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2.  Acute oxygen therapy 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1998;317(7161):798-801.
PMCID: PMC1113909  PMID: 9740573
4.  Tine testing in HIV positive patients. 
Thorax  1993;48(8):831-834.
BACKGROUND--The incidence of tuberculosis is increased in HIV positive patients. Purified protein derivative (PPD, tuberculin) testing has not been performed routinely on patients infected with HIV in the UK and its usefulness in diagnosing tuberculosis in these patients is unclear. METHODS--198 HIV positive patients were Tine tested and a CD4+ lymphocyte count and chest radiograph were performed. Of the 179 male patients 164 were homosexual or bisexual, 11 were injecting drug users (IDUs), and four were both homosexual and IDUs. Of 19 women 14 were heterosexual and five were IDUs. Patients assessed their own skin reactions at 72 hours, recording the grade on a card which was returned by post. Patients with a grade 0 reaction were requested to have a second test one month later. RESULTS--Details were available on 168 of the 198 patients. Grade 0 reactions occurred in 89 of the 168 patients, requiring a second Tine test, and 73 completed Tine 2 results were received. Of 57 patients with CD4+ lymphocyte counts below 200/mm3, low grade PPD reactivity was seen in 18 on Tine 1 and nine on Tine 2. No history of BCG immunisation of tuberculosis was found in 33 Tine positive patients. Two patients treated for tuberculosis in the previous six months were PPD positive with CD4+ counts of 60/mm3 and 4/mm3 respectively. CONCLUSIONS--PPD reactivity may be maintained despite a CD4+ count of 100/mm3 or less when there is a history of tuberculosis or BCG immunisation.
PMCID: PMC464715  PMID: 8105557
6.  Lung deposition of nebulised pentamidine in children. 
Thorax  1993;48(3):220-226.
BACKGROUND: Nebulised pentamidine is effective for preventing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The nebuliser dose required to produce equivalent lung concentrations of pentamidine in children is unknown. This study was performed to measure pulmonary pentamidine deposition in children and to relate this to age, ventilation pattern, and body size. METHODS: Nebulised pentamidine (50 mg in 6 ml saline) was administered to 12 children (including one with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis) and to six adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection using a Respirgard II nebuliser. Technetium-99m labeled colloidal human serum albumin was used as an indirect marker for pentamidine and deposition in the lungs was detected by a gamma camera. RESULTS: Absolute deposition of pentamidine was not related to age, height, weight, spirometry, or ventilation characteristics. Deposition, as a mean (SD) percentage of nebuliser output, was similar in children aged 8-11 years (5.5(2.4)%), teenagers aged 12-15 years (7.2(2.2)%) and adults (7.1(2.6)%). Aerosol concentration within the lungs (% nebuliser output deposited/predicted total lung capacity) was therefore higher in children (1.9(1.5)%/1) and teenagers (1.9(0.7)%/1) than in adults (1.0(0.7%)/1), and was negatively correlated with height (r = -0.69) and weight (r = -0.50). Deposition of aerosol in the region of the large central airways was particularly marked in children. Small reductions in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity after treatment did not differ significantly between adults and children and visual analogue scores of subjective adverse effects did not vary with age. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that children probably require lower nebuliser pentamidine doses to produce lung pentamidine concentrations equivalent to those found to be effective for preventing P carinii pneumonia in adults using the Respirgard II nebuliser.
PMCID: PMC464357  PMID: 8497819
7.  Portable liquid oxygen and exercise ability in severe respiratory disability. 
Thorax  1992;47(10):781-789.
