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1.  Essential versus accessory aspects of cell death: recommendations of the NCCD 2015 
Galluzzi, L | Bravo-San Pedro, J M | Vitale, I | Aaronson, S A | Abrams, J M | Adam, D | Alnemri, E S | Altucci, L | Andrews, D | Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, M | Baehrecke, E H | Bazan, N G | Bertrand, M J | Bianchi, K | Blagosklonny, M V | Blomgren, K | Borner, C | Bredesen, D E | Brenner, C | Campanella, M | Candi, E | Cecconi, F | Chan, F K | Chandel, N S | Cheng, E H | Chipuk, J E | Cidlowski, J A | Ciechanover, A | Dawson, T M | Dawson, V L | De Laurenzi, V | De Maria, R | Debatin, K-M | Di Daniele, N | Dixit, V M | Dynlacht, B D | El-Deiry, W S | Fimia, G M | Flavell, R A | Fulda, S | Garrido, C | Gougeon, M-L | Green, D R | Gronemeyer, H | Hajnoczky, G | Hardwick, J M | Hengartner, M O | Ichijo, H | Joseph, B | Jost, P J | Kaufmann, T | Kepp, O | Klionsky, D J | Knight, R A | Kumar, S | Lemasters, J J | Levine, B | Linkermann, A | Lipton, S A | Lockshin, R A | López-Otín, C | Lugli, E | Madeo, F | Malorni, W | Marine, J-C | Martin, S J | Martinou, J-C | Medema, J P | Meier, P | Melino, S | Mizushima, N | Moll, U | Muñoz-Pinedo, C | Nuñez, G | Oberst, A | Panaretakis, T | Penninger, J M | Peter, M E | Piacentini, M | Pinton, P | Prehn, J H | Puthalakath, H | Rabinovich, G A | Ravichandran, K S | Rizzuto, R | Rodrigues, C M | Rubinsztein, D C | Rudel, T | Shi, Y | Simon, H-U | Stockwell, B R | Szabadkai, G | Tait, S W | Tang, H L | Tavernarakis, N | Tsujimoto, Y | Vanden Berghe, T | Vandenabeele, P | Villunger, A | Wagner, E F | Walczak, H | White, E | Wood, W G | Yuan, J | Zakeri, Z | Zhivotovsky, B | Melino, G | Kroemer, G
Cell Death and Differentiation  2014;22(1):58-73.
Cells exposed to extreme physicochemical or mechanical stimuli die in an uncontrollable manner, as a result of their immediate structural breakdown. Such an unavoidable variant of cellular demise is generally referred to as ‘accidental cell death' (ACD). In most settings, however, cell death is initiated by a genetically encoded apparatus, correlating with the fact that its course can be altered by pharmacologic or genetic interventions. ‘Regulated cell death' (RCD) can occur as part of physiologic programs or can be activated once adaptive responses to perturbations of the extracellular or intracellular microenvironment fail. The biochemical phenomena that accompany RCD may be harnessed to classify it into a few subtypes, which often (but not always) exhibit stereotyped morphologic features. Nonetheless, efficiently inhibiting the processes that are commonly thought to cause RCD, such as the activation of executioner caspases in the course of apoptosis, does not exert true cytoprotective effects in the mammalian system, but simply alters the kinetics of cellular demise as it shifts its morphologic and biochemical correlates. Conversely, bona fide cytoprotection can be achieved by inhibiting the transduction of lethal signals in the early phases of the process, when adaptive responses are still operational. Thus, the mechanisms that truly execute RCD may be less understood, less inhibitable and perhaps more homogeneous than previously thought. Here, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death formulates a set of recommendations to help scientists and researchers to discriminate between essential and accessory aspects of cell death.
doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.137
PMCID: PMC4262782  PMID: 25236395
3.  The docosanoid Neuroprotectin D1 induces homeostatic regulation of neuroinflammation and cell survival 
The onset of neurodegenerations and nervous system injury both trigger cell signaling perturbations that lead to damage of neuronal circuits and synapic connections, as well as protective signaling that aims to halt disease onset. Here we review recent findings that support the role of the docosanoid mediator neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) as an early response or sentinel during the initial phase of nervous system damage. NPD1 is derived from docosahexaenoic acid that is selectively concentrated and retained in the nervous system. The protein misfolding triggers the biosynthesis of NPD1 which in turn downregulates pathways that lead to cell death and changes the outcome to cell survival. Proteotoxic stress as a result of protein misfolding is a widespread event in many neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, mechanisms and mediators such as NPD1 that curtail consequences of these events are of interest as leads in the search for novel preventive and or therapeutic approaches.
doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2012.08.008
PMCID: PMC3538114  PMID: 23022417
Misfolding; Alzheimer’s disease; docosahexaenoic acid; ataxin-1; huntingtin; CAG repeats; APP; Retinal pigment epithelial cell
4.  Docosanoids are multifunctional regulators of neural cell integrity and fate: significance in aging and disease 
The identification of neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a biosynthetic product of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in brain and retina as well as the characterization of its bioactivity, is generating a renewed interest in the functional role and pathophysiological significance of omega-3 fatty acids in the central nervous system.
Neurotrophins, particularly pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), induce NPD1 synthesis and its polarized apical secretion, implying paracrine and autocrine bioactivity of this lipid mediator. Also, DHA and PEDF synergistically activate NPD1 synthesis and antiapoptotic protein expression and decreased proapoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression and caspase 3 activation during oxidative stress.
In experimental stroke, endogenous NPD1 synthesis was found to be upregulated, and the infusion of the lipid mediator into the brain under these conditions revealed neuroprotective bioactivity of NPD1.
The hippocampal CA1 region from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients (rapidly sampled) shows a major reduction in NPD1.
The interplay of DHA-derived neuroprotective signaling aims to counteract proinflammatory, cell-damaging events triggered by multiple, converging cytokine and amyloid peptide factors, as in the case of AD. Generation of NPD1 from DHA thereby appears to redirect cellular fate toward successful preservation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE)-photoreceptor cell integrity and brain cell aging. The Bcl-2 pro- and antiapoptotic proteins, neurotrophins, and NPD1, lie along a cell fate-regulatory pathway whose component members are highly interactive, and have potential to function cooperatively in cell survival. Agents that stimulate NPD1 biosynthesis, NPD1 analogs, or dietary regimens may be useful as new preventive/therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2007.10.022
PMCID: PMC2696125  PMID: 18060755
5.  Endothelial cell damage in human and rabbit corneas stored in K-Sol without antioxidants. 
Human and rabbit corneas were stored at 4 degrees C in K-Sol with and without antioxidants (ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, alpha-tocopherol, and retinol acetate) for two to three weeks. All the corneas were then examined visually and by scanning electron microscopy. They appeared clear and slightly oedematous. Scanning electron micrographs were used to grade corneal endothelial cell morphology in a masked manner in terms of cell shape, cell borders, cell swelling, and apical holes. Corneas stored in K-Sol without antioxidants showed changes in cell shape, cell borders, and apical holes. Human corneas showed more morphological changes than rabbit corneas. The results suggest that antioxidants in K-Sol have an important role in the preservation of endothelial cell morphology.
Images
PMCID: PMC1041889  PMID: 2510817

Results 1-5 (5)