis in the clinical practice setting in Italy, an observational study was conducted in 12 specialist centres on patients switching to biologic therapy within a 6-month enrolment window.
Results
The study confirms in clinical practice the efficacy of the switch to biologic therapies, analysed using a number of clinical [Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), pain visual analogue scale (VAS) and itching VAS] and quality-of-life parameters. A general health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) improvement, with a 0.23 quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) mean gain per patient, has been reported in the 6-month observation period. The direct medical costs to treat plaque psoriasis with biologic therapies amount to €15,073.7 per year (prior to their enrolment, the same patients cost €2,166.2 on an annual basis). After the switch to biologic agents, the cost per QALY during the first year of treatment amounts to €28,656.3.
Conclusion
At least in the short-term, the clinical practice of the specialised Italian centres taking part in the study confirms that switching patients to a biologic drug produces an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio comparable with the values predicted by the HTA bodies.
doi:10.1007/s40259-014-0084-3
PMCID: PMC4030097  PMID: 24567261
3.  Revisiting the Cutaneous Impact of Oral Hormone Replacement Therapy 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:971760.
Menopause is a key point moment in the specific aging process of women. It represents a universal evolution in life. Its initiation is defined by a 12-month amenorrhea following the ultimate menstrual period. It encompasses a series of different biologic and physiologic characteristics. This period of life appears to spot a decline in a series of skin functional performances initiating tissue atrophy, withering, and slackness. Any part of the skin is possibly altered, including the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, and hair follicles. Hormone replacement therapy (oral and nonoral) and transdermal estrogen therapy represent possible specific managements for women engaged in the climacteric phase. All the current reports indicate that chronologic aging, climacteric estrogen deficiency, and adequate hormone therapy exert profound effects on various parts of the skin.
doi:10.1155/2013/971760
PMCID: PMC3881660  PMID: 24455744
4.  Challenging Regional Psoriasis and Ustekinumab Biotherapy: Impact of the Patterns of Disease 
In some patients, psoriasis appears refractory to many treatments, particularly when the disease is confined to some specific body regions. In this respect, palmoplantar psoriasis and palmoplantar pustulosis are possibly related conditions in their immunopathomechanisms involving Il-12, IL-23, and Th17. Nail psoriasis and scalp psoriasis are two other particular psoriasis manifestations. Accordingly, ustekinumab was tested in a few of these patients. The present paper is limited to peer-reviewed case reports. Data were not supported by bioinstrumental assessments and controlled trials. Overall, they are indicative of potential efficacy. The cost-effectiveness and the risk-benefit assessments merit further investigations.
doi:10.1155/2012/413767
PMCID: PMC3425983  PMID: 22927720
5.  Biological markers in the etiology of psoriasis: Targeted treatment options 
Biologics : Targets & Therapy  2007;1(1):11-18.
Psoriasis is a common chronic and disabling inflammatory disease that has an enormous physical, functional and psychosocial impact on patients’ quality of life. To date several conventional therapies are available for the treatment of this condition (eg, cyclosporine, methotrexate, retinoids, and psoralen plus ultraviolet A) which, although providing clinical response, do not maintain long-lasting disease remission and at times show poor tolerability with potential toxicity thus limiting their use. A challenge in psoriasis management is to utilize precociously an adequate therapy and to achieve effective and safe maintenance of its clearance by improving both skin and joint manifestations as well as to prevent joint destruction and disability. Recent improvement in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease was fundamental for the development of novel targeted treatment options that may be effective, safer and well tolerated on long-term administration periods, thus improving patient’s quality of life. These novel agents, which are called “biologics”, target specifically tumor necrosis factor-α (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab) or T cells (alefacept and efalizumab).