BACKGROUND: The development of portable liquid oxygen systems, capable of delivering high flow rate oxygen for long periods, justifies reassessment of the value of supplemental oxygen to aid exercise tolerance in patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. The type of exercise test and the low oxygen flow rates previously used may account for the variable and often poor responses to supplemental oxygen reported in earlier studies. METHODS: The walking tolerance of 30 patients with severe respiratory disability was measured while they were breathing air and increasing doses of supplemental oxygen (2, 4, 6 1/min) by using both the standard six minute walking test and an endurance walking test. To assess the initial learning effect and repeatability of the walking tests, three six minute walks and three endurance walks were performed on day 1 and a single walk of each type on days 2, 3, and 14. In addition, oxygen dosing studies were performed on days 2 and 3 after the initial baseline walking tests. Each dosing study comprised four endurance walking tests or four six minute walking tests with patients breathing either air at a flow rate of 4 1/min from a portable cylinder or supplemental oxygen at a flow rate of 2, 4 or 6 1/min from a portable liquid oxygen supply. The order of the tests was randomised. Walking distance with each flow rate of oxygen was compared with walking distance with patients carrying cylinder air and for the initial unburdened walks. Breathlessness was assessed by visual analogue scoring on completion of each walk. RESULTS: Exercise ability and breathlessness were significantly improved with supplemental oxygen and this benefit outweighed the reduction in performance resulting from carrying the portable device. Supplemental oxygen at flow rates of 2, 4, and 6 1/min increased mean endurance walking distances by 37.9%, 67.7% and 85.0% and six minute walking distances by 19.2%, 34.5%, and 36.3% by comparison with distances when the patient was carrying air with a flow rate of 4 1/min. The additional work of carrying the portable gas supply reduced endurance walking distance by 22.2% and six minute walking distance by 14.1% by comparison with a baseline unburdened walk. Comparison of supplemental oxygen at 2, 4, and 6 1/min with the baseline unburdened performance showed increased endurance walking distances of 7.3%, 30.4%, and 43.9% and six minute walking distances of 2.3%, 15.5%, and 17.0%. Walking distance was increased by more than 50% by comparison with an unburdened walk in seven patients with the endurance walking test but in only three patients with the six minute walking test. The benefit was similar in patients with obstructive and with interstitial lung disease. Individual responses were variable and only desaturation during the baseline walk in patients with obstructive lung disease had any predictive value for benefit with oxygen. CONCLUSION: As there was no clear relation between response to oxygen therapy and the patients' characteristics, assessment for supplemental oxygen therapy will depend on exercise testing. It is suggested that portable oxygen should be considered only if a patient shows a 50% improvement in exercise ability with high flow rate oxygen (4-6 1/min) by comparison with an unburdened walk.
PMCID: PMC464043  PMID: 1481177
9.  Pulmonary deposition of nebulised pentamidine isethionate: effect of nebuliser type, dose, and volume of fill. 
Thorax  1990;45(6):460-464.
An estimate of the absolute pulmonary deposition of nebulised pentamidine isethionate was obtained in nine patients with AIDS. Two nebuliser systems were compared, System 22 Mizer (Medic-Aid) and Respirgard II (Marquest), with 50 and 150 mg doses of pentamidine in a 3 ml solution driven by an air flow of 6 l/min with the patient in the sitting position. The 50 mg pentamidine dose was repeated with a 6 ml fill with both devices. The nebuliser cloud was labelled with technetium-99m human serum albumin (Ventocol) and lung deposition was measured with a gamma camera. Of the two nebulisers studied, System 22 Mizer delivered more drug to the lungs as a whole and to each individual lung region, including the peripheral and upper zones. For the 50 mg dose the mean (SEM) total pulmonary deposition with the 3 and the 6 ml fill respectively was 2.63 (0.34) and 3.71 (0.41) mg for the System 22 Mizer and 1.37 (0.26) and 1.45 (0.18) mg for the Respirgard II. For the 150 mg dose the System 22 Mizer delivered 7.16 (1.02) mg and the Respirgard II 4.34 (0.57) mg. Increasing the volume of fill from 3 to 6 ml increased pulmonary deposition with System 22 Mizer, and this was related to an increase in nebuliser output. Neither pulmonary deposition nor nebuliser output was increased by using a 6 ml solution in the Respirgard II. Increasing the volume of fill prolonged the time required for nebulisation with both nebulisers. The System 22 Mizer produced more nonpulmonary (gastric and oropharyngeal) deposition of drug, more frequent local adverse effects (cough, burning in the throat, and a metallic taste), and small reductions in lung function, particularly with the 150 mg pentamidine dose. Thus nebuliser type, volume of fill, and nebuliser dose affect the pulmonary deposition of pentamidine. A 300 mg dose of pentamidine via a Respirgard II is generally recommended as providing effective prophylaxis; our results suggest that similar pulmonary deposition can be produced with System 22 Mizer and 150 mg pentamidine. A clinical trial would be needed to show whether this regimen provides similar prophylactic benefit.
PMCID: PMC462530  PMID: 2392791
10.  Sedation for fibreoptic bronchoscopy. 
Thorax  1990;45(3):239.
PMCID: PMC462395  PMID: 2330560
11.  The public health management of tuberculosis among the single homeless: is mass miniature x ray screening effective? 
