AIM: To explore the potential association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster and the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) susceptibility in never-smoking Chinese. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with 200 NSCLC patients and 200 healthy controls, matched on age and sex. Five SNPs distributed in CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster were selected for genotyping. The association between genotype and lung cancer risk was evaluated by computing the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses with adjustment for gender and age. RESULTS: For CHRNA3 rs578776 status, data were available in 199 NSCLC patients and 199 controls. The G/G homozygote in CHRNB4 rs7178270 had a reduced risk of developing NSCLC (OR = 0.553; 95% CI = 0.309–0.989; P = .0437), especially squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) (OR = 0.344; 95% CI = 0.161–0.732; P = .0043), compared with those who carry at least one C allele (C/C and C/G). The polymorphisms of rs578776, rs938682, rs17486278, and rs11637635 were not significantly different between controls and cases or between controls and histologic subgroups, adenocarcinoma and SQC, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we found that the SNP of CHRNB4 rs7178270 is significantly associated with reduced risk of NSCLC, especially with reduced risk of SQC in never-smoking Chinese population.
Previously, both primary and secondary anti-D alloimmunizations induced by “Asian type” DEL (RHD1227A allele) were observed in two incidents. We investigated how often these alloimmunization events occur. The transfusions of any D-negative patients were investigated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University Medical College, China, during the entire 2009. The antigens of D, C, c, E, and e were routinely serotyped. The “Asian type” DEL variant was genotyped and the RHD heterozygote was determined through two published methods. The changes in anti-D levels were monitored by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and flow cytometry. Thirty D-negative transfused patients were included in the study. We focused on 11 recipients who were transfused with packed red blood cells (RBCs) from DEL donors at least one time. Of those 11 recipients, seven were anti-D negative before transfusion and four were anti-D positive (one patient with an autoantibody). One of the seven pre-transfusion anti-D negative patients produced a primary-response anti-D after being transfused with 400 ml of DEL blood twice. All four pre-transfusion antibody positive patients were not observed hemoglobin (Hb) levels increased, as expected after transfusions. Two patients had an increase in anti-D from 1:8 to 1:64 by IAT, which was also shown by flow cytometry. None of the patients experienced an acute hemolytic episode. Our data indicated that the primary anti-D induced by DEL transfusion or the secondary anti-D elevated by DEL in a truly D-negative patient might not be unusual. We suggest that a truly D-negative childbearing-aged woman should avoid DEL transfusion to protect her from primary anti-D allosensitization. In addition, anti-D positive recipients should also avoid DEL red cell transfusion due to the delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR).
Rh blood group; DEL; Allo-anti-D; Transfusion; Pregnancy; Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction
DNA nanotechnology provides a versatile foundation for the chemical assembly of nanostructures. Plasmonic nanoparticle assemblies are of particular interest because they can be tailored to exhibit a broad range of electromagnetic phenomena. In this Letter, we report the assembly of DNA-functionalized nanoparticles into pentamer clusters, which consist of a smaller gold sphere surrounded by a ring of four larger spheres. Magnetic and Fano-like resonances are observed in individual clusters. The DNA plays a dual role: it selectively assembles the clusters in solution and functions as an insulating spacer between the conductive nanoparticles. These particle assemblies can be generalized to a new class of DNA-enabled plasmonic heterostructures that comprise various active and passive materials and other forms of DNA scaffolding.
Plasmonics; DNA; colloidal self-assembly; nanoshell; magnetic dipole; Fano resonance
Plasmids are important antibiotic resistance determinant carriers that can disseminate various drug resistance genes among species or genera. By using a high throughput sequencing approach, two groups of plasmids of Escherichia coli (named E1 and E2, each consisting of 160 clinical E. coli strains isolated from different periods of time) were sequenced and analyzed. A total of 20 million reads were obtained and mapped onto the known resistance gene sequences. As a result, a total of 9 classes, including 36 types of antibiotic resistant genes, were identified. Among these genes, 25 and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) appeared, of which 9 and 12 SNPs are nonsynonymous substitutions in the E1 and E2 samples. It is interesting to find that a novel genotype of blaKLUC, whose close relatives, blaKLUC-1 and blaKLUC-2, have been previously reported as carried on the Kluyvera cryocrescens chromosome and Enterobacter cloacae plasmid, was identified. It shares 99% and 98% amino acid identities with Kluc-1 and Kluc-2, respectively. Further PCR screening of 608 Enterobacteriaceae family isolates yielded a second variant (named blaKLUC-4). It was interesting to find that Kluc-3 showed resistance to several cephalosporins including cefotaxime, whereas blaKLUC-4 did not show any resistance to the antibiotics tested. This may be due to a positively charged residue, Arg, replaced by a neutral residue, Leu, at position 167, which is located within an omega-loop. This work represents large-scale studies on resistance gene distribution, diversification and genetic variation in pooled multi-drug resistance plasmids, and provides insight into the use of high throughput sequencing technology for microbial resistance gene detection.