PMCID: PMC2721342  PMID: 19707344
psoriasis; biologics; anti-TNF-α; anti-T cells
6.  Decreased levels of metalloproteinase-9 and angiogenic factors in skin lesions of patients with psoriatic arthritis after therapy with anti-TNF-α 
Background
Inflammation represents an early and key event in the development of both the cutaneous psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Compelling evidences indicate that the production of TNF-α plays a central role in psoriasis by sustaining the inflammatory process in the skin as well as in the joints. Among the multiple effects produced by TNF-α on keratinocytes, the induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a collagenase implicated in joint inflammatory arthritis which acts as an angiogenesis promoting factor, might represent a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of the disease. Aims of the present study were to investigate a) the role of MMP-9 in the development of psoriasis by assessing the presence of MMP-9 in lesional skin and in sera of psoriatic patients; b) the association of MMP-9 with the activity of the disease; c) the relationship between MMP-9 and TNF-α production.
Methods
Eleven psoriatic patients, clinically presenting joint symptoms associated to the cutaneous disease, were included in a therapeutic protocol based on the administration of anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody (Infliximab). Sera and skin biopsies were collected before treatment and after 6 weeks of therapy. Tissues were kept in short term cultures and production soluble mediators such as TNF-α, MMP-9, MMP-2, VEGF and E-Selectin, which include angiogenic molecules associated to the development of plaque psoriasis, were measured in the culture supernatants by immunoenzymatic assays (ng/ml or pg/ml per mg of tissue). MMP-9 concentrations were also measured in the sera. The cutaneous activity of disease was evaluated by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI).
Results
Clinical and laboratory assessment indicated that all but one patients had a significant improvement of the PASI score after three months of therapy. The clinical amelioration was associated to a significant decrease of MMP-9 (P = 0.017), TNF-α (P = 0.005) and E-selectin (P = 0.018) levels, spontaneously released by lesional biopsies before and after therapy. In addition, significant correlations were found between the PASI measurements and TNF-α (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.005), MMP-9 (r2 = 0.25, P = 0.017), E-selectin (r2 = 0.24, P = 0.018) production. MMP-9 levels were significantly correlated with those of TNF-α (r2 = 0.30, P = 0.008). A significant decrease of MMP-9 in the sera, associated to the clinical improvement was also found.
Conclusion
Our findings show the existence of a direct relationship between MMP-9 and TNF-α production strongly suggesting that MMP-9 may play a key role in the skin inflammatory process in psoriasis.
doi:10.1186/1740-2557-3-5
PMCID: PMC1601955  PMID: 17022813
7.  Clinical and instrumental assessment of the effects of a new product based on hydroxypropyl chitosan and potassium azeloyl diglycinate in the management of rosacea 
Summary
Background
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting mostly facial skin. Its origin is multifactorial. Important steps in its treatment are avoidance of any triggering factor and control of skin inflammation.
Aim
To assess the benefit of topical applications of a new product (P-3075).
Patients/Methods
A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, pilot study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a cream (P-3075) based on 5% potassium azeloyl diglycinate (PAD, Azeloglicina®) and 1% hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH). Forty-two patients (rosacea stages I and II) were enrolled and randomized, 28 in the P-3075 group and 14 in the placebo group. They were asked to apply the cream twice daily for 4 weeks. The main assessments were the objective quantification of erythema and skin hydration using the Mexameter® and Corneometer® devices, respectively. Clinical signs and symptoms were evaluated on a four-point scale.
Results
The P-3075 cream applied for 28 days was effective in skin protection by reducing erythema, evaluated both instrumentally and clinically. In addition, the clinical assessments of other symptoms such as flushing, stinging, and burning supported the beneficial effect of the P-3075 cream.
Conclusions
The anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects of potassium azeloyl diglycinate combined with the protective properties of HPCH allow the new product to be a good candidate for controlling signs and symptoms of rosacea.
doi:10.1111/j.1473-2165.2011.00598.x
PMCID: PMC3488300  PMID: 22360333
Azeloglicina®; erythema; potassium azeloyl diglycinate (PAD); rosacea; skin hydration

Results 1-7 (7)