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1.  A Culturally Appropriate Intervention To Improve Health Behaviors in Hispanic Mother–Child Dyads 
Childhood Obesity  2013;9(2):157-163.
Obesity interventions targeting Hispanic preschool children are still nascent, and few are culturally appropriate. We evaluated the feasibility of a culturally relevant 9-month intervention program to improve health behaviors in low-income Mexican mothers with 3- to 5-year-old children.
A community engagement approach was used to culturally and linguistically tailor an intervention program that was pilot tested with 33 mother–child dyads enrolled from a large California urban health center. A one-group, pretest–posttest design assessed changes in children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), mothers' pedometer steps, and BMI. Data were collected at baseline, postintervention and at 6 months postintervention.
At postintervention, SSB consumption had significantly decreased for soda and other sugary drinks with a modest reduction for 100% juice. Consumption of water had significantly increased, whereas milk had an increased trend. Maternal step counts significantly increased for weekdays by 69% and weekend days by 49%. Overall, maternal BMI decreased while children's BMI% remained stable. At 6 months postintervention, children's soda and juice consumption reverted toward baseline levels, as did maternal step counts, but children's consumption of sugary drinks remained lower, while water and milk remained higher.
Findings suggest that a culturally relevant intervention was feasible for improving target health behaviors in a low-income Mexican community. Future work should assess an enhanced intervention including a maintenance phase for long-term adherence to health behavior changes and influence on maternal and child BMI.
PMCID: PMC3621339  PMID: 23514697
2.  Cultural Adaptation for Ethnic Diversity: A Review of Obesity Interventions for Preschool Children 
Obesity disproportionately affects U.S. ethnic minority preschool children, placing them at risk for obesity related co-morbidities and premature death. Effective culturally appropriate interventions are needed to improve health behaviors and reduce obesity in young high-risk minority children, while their behaviors are still developing. All known obesity intervention studies (e.g., diet and physical activity) since 2000 targeting U.S. ethnic minority preschool children were reviewed. Five electronic databases and eight published literature reviews were used to identify the studies. Intervention studies without identified ethnic minority participants were excluded. Ten obesity interventions studies met the review criteria. Published cultural adaptation guidelines were used to develop a mechanism to analyze, score, and rank the intervention adaptations. Cultural adaptations varied widely in rigor, depth, and breadth. Results indicated a relative absence of appropriately adapted obesity interventions for ethnic minority groups, suggesting a need for more rigorous cultural adaptation guidelines when designing obesity interventions for diverse ethnicities. Culturally appropriate adaptations appeared to enhance intervention relevance, effectiveness, and feasibility. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate 1) the type and extent of cultural adaptations strategies applied to the interventions, and 2) how these adaptations related to the study outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3805036  PMID: 24159268
cultural adaptations; obesity intervention; ethnic minorities; preschool children
3.  Characteristics of Cancer Patients in Internet Cancer Support Groups 
The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of cancer patients who were attending Internet Cancer Support Groups (ICSGs) and to provide direction for future research. A total of 204 cancer patients were recruited through ICSGs by posting the study announcement on the websites of the ICSGs. The participants were asked to fill out Internet survey questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics and health/disease status. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics including t-tests, ANOVA, and chi-square tests. Findings indicate that cancer patients recruited through the ICSGs tended to be middle-aged, well-educated, female and middle class. The findings also indicate that there were significant differences in some characteristics according to gender and ethnicity. Based on the findings, some implications are suggested for future research using and developing the ICSGs.
PMCID: PMC2504028  PMID: 18000430
Internet Cancer Support Groups; Cancer Patients; Sociodemographic Characteristics
4.  Internet Communities for Recruitment of Cancer Patients into an Internet Survey: A Discussion Paper 
The purpose of this paper is to provide future directions for the usage of Internet communities (ICs) for recruitment of research participants based on issues raised in an Internet survey among 132 cancer patients. 317 general and 233 ethnic-specific Internet Cancer Support Groups and 1,588 ethnic-specific ICs were contacted to recruit cancer patients. Research staff recorded issues and wrote memos during the recruitment process. The written memos and records were later analyzed using content analysis. The issues included: (a) difficulty in identifying appropriate ICs and potential participants, (b) meta-tags, (c) dominant white and women groups, (d) dynamics inside ICs, (e) difficulty in trust building, and (f) potential selection bias. The findings suggest that researchers thoroughly review the ICs’ information, be recognizant of potential gender and ethnic issues and current trends in Internet interaction, and consider potential selection bias.
PMCID: PMC2235818  PMID: 16962122
Internet Communities; Cancer Patients; Recruitment; Internet Research

Results 1-4 (4)