We cloned the complete coding sequences of porcine Gpr3, Gpr6, and Gpr12 genes. Further, on the basis of their high levels of sequence similarity, these genes are identified as a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. These putative protein sequences also showed high sequence identity with other mammalian orthologs, including several highly conserved motifs. A wide expression of the Gpr3 gene in pigs was observed through tissue distribution analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR, specially in the brain, pituitary, fat, liver and oocyte, where its strong expression was observed. The Gpr3 gene was found to be located on chromosome 6 and a single exon coded for the entire open-reading frame. Expression of porcine Gpr3 in HEK293 cells resulted in constitutive activation of adenylate cyclase (AC) similar in amplitude to that produced by fully stimulated Gs-coupled receptors. Moreover, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) could increase AC activation via the constitutively active Gpr3 receptor. When a Gpr3-green fluorescent protein (GFP) construct was expressed in HEK293 cells, GFP-labeled Gpr3 protein was shown to be localized in the plasmalemma and subcellular membranes. After S1P treatment, agonist-mediated internalization could be visualized by confocal microscopy. In short, our findings suggest the porcine Gpr3, Gpr6, and Gpr12 genes as a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors, and porcine Gpr3 was a constitutively active G protein-coupled receptor. Constitutive activation of AC and agonist-mediated internalization of Gpr3 receptor could be modulated by the S1P, suggesting that S1P might act as an activator for porcine Gpr3 receptor.
G protein-coupled receptor; Constitutive activity; Sphingosine 1-phosphate; Receptor internalization; Porcine Gpr3; Molecular cloning
In the centrosymmetric trinuclear cation of the title compound, [Co3(C4H8N4)6(H2O)6](C10H6O6S2)Cl4, the three CoII atoms are bridged by six triazole molecules via the N atoms in the 1,2-positions. The central CoII atom, lying on an inversion center, is coordinated by six triazole N atoms while the terminal CoII atoms are coordinated by three triazole N atoms and three water O atoms in a distorted octahedral geometry. The naphthalenedisulfonate anion is also centrosymmetric. The four chloride counter anions are half-occupied; the H atoms of the amino groups show an occupancy of 2/3. O—H⋯Cl, O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the complex cations and the chloride and naphthalene-1,5-disulfonate anions.
Zinc deficiency impairs cellular immunity. Up-regulation of mRNA levels of IFN-γ, IL-12Rβ2, and T-bet are essential for Th1 differentiation. We hypothesized that zinc increases Th1 differentiation via up-regulation of IFN-γ and T-bet expression. To test this hypothesis, we used zinc-deficient and zinc-sufficient HUT-78 cells (a Th0 cell line) under different condition of stimulation in this study. We also used TPEN, a zinc-specific chelator, to decrease the bioavailability of zinc in the cells. We measured intracellular free zinc, cytokines, and the mRNAs of T-bet, IFN-γ, and IL-12Rβ2. In this study, we show that in zinc-sufficient HUT-78 cells (a Th0 cell line), mRNA levels of IFN-γ, IL-12Rβ2, and T-bet in PMA/PHA-stimulated cells were increased in comparison to zinc-deficient cells. Although intracellular free zinc was increased slightly in PMA/PHA-stimulated cells, Con-A-stimulated cells in 5 μM zinc medium showed a greater sustained increase in intracellular free zinc in comparison to cells incubated in 1 μM zinc. The cells pre-incubated with TPEN showed decreased mRNA levels of IFN-γ and T-bet mRNAs in comparison to cells without TPEN incubation. We conclude that stimulation of cells by Con-A via TCR, release intracellular free zinc which functions as a signal molecule for generation of IFN-γ and T-bet, and IL-12Rbβ2 mRNAs required for Th1 cell differentiation. These results suggest that zinc increase Th1 cell differentiation by up-regulation of IFN-γ and T-bet, and IL-12Rbβ2 mRNAs.
zinc; T-bet; IFN-γ; IL-12Rβ2
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, but techniques for effective early diagnosis are still lacking. Proteomics technology has been applied extensively to the study of the proteins involved in carcinogenesis. In this paper, a classification method was developed based on principal components of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) spectral data. This method was applied to SELDI spectral data from 71 lung adenocarcinoma patients and 24 healthy individuals. Unlike other peak-selection-based methods, this method takes each spectrum as a unity. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate that this unity-based classification method is more robust and powerful as a method of diagnosis than peak-selection-based methods.
