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1.  Homology modeling of an antifungal metabolite plipastatin synthase from the Bacillus subtilis 168 
Bioinformation  2011;7(8):384-387.
Lipopeptides have a widespread role in different pathways of Bacillus subtilis; they can act as antagonists, spreader and immunostimulators. Plipastatin, an antifungal antibiotic, is one of the most important lipopeptide nonribosomly produced by Bacillus subtilis. Plipastatin has strong fungitoxic activity and involve in inhibition of phospholipase A2 and biofilm formation. For better understanding of the molecule and pathway by which lipopeptide plipastatin is synthesized, we present a computationally predicted structure of plipastatin using homology modeling. Primary and secondary structure analysis suggested that ppsD is a hydrophilic protein containing a significant proportion of alpha helices, and subcellular localization predictions suggested it is a cytoplasmic protein. The tertiary structure of protein (plipastatin synthase subunit D) was predicted by homology modeling. The results suggest a flexible structure which is also an important characteristic of active enzymes enabling them to bind various cofactors and substrates for proper functioning. Validation of 3D structure was done using Ramachandran plot ProsA-web and QMEAN score.This predicted information will help in better understanding of mechanisms underlying plipastatin synthase subunit D synthesis. Plipastatin can be used as an inhibitor of various fungal diseases in plants.
PMCID: PMC3280437  PMID: 22347779
Bacillus subtilis; plipastatin synthase; homology modeling
2.  Homology modeling, comparative genomics and functional annotation of Mycoplasma genitalium hypothetical protein MG_237 
Bioinformation  2011;7(6):299-303.
Mycoplasma genitalium is a human pathogen associated with several sexually transmitted diseases. The complete genome of M. genitalium G37 has been sequenced and provides an opportunity to understand the pathogenesis and identification of therapeutic targets. However, complete understanding of bacterial function requires proper annotation of its proteins. The genome of M. genitalium consists of 475 proteins. Among these, 94 are without any known function and are described as ‘hypothetical proteins’. We selected MG_237 for sequence and structural analysis using a bioinformatics approach. Primary and secondary structure analysis suggested that MG_237 is a hydrophilic protein containing a significant proportion of alpha helices, and subcellular localization predictions suggested it is a cytoplasmic protein. Homology modeling was used to define the three-dimensional (3D) structure of MG-237. A search for templates revealed that MG_237 shares 63% homology to a hypothetical protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, indicating this protein is evolutionary conserved. The refined 3D model was generated using (PS)2­v2 sever that incorporates MODELLER. Several quality assessment and validation parameters were computed and indicated that the homology model is reliable. Furthermore, comparative genomics analysis suggested MG_237 as non-homologous protein and involved in four different metabolic pathways. Experimental validation will provide more insight into the actual function of this protein in microbial pathways.
PMCID: PMC3280499  PMID: 22355225
Mycoplasma genitalium; homology modelling; hypothetical proteins; comparative genomics; metabolic pathways

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