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1.  Inhibition of leptin gene expression and secretion by silibinin: possible role of estrogen receptors 
Cytotechnology  2012;64(6):719-726.
Leptin plays the role of mitogenic factor in the breast carcinogenesis. Therefore, it could be considered as a target for breast cancer therapy. Leptin gene expression could be modulated by activation of estrogen receptors. Silibinin is an herbal compound with anti-cancer activity on prostate and colorectal cancers. Based on the fact that targeting of leptin can be considered as a novel strategy for breast cancer therapy, the aim of this study was the investigation of potentiality of silibinin for inhibition of leptin gene expression and secretion, and its link with expression of estrogen receptors. Cytotoxic effect of silibinin on T47D breast cancer cells was investigated by MTT assay test after 24, 48 and 72 h treatments with different concentrations of silibinin. The levels of leptin, estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β genes expression was measured by reverse-transcription real-time PCR. The amount of secreted leptin in the culture medium was determined by ELISA. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Silibinin inhibits growth of T47D cells in a time and dose dependent manner. There was significant difference between control and treated cells in the levels of leptin, estrogen receptor β expression levels and the quantity of secreted leptin was decreased in the treated cells in comparison to control cells. In conclusion, silibinin inhibits the expression and the secretion of leptin and in the future it might probably be a drug candidate for breast cancer therapy through leptin targeting.
doi:10.1007/s10616-012-9452-3
PMCID: PMC3488373  PMID: 22526491
Leptin; Silibinin; Breast cancer; T47D cell line
2.  Preparation and in vitro evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with biocompatible copolymers 
Background
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are attractive materials that have been widely used in medicine for drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, and therapeutic applications. In our study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and the anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride, were encapsulated into poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) poly (ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles for local treatment. The magnetic properties conferred by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles could help to maintain the nanoparticles in the joint with an external magnet.
Methods
A series of PLGA:PEG triblock copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of D, L-lactide and glycolide with different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG2000, PEG3000, and PEG4000) as an initiator. The bulk properties of these copolymers were characterized using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, the resulting particles were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry.
Results
The doxorubicin encapsulation amount was reduced for PLGA:PEG2000 and PLGA:PEG3000 triblock copolymers, but increased to a great extent for PLGA:PEG4000 triblock copolymer. This is due to the increased water uptake capacity of the blended triblock copolymer, which encapsulated more doxorubicin molecules into a swollen copolymer matrix. The drug encapsulation efficiency achieved for Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with PLGA:PEG2000, PLGA:PEG3000, and PLGA:PEG4000 copolymers was 69.5%, 73%, and 78%, respectively, and the release kinetics were controlled. The in vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the Fe3O4-PLGA:PEG4000 magnetic nanoparticles had no cytotoxicity and were biocompatible.
Conclusion
There is potential for use of these nanoparticles for biomedical application. Future work includes in vivo investigation of the targeting capability and effectiveness of these nanoparticles in the treatment of lung cancer.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S24326
PMCID: PMC3273983  PMID: 22334781
superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; triblock copolymer; doxorubicin encapsulation; water uptake; drug encapsulation efficiency

Results 1-2 (2)