The results showed that this classification method, which is based on principal components, has outstanding performance with respect to distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma patients from normal individuals. Through leaving-one-out, 19-fold, 5-fold and 2-fold cross-validation studies, we found that this classification method based on principal components completely outperforms peak-selection-based methods, such as decision tree, classification and regression tree, support vector machine, and linear discriminant analysis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance
The classification method based on principal components of SELDI spectral data is a robust and powerful means of diagnosing lung adenocarcinoma. We assert that the high efficiency of this classification method renders it feasible for large-scale clinical use.
Objective. To analyse the potential risk factors of nosocomial infections in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. A total of 2452 active RA patients at Hospitals in Shanghai between January 2009 and February 2011 were analyzed. Their demographic and clinical characteristics were compared with those without infection, and the potential risk factors were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results. Multivariate analysis indicated the gender (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.53–0.92), duration in hospital (OR = 1.03
, 95%CI 1.01–1.05), number of organs involved (OR = 0.82,
95%CI 0.72–0.92), number of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs ((DMARDs) (OR = 1.22,
95%CI 1.061–1.40)), corticosteroid therapy (OR = 1.02, 95%CI 1.01–1.03), peripheral white blood cell counts ((WBC) (OR = 1.04,
95%CI 1.00–1.08)), levels of serum albumin (OR = 0.98, 95%CI 0.97–0.99), and C-reactive protein ((CRP) (OR = 1.03
, 95%CI 1.01–1.04)) that were significantly associated with the risk of infections. Conclusion. The female patients, longer hospital stay, more organs involved, more DMARDs, corticosteroid usage, high counts of WBC, lower serum albumin, and higher serum CRP were independent risk factors of infections in active RA patients.
Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum) was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat.
Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA) and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD), which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD). Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs) revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Nonetheless, those genes showing non-additive expression exhibited a significant enrichment for vesicle-function.
Our results show that two patterns of global alteration in gene expression are conditioned by allohexaploidization in wheat, that is, parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Both altered patterns of gene expression but not the identity of the genes involved are likely to play functional roles in stabilization and establishment of the newly formed allohexaploid plants, and hence, relevant to speciation and evolution of T. aestivum.
Muscle atrophy caused by disuse is accompanied by adverse physiological and functional consequences. Satellite cells are the primary source of skeletal muscle regeneration. Satellite cell dysfunction, as a result of impaired proliferative potential and/or increased apoptosis, is thought to be one of the causes contributing to the decreased muscle regeneration capacity in atrophy. We have previously shown that electrical stimulation improved satellite cell dysfunction. Here we test whether electrical stimulation can also enhance satellite cell proliferative potential as well as suppress apoptotic cell death in disuse-induced muscle atrophy. Eight-week-old male BALB/c mice were subjected to a 14-day hindlimb unloading procedure. During that period, one limb (HU-ES) received electrical stimulation (frequency: 20 Hz; duration: 3 h, twice daily) while the contralateral limb served as control (HU). Immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques were used to characterize specific proteins in cell proliferation and apoptosis. The HU-ES soleus muscles showed significant improvement in muscle mass, cross-sectional area, and peak tetanic force relative to the HU limb (p<0.05). The satellite cell proliferative activity as detected within the BrdU+/Pax7+ population was significantly higher (p<0.05). The apoptotic myonuclei (detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) and the apoptotic satellite cells (detected by cleaved Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase co-labeled with Pax7) were reduced (p<0.05) in the HU-ES limb. Furthermore the apoptosis-inducing factor and cleaved caspase-3 were down-regulated while the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was up-regulated (p<0.05), in the HU-ES limb. These findings suggest that the electrical stimulation paradigm provides an effective stimulus to rescue the loss of myonuclei and satellite cells in disuse muscle atrophy, thus maintaining a viable satellite cell pool for subsequent muscle regeneration. Optimization of stimulation parameters may enhance the outcome of the intervention.