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to test the assumption that mass miniature x ray screening of the single homeless (hostel residents) is a cost-effective means of controlling pulmonary tuberculosis. DESIGN--The study was a prospective experimental screening exercise to identify new cases of active tuberculosis completing treatment. SETTING--The setting was eight hostels in south London. A mobile x ray screening facility was set up outside the hostels. SUBJECTS--Subjects were 547 single homeless residents in the hostels. They were encouraged to attend for chest x ray, and for active follow up of abnormal x rays. MAIN RESULTS--No new cases of active tuberculosis were found. CONCLUSIONS--Mass miniature x ray is ineffective in controlling tuberculosis because of its unacceptability and increasing inaccessibility to this population.
PMCID: PMC1059522  PMID: 1583428
12.  The effects of twice and four times daily zidovudine on p24 antigenaemia in CDC stage II/III patients. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1991;67(1):15-17.
Reduction of HIV p24 antigenaemia by zidovudine was investigated in 34 HIV antibody-positive, asymptomatic patients in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Zidovudine was shown to lower p24 antigen levels as effectively when administered twice daily as when administered four times daily. Serum levels of p24 antigen varied little over 18 weeks in patients taking placebo.
PMCID: PMC1194606  PMID: 1680791
13.  Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1990;300(6719):211-212.
PMCID: PMC1662061  PMID: 2106927
15.  Contractility of papillary muscle from rats exposed to 28 days of hypoxia, hypercapnia, and hypoxia with hypercapnia. 
Thorax  1989;44(10):808-811.
The effects of chronic respiratory failure (hypoxia and hypercapnia) on the contractile properties of cardiac muscle are not established. A study was performed of the isometric contractile properties of isolated papillary muscle removed from rats exposed in a normobaric environmental chamber to 28 days of hypoxia (fractional inspired oxygen (FIO2) 10%, fractional inspired carbon dioxide (FICO2) less than 1%), hypercapnia (FIO2 21%, FICO2 5%), and hypoxia with hypercapnia (FIO2 10%, FICO2 5%). Rats exposed to both hypoxia and hypoxia with hypercapnia developed selective right ventricular hypertrophy. Exposure to hypercapnia alone did not alter right ventricular weight. No change in right ventricular papillary muscle contractility per unit muscle mass was observed as measured by maximum active tension, maximum rate of rise or fall of tension, or time to peak tension. Rat cardiac muscle adapts successfully to the altered acid-base environment and increased work load associated with prolonged exposure to hypoxia and mild hypercapnia.
PMCID: PMC1020847  PMID: 2595623
16.  Alveolar permeability in HIV antibody positive patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. 
Genitourinary Medicine  1987;63(4):268-270.
Pulmonary permeability was assessed using the technique of 99mTc (technetium-99m) diethylene triamene pentacetic acid (DTPA) aerosol transfer in 10 patients who had antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and were non-smokers and in 20 HIV antibody positive smokers. Five patients had Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) proved by transbronchial lung biopsy; four were non-smokers and one a smoker. Two findings emerged: patients with PCP had greater epithelial permeability than non-smokers and smokers; and the permeability curves were monophasic in smokers and non-smokers, but biphasic in patients with PCP. The biphasic curve observed is indicative of diffuse alveolar damage and might be useful to predict PCP in patients with antibodies to HIV who have normal chest radiographs. As the study was of only five patients with PCP, however, further studies are necessary to confirm this observation.
PMCID: PMC1194081  PMID: 3308684
17.  Effect of intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leg compression on incidence of postoperative pulmonary embolism. 
British Medical Journal  1976;2(6047):1281-1284.
The incidence of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis was measured in 50 matched pairs of patients undergoing common surgical procedures with preoperative and postoperative ventilation-perfusion lung scans and the fibrinogen uptake test. One patient in each pair was treated with intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leggings. The incidence of pulmonary embolism among the treated patients was significantly reduced from 24% to 8%, but the incidence of deep vein thrombosis was not significantly reduced (34% to 24%).
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PMCID: PMC1689986  PMID: 1000195
18.  False-positive lung scans and radiotherapy. 
British Medical Journal  1976;1(6013):807-808.
It has been suggested that obliterative vasculitis in the lung might mimic pulmonary embolism on a ventilationperfusion scan. The combined scans of six patients with breast cancer who had undergone radiotherapy to the chest wall, which can induce pulmonary vasculitis, were therefore examined. Eleven of the 12 scans showed perfusion defects with ventilation-perfusion mismatch on the irradiated side. Special care is needed in interpreting the lung scans of patients who have received an appreciable tissue dose of radiation to the lungs; mismatch need not indicate pulmonary embolism.
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PMCID: PMC1639423  PMID: 1260339

Results 1-18 (18)