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1.  Quasi-Static and Harmonic Indentation of Osteonal Bone 
Journal of Dental Biomechanics  2010;2010:736830.
The purpose of the study was to compare Quasi-Static (QS) and harmonic (CSM) methods of indentation testing. Bone sections were obtained from mid-femoral diaphyses of dogs which received a pair of calcein labels. Labeled (n = 35) and unlabeled (n = 112) osteons were identified. Indentation modulus (IM) and hardness (H) for the CSM method were collected during the entire loading cycle to peak depth, while IM and H for QS method were calculated at a peak depth of 500 nm. Results: The mean (SD) of the IM and H for labeled osteons were as follows: QS IM = 15.3 GPa (3.85) versus CSM IM = 14.7 GPa (3.58); P = .52 and QS H = .39 GPa (.171) versus CSM H = .42 GPa (.146); P = .32. The mean (SD) of the IM and H for unlabeled osteons were as follows: QS IM = 21.5 GPa (2.80) versus CSM IM = 20.6 GPa (2.53); P = .054 and QS H = .64 GPa (.117) versus CSM H = .70 GPa (.120); P = .017. There was no difference in IM and H for the two methods, except for H of the unlabeled osteons. In addition, for the CSM method, IM at 100 nm, 200 nm, 300 nm, 400 nm and 500 nm were not statistically significant different (P = .06). Bone is viscoelastic at an organ level. However, this component of its behavior was not detected at the length scale examined.
PMCID: PMC2958426  PMID: 20981356
2.  Use of sevoflurane inhalation sedation for outpatient third molar surgery. 
Anesthesia Progress  1999;46(1):21-29.
This study attempted to determine if sevoflurane in oxygen inhaled via a nasal hood as a sole sedative agent would provide an appropriate level of deep sedation for outpatient third molar surgery. Twenty-four patients scheduled for third molar removal were randomly assigned to receive either nasal hood inhalation sevoflurane or an intravenous deep sedation using midazolam and fentanyl followed by a propofol infusion. In addition to measuring patient, surgeon, and dentist anesthesiologist subjective satisfaction with the technique, physiological parameters, amnesia, and psychomotor recovery were also assessed. No statistically significant difference was found between the sevoflurane and midazolam-fentanyl-propofol sedative groups in physiological parameters, degree of amnesia, reported quality of sedation, or patient willingness to again undergo a similar deep sedation. A trend toward earlier recovery in the sevoflurane group was identified. Sevoflurane can be successfully employed as a deep sedative rather than a general anesthetic for extraction of third molars in healthy subjects.
PMCID: PMC2148884  PMID: 10551056
3.  An evaluation of lidocaine hydrocarbonate compared with lidocaine hydrochloride for inferior alveolar nerve block. 
Anesthesia Progress  1991;38(6):212-216.
The purpose of this study was to measure the degree of anesthesia obtained with 2.2% lidocaine hydrocarbonate, 2.2% lidocaine hydrocarbonate with 1:100,000 epinephrine, and 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 1:100,000 epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve block. Using a repeated-measures design, 30 subjects randomly received an inferior alveolar injection of each solution over the course of three successive appointments. The first molar, first premolar, lateral incisor, and contralateral canine (control) were blindly tested with an Analytic Technology pulp tester at 3-min cycles for 60 min. Anesthetic success was defined as no subject response to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester within 16 min and maintenance of this reading for the remainder of the testing period. Although subjects felt numb subjectively, anesthetic success as defined here ranged from 3% to 10% for the plain lidocaine hydrocarbonate; for the lidocaine hydrocarbonate and lidocaine hydrochloride solutions with epinephrine, success ranged from 37% to 63%. We conclude that 2.2% lidocaine hydrocarbonate without vasoconstrictor is not as effective as the other two preparations for inferior alveolar nerve block. The 2.2% lidocaine hydrocarbonate with epinephrine and 2%.
PMCID: PMC2148701  PMID: 1842158
4.  Comparative trial of succinylcholine vs low dose atracurium-lidocaine combination for intubation in short outpatient procedures. 
Anesthesia Progress  1990;37(5):238-243.
Despite its many disadvantages, succinylcholine is the most commonly used drug for intubation of patients for short out-patient procedure. This double blind trial compared a low dose atracurium/lidocaine combination to succinylcholine for intubation in 40 ASA1 adult patients. Low dose atracurium/lidocaine provided clinical intubating conditions at two minutes and cardiovascular stability equivalent to succinylcholine with significantly less myalgia. Spontaneous respiration was slower after low dose atracurium/lidocaine relative to succinylcholine. Low dose atracurium/lidocaine may provide an acceptable alternative to succinylcholine for intubation in short outpatient procedures.
PMCID: PMC2148610  PMID: 2096747
5.  Role of tetracycline in pathogenesis of chronic candidiasis of rat tongues. 
Infection and Immunity  1985;47(2):480-483.
Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received tetracycline solution (0.1% during week 1 and 0.01% thereafter) as drinking water, as in previous studies. Group 2 animals received double-distilled demineralized water. Animals in both groups were inoculated orally with an equal number of viable, mucosally pathogenic Candida albicans organisms. After 20 weeks, inspection of the tongues showed gross lesions in 16 of the 20 animals in group 1 and 17 of the 20 in group 2. These lesions were confirmed histologically. No significant difference in the number of lesions was noted between the two groups. However, the lesions in group 1 animals were significantly larger than those in group 2 animals. These results suggest that, given this mucosally pathogenic strain of C. albicans, the establishment of a chronic infection of the rat tongue is apparently not influenced by tetracycline-treated drinking water as administered in this study. This suggests that antibiotic exposure is not an essential factor in the pathogenesis of this lesion. A larger lesion area, however, does appear to be related to the use of tetracycline solution as drinking water.
PMCID: PMC263195  PMID: 3967925

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