Electroantennogram responses to a wide range of plant volatile compounds that have been identified in tea plants Camellia sinensis L. (Ericales: Theaceae) were recorded from males and females of the tea slug moth, Iragoides fasciata Moore (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The responses to 26 compounds, belonging to several chemical classes, and two mixtures were evaluated. The results showed significantly different electroantennogram responses to the different chemicals, as well as significantly different responses according to gender. The green leaf volatile components elicited significantly greater responses in males. In general, the antennae of males were more sensitive, and responded more strongly, to most of the compounds. Responses to sesquiterpenoids were lower in both males and females. Dose-dependent response studies indicated differences in response between genders and concentrations, suggesting the existence of sexual dimorphism. Compounds belonging to the green leaf volatiles class appeared to be important clues in host-plant selection by this oligophagous species.
green leaf volatiles
AIM: To investigate the expression of programmed death (PD)-1, PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 in liver tissues in the context of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Liver biopsies and HCC specimens from patients were collected and histologically examined. The expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in biopsy specimens of chronic hepatitis and HCC specimens was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The association between the expression level of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 and clinical and pathological variables was analyzed statistically.
RESULTS: Expression of PD-1 was found in liver-infiltrating lymphocytes. In contrast, PD-L1 and PD-L2 were expressed in non-parenchyma liver cells and tumor cells. The expression of PD-L1 was significantly correlated with hepatitis B virus infection (1.42 ± 1.165 vs 0.50 ± 0.756, P = 0.047) and with the stage of HCC (7.50 ± 2.121 vs 1.75 ± 1.500 vs 3.00 ± 0.001, P = 0.018). PD-1 and PD-Ls were significantly up-regulated in HCC specimens (1.40 ± 1.536 vs 5.71 ± 4.051, P = 0.000; 1.05 ± 1.099 vs 4.29 ± 3.885, P = 0.004; 1.80 ± 1.473 vs 3.81 ± 3.400, P = 0.020).
CONCLUSION: PD-L1 may contribute to negative regulation of the immune response in chronic hepatitis B. PD-1 and PD-Ls may play a role in immune evasion of tumors.
Hepatitis B virus; Programmed death-1; Programmed death ligands; Hepatitis; Hepatocellular carcinoma
This paper aims to screen and identify sphere clone cells with characteristics similar to cancer stem cells in human gallbladder cancer cell line GBC-SD. GBC-SD cells were cultured in a serum-free culture medium with different concentrations of the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin for generating sphere clones. The mRNA expressions of stem cell-related genes CD133, OCT-4, Nanog, and drug resistance genes ABCG2 and MDR-1 in sphere clones were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Stem cell markers were also analyzed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining. Different amounts of sphere clones were injected into nude mice to test their abilities to form tumors. Sphere clones were formed in serum-free culture medium containing cisplatin (30 μmol/L). Flow cytometry results demonstrated that the sphere clones expressed high levels of stem cell markers CD133+ (97.6%) and CD44+ (77.9%) and low levels of CD24+ (2.3%). These clones also overexpressed the drug resistance genes ABCG2 and MDR-1. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that sphere clones expressed stem cell genes Nanog and OCT-4 284 and 266 times, respectively, more than those in the original GBC-SD cells. Immunofluorescent staining showed that sphere clones overexpressed OCT-4, Nanog, and SOX-2, and low expressed MUC1 and vimentin. Tumor formation experiments showed that 1×103 sphere clone cells could induce much larger tumors in nude mice than 1×105 GBC-SD cells. In conclusion, sphere clones of gallbladder cancer with stem cell-like characteristics can be obtained using suspension cultures of GBC-SD cells in serum-free culture medium containing cisplatin.
Gallbladder cancer; Stem cell gene; Sphere clone; Suspension culture
Wolbachia are a group of intracellular inherited endosymbiontic bacteria infecting a wide range of insects. In this study the infection status of Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) was measured in the Asiatic rice leafroller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from twenty locations in China by sequencing wsp, ftsZ and 16S rDNA genes. The results showed high infection rates of Wolbachia in C. medinalis populations. Wolbachia was detected in all geographically separate populations; the average infection rate was ∼ 62.5%, and the highest rates were 90% in Wenzhou and Yangzhou populations. The Wolbachia detected in different C. medinalis populations were 100% identical to each other when wsp, ftsZ, and 16S rDNA sequences were compared, with all sequences belonging to the Wolbachia B supergroup. Based on wsp, ftsZ and 16S rDNA sequences of Wolbachia, three phylogenetic trees of similar pattern emerged. This analysis indicated the possibility of inter-species and intra-species horizontal transmission of Wolbachia in different arthropods in related geographical regions. The migration route of C. medinalis in mainland China was also discussed since large differentiation had been found between the wsp sequences of Chinese and Thai populations.
infection rate; phylogenetic relationship
The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is one of the most serious insect pests of rice in Asia. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the development, wing dimorphism and sex difference in this species. Genomic information for BPH is currently unavailable, and, therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are needed as an important resource to better understand the biological mechanisms of BPH.
