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1.  Treatment of Headache in the Elderly 
Opinion statement
Most primary headaches in the elderly are similar to those in younger patients (tension, migraine, and cluster), but there are some differences, such as late-life migraine accompaniments and hypnic headaches. Although migraine in younger persons usually presents with headache, migraine in older persons may initially appear with visual or sensory phenomena, instead of headache (“migraine accompaniments”). Hypnic headaches awaken patients from sleep, are short-lived, and occur only in the elderly. The probability of secondary headache increases steadily with age. Secondary headaches include those associated with temporal arteritis, trigeminal neuralgia, sleep apnea, post- herpetic neuralgia, cervical spondylosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, intracranial neoplasm, and post-concussive syndrome. Certain rescue treatments for migraine headache in younger individuals (triptans or dihydroergotamine, for example) should not be used in elderly patients because of the risk of coronary artery disease. Naproxen and hydroxyzine are commonly used oral rescue therapies for older adults who have migraine or tension headaches. Intravenous magnesium, valproic acid, and metoclopramide are all effective rescue therapies for severe headaches in the emergency room setting. Some effective prophylactic agents for migraine in younger patients (amitriptyline and doxepin) are not usually recommended for older individuals because of the risks of cognitive impairment, urinary retention, and cardiac arrhythmia. For these reasons, the recommended oral preventive agents for migraine in older adults include divalproex sodium, topiramate, metoprolol, and propranolol. Oral agents that can prevent hypnic headaches include caffeine and lithium. Cough headaches respond to indomethacin or acetazolamide.
doi:10.1007/s11940-012-0205-6
PMCID: PMC3553408  PMID: 23054583
Cluster; Headache; Treatment; Elderly; Divalproex; Hydroxyzine; Hypnic; Lithium; Magnesium; Medication overuse; Metoclopramide; Metoprolol; Migraine accompaniment; Naproxen; Propranolol; Sleep apnea; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Temporal arteritis; Tension; Thunderclap; Topiramate; Trigeminal neuralgia
2.  Tobacco sales in pharmacies: a survey of attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of pharmacists employed in student experiential and other worksites in Western New York 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:413.
Background
Pharmacies are venues in which patients seek out products and professional advice in order to improve overall health. However, many pharmacies in the United States continue to sell tobacco products, which are widely known to cause detrimental health effects. This conflict presents a challenge to pharmacists, who are becoming increasingly more involved in patient health promotion activities. This study sought to assess Western New York (WNY) area pharmacists’ opinions about the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies, and pharmacists’ opinions on their role in patient smoking cessation.
Methods
Participants responded to two parallel surveys; a web-based survey was completed by 148 university-affiliated pharmacist preceptors via a list based sample, and a mail-based survey was completed by the supervising pharmacist in 120 area pharmacies via a list-based sample. The combined response rate for both surveys was 31%. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to determine any significant differences between the preceptor and supervising pharmacist survey groups.
Results
Over 75% of respondents support legislation banning the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. Over 86% of respondents would prefer to work in a pharmacy that does not sell tobacco products. Differences between preceptor and supervising pharmacist groups were observed. Action regarding counseling patients was uncommon among both groups.
Conclusions
Pharmacists support initiatives that increase their role in cessation counseling and initiatives that restrict the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. These data could have important implications for communities and pharmacy practice.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-413
PMCID: PMC3492148  PMID: 22867129
Tobacco sales; Pharmacists; Preceptors; Public health policy; Survey research; Pharmacies
3.  Preparing Pharmacy Graduates for Traditional and Emerging Career Opportunities 
Educational programs in pharmacy must focus on educating pharmacists of the future who are prepared to serve as competent and confident health care “providers” whose “practice” can occur in any number of current and future settings; and whose expertise is essential to an interprofessional health care team. Graduates must be able to incorporate a scholarly approach to their practice in identifying patient care problems; practicing in an evidence-based manner; and ensuring safe, effective, and appropriate use of medications. It is time for colleges and schools of pharmacy to implement contemporary teaching and assessment strategies that facilitate effective and efficient student learning that is focused at the graduate professional level, to evolve the content around which the curriculum is organized, and clearly articulate the abilities graduates must have to function effectively in the myriad professional roles in which they may find themselves.
PMCID: PMC2828318  PMID: 20221350
4.  Transcranial Doppler measurements in migraine and nitroglycerin headache 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2007;8(5):289-293.
The objective of this study was to examine the cerebral circulation during spontaneous migraine attacks and to compare changes to an experimental headache model induced by nitroglycerin (NTG) infusion. This prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital on migraineurs with or without aura. Healthy volunteers served as controls. There were no interventions. Flow velocity (FV) and pulsatility index (PI) were measured in migraineurs between and during headache attacks. In controls, FV and PI of the middle cerebral arteries were performed at baseline and after each IV infusion of 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 μg/kg/min of NTG. In migraineurs, a significant increase in the mean flow velocity (MFV) in the left vertebral artery (VA) and the PI of the right VA during spontaneous migraine headache was found. In controls, all FV significantly decreased after infusion of NTG. The NTG model produces expected and substantially different vascular effects than those seen with spontaneous migraine headache.
doi:10.1007/s10194-007-0413-8
PMCID: PMC3476155  PMID: 17955171
Transcranial Doppler; Flow velocity; Pulsatility index; Nitroglycerin; Migraine; Headache

Results 1-4 (4)