In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis using short-read sequencing technology (Illumina) combined with a tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) system. The transcriptome analysis assembles the gene information for different developmental stages, sexes and wing forms of BPH. In addition, we constructed six DGE libraries: eggs, second instar nymphs, fifth instar nymphs, brachypterous female adults, macropterous female adults and macropterous male adults. Illumina sequencing revealed 85,526 unigenes, including 13,102 clusters and 72,424 singletons. Transcriptome sequences larger than 350 bp were subjected to Gene Orthology (GO) and KEGG Orthology (KO) annotations. To analyze the DGE profiling, we mainly compared the gene expression variations between eggs and second instar nymphs; second and fifth instar nymphs; fifth instar nymphs and three types of adults; brachypterous and macropterous female adults as well as macropterous female and male adults. Thousands of genes showed significantly different expression levels based on the various comparisons. And we randomly selected some genes to confirm their altered expression levels by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).
The obtained BPH transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information at the transcriptional level that could facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms from various physiological aspects including development, wing dimorphism and sex difference in BPH.
A novel esterase gene, pytH, encoding a pyrethroid-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase was cloned from Sphingobium sp. strain JZ-1. The gene contained an open reading frame of 840 bp. Sequence identity searches revealed that the deduced enzyme shared the highest similarity with many α/β-hydrolase fold proteins (20 to 24% identities). PytH was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified using Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. It was a monomeric structure with a molecular mass of approximately 31 kDa and a pI of 4.85. PytH was able to transform p-nitrophenyl esters of short-chain fatty acids and a wide range of pyrethroid pesticides, and isomer selectivity was not observed. No cofactors were required for enzyme activity.
Chicken type II collagen (CCII) is a protein extracted from the cartilage of chicken breast and exhibits intriguing possibilities for the treatment of autoimmune diseases by inducing oral tolerance. A 24-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, methotrexate (MTX)-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CCII in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Five hundred three RA patients were included in the study. Patients received either 0.1 mg daily of CCII (n = 326) or 10 mg once a week of MTX (n = 177) for 24 weeks. Each patient was evaluated for pain, morning stiffness, tender joint count, swollen joint count, health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), assessments by investigator and patient, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) by using the standard tools at baseline (week 0) and at weeks 12 and 24. Additionally, rheumatoid factor (RF) was evaluated at weeks 0 and 24. Measurement of a battery of biochemical parameters in serum, hematological parameters, and urine analysis was performed to evaluate the safety of CCII.
Four hundred fifty-four patients (94.43%) completed the 24-week follow-up. In both groups, there were decreases in pain, morning stiffness, tender joint count, swollen joint count, HAQ, and assessments by investigator and patient, and all differences were statistically significant. In the MTX group, ESR and CRP decreased. RF did not change in either group. At 24 weeks, 41.55% of patients in the CCII group and 57.86% in the MTX group met the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR-20) and 16.89% and 30.82%, respectively, met the ACR 50% improvement criteria (ACR-50). Both response rates for ACR-20 and ACR-50 in the CCII group were lower than those of the MTX group, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The DAS28 (disease activity score using 28 joint counts) values of the two treatment groups were calculated, and there was a statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups (P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal complaints were common in both groups, but there were fewer and milder side effects in the CCII group than in the MTX group. The incidence of adverse events between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05).
CCII is effective in the treatment of RA and is safe for human consumption. CCII exerts its beneficial effects by controlling inflammatory responses through inducing oral tolerance in RA patients.
Clinical trial registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-00000093.
This study aims to evaluate the multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity by magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 (MNPs-Fe3O4) and 5-bromotetrandrine (BrTet) MDR cell line K562/A02 solitarily or symphysially. The proliferation of K562 and K562/A02 cells and the cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) were evaluated by MTT assay. Cellular accumulation of daunorubicin (DNR) was analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses were performed to examine the mRNA and protein levels of mdr1, respectively. The results showed that the combination of MNPs-Fe3O4 and BrTet with effective concentrations significantly increased cytotoxicity against MDR cell line K562/A02. Both BrTet and MNPs-Fe3O4 increased the intracellular DNR accumulation in the K562/A02 cell line, and downregulated the level of mdr1 gene and expression of P-glycoprotein. Furthermore, the combination did not have significant cytotoxicity in PMBCs. We propose that MNPs-Fe3O4 conjugated with DNR and BrTet probably have synergetic effects on MDR reversal.
magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4; 5-bromotetrandrine; multidrug resistance K562/A02
AIM: To investigate the pathogenic role of cathepsin B and the protective effect of a cathepsin B inhibitor (CA-074Me) in fulminant hepatic failure in mice.
METHODS: LPS/D-Gal N was injected into mice of the model group to induce fulminant hepatic failure; the protected group was administered CA-074me for 30 min before LPS/D-Gal N treatment; the normal group was given isochoric physiologic saline. Liver tissue histopathology was determined with HE at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after Lps/D-Gal injection. Hepatocyte apoptosis was examined by TUNEL method. The expression of cathepsin B in liver tissues was investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Compared with the normal group, massive typical hepatocyte apoptosis occurred in the model group; the number of apoptotic cells reached a maximum 6 h after injection. The apoptosis index (AI) in the protected group was clearly reduced (30.4 ± 2.8 vs 18.1 ± 2.0, P < 0.01 ). Cathepsin B activity was markedly increased in drug-treated mice compared with the normal group (P < 0.01). Incubation with LPS/D-Gal N at selected time points resulted in a time-dependent increase in cathepsin B activity, and reached a maximum by 8 h. The expression of cathepsin B was significantly decreased in the protected group (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Cathepsin B plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of fulminant hepatic failure, and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074me can attenuate apoptosis and liver injury.
Fulminant hepatic failure; Hepatocyte apoptosis; Cathepsin B; CA-074me
In the title compound, C14H16N2O4S2, the dihedral angle between the aromatic ring planes is 76.8 (3)° and the S—N—N—S torsion angle is 122.5 (3)°. In the crystal structure, molecules form a chain structure by way of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
A highly N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate)-resistant Pseudomonas fluorescens G2 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) was mapped to identify potential split sites using a transposon-based linker-scanning procedure. Intein-mediated protein complementation was used to reconstitute glyphosate resistance from the genetically divided G2 EPSPS gene in Escherichia coli strain ER2799 and transgenic tobacco.
Appressorium is an infection structure of the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Analysis of gene expression profiles of appressorium development provides insight into the molecular basis of pathogenicity and control of this fungal plant disease. A cDNA array representing 2927 unique genes based on a large EST (expressed sequence tag) database of M. grisea strain Y34 was constructed and used to profile the gene expression patterns at mycelium and appressorium maturation stages. Compared with mycelia, 55 up-regulated and 22 down-regulated genes were identified in mature appressoria. Among 77 genes, 16 genes showed no similarity to the genome sequences of M. grisea. A novel homologue of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase was found to be expressed at low-level in mature appressoria of M. grisea. The results indicated that the genes such as pyruvate carboxylase, phospholipid metabolism-related protein and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase involved in gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and glycolysis, showed differential expression in mature appressoria. Furthermore, genes such as PTH11, beta subunit of G protein and SGT1 involved in cell signalling, were expressed differentially in mature appressoria. Northern blot analysis was used to confirm the cDNA array results.
Magnaporthe grisea; Mature appressoria; cDNA array; Gene expression profile
Although numerous studies have assessed the effect of foods and nutrients on colorectal carcinogenesis, few studies have investigated human eating behavior in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. In the present study, we assessed whether the reported behavior of eating anything at anytime influenced colorectal cancer risk and related plasma biomarkers. We prospectively followed 55,540 women in the Nurses’ Health Study who were aged 48 to 73 years, had no history of cancer, ulcerative colitis, or diabetes, and responded to the item “I eat anything I want, anytime I want” in the 1994 questionnaire. Blood samples were collected in 1989–1990 and analyzed for 1,994 women. During 12 years of follow-up, 552 colorectal cancer cases were documented. After adjusting for age, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, red and processed meat, and other known risk factors for colorectal cancer, women who reported eating anything at anytime experienced an increased risk of colorectal cancer (relative risk [RR]=1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.06–1.56) compared with those who did not report this behavior. In addition, reporting eating anything at anytime was associated with higher fasting plasma levels of insulin (P=0.04) and C-peptide (P=0.05). In conclusion, reports of eating anything at anytime are associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in this large prospective cohort study, independent of other potential risk factors for colorectal cancer.
Eating behavior; colorectal cancer; cohort study