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1.  Comparison of respiratory mechanics between sevoflurane and propofol-remifentanil anesthesia for laparoscopic colectomy 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;66(2):131-135.
Background
The creation of pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg positioning during laparoscopic surgery are associated with respiratory changes. We aimed to compare respiratory mechanics while using intravenous propofol and remifentanil vs. sevoflurane during laparoscopic colectomy.
Methods
Sixty patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy were randomly allocated to one of the two groups: group PR (propofol-remifentanil group; n = 30), and group S (sevoflurane group; n = 30). Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn), and respiratory resistance (Rrs) values at five different time points: 5 minutes after induction of anesthesia (supine position, T1), 3 minutes after pneumoperitoneum (lithotomy position, T2), 3 minutes after pneumoperitoneum while in the lithotomy-Trendelenburg position (T3), 30 minutes after pneumoperitoneum (T4), and 3 minutes after deflation of pneumoperitoneum (T5).
Results
In both groups, there were significant increases in PIP and Rrs while Cdyn decreased at times T2, T3, and T4 compared to T1 (P < 0.001). The Rrs of group PR for T2, T3, and T4 were significantly higher than those measured in group S for the corresponding time points (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
Respiratory mechanics can be adversely affected during laparoscopic colectomy. Respiratory resistance was significantly higher during propofol-remifentanil anesthesia than sevoflurane anesthesia.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2014.66.2.131
PMCID: PMC3948440  PMID: 24624271
Laparoscopy; Propofol; Remifentanil; Respiratory mechanics; Sevoflurane
3.  Dexmedetomidine and remifentanil in the perioperative management of an adolescent undergoing resection of pheochromocytoma -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;63(6):555-558.
A 15-year-old adolescent with unilateral multiple adrenal pheochromocytoma had an episode of subcortical intracerebral hemorrhage and seizure 6 weeks before the surgery. He was pretreated with terazosin, losartan, atenolol and levetiracetam for 2 weeks. Dexmedetomidine was started in the preoperative waiting area, and a combination of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil was continuously infused for most of anesthetic time. To control blood pressure, bolus injection of remifentanil and low-dose infusion of sodium nitroprusside, nicardipine, and esmolol were administered during three adrenergic crises. There was minimal post-resection hypotension, and his trachea was extubated safely 20 min after the surgery. He was discharged without noticeable complication. His catecholamine levels showed the steadily decreasing pattern during the operation in this case. Though a combination of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil may not prevent the hemodynamic instability impeccably during the tumor manipulation, this combination seems to be the way of interrupting release of catecholamines and minimizing hemodynamic fluctuations.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2012.63.6.555
PMCID: PMC3531537  PMID: 23277819
Catecholamine; Dexmedetomidine; Pheochromocytoma; Remifentanil
4.  Lumbar Plexopathy Caused by Metastatic Tumor, Which Was Mistaken for Postoperative Femoral Neuropathy 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2011;24(4):226-230.
Surgical excision was performed on a 30-years old woman with a painful mass on her left thigh. The pathologic findings on the mass indicated fibromatosis. After the operation, she complained of allodynia and spontaneous pain at the operation site and ipsilateral lower leg. We treated her based on postoperative femoral neuropathy, but symptom was aggravated. We found a large liposarcoma in her left iliopsoas muscle which compressed the lumbar plexus. In conclusion, the cause of pain was lumbar plexopathy related to a mass in the left iliopsoas muscle. Prompt diagnosis of acute neuropathic pain after an operation is important and management must be based on exact causes.
doi:10.3344/kjp.2011.24.4.226
PMCID: PMC3248587  PMID: 22220245
fibromatosis; liposarcoma; neuropathic pain
5.  Postoperative nausea and vomiting after endoscopic thyroidectomy: total intravenous vs. balanced anesthesia 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2011;60(6):416-421.
Background
Endoscopic thyroidectomy was recently introduced and has been rapidly accepted by surgeons and patients. The present study was conducted to estimate and compare the incidences of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after endoscopic thyroidectomy using two different anesthetic methods: sevoflurane based balanced anesthesia; total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA).
Methods
Ninety nine female patients that were scheduled to undergo elective endoscopic thyroidectomy under general anesthesia were enrolled. These patients were randomly allocated to receive sevoflurane based balanced anesthesia (BA group) or propofol-remifentanil anesthesia (TIVA group). PONV was evaluated using a 4-point Likert scale, and pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS; range 0 to 100) for 0-2, 2-6, and 6-24 hours postoperatively. At 24 hours postoperatively, overall patient satisfaction regarding PONV and pain were recorded.
Results
The incidence of PONV was 14.6% in the TIVA group and 51.3% in the BA group. The incidence of nausea at 0-2 and 2-6 hours postoperatively was lower in the TIVA group than in the BA group (4.2% vs. 35.9%, 6.3% vs. 23.1%, respectively), but no between-group difference was observed at 6-24 hours postoperatively (8.3% vs. 5.1%). Antiemetic usage at 0-2 and 2-6 hours was lower in the TIVA than the BA group (4.2% vs. 38.5%, 6.3% vs. 23.1%), but no between-group difference was observed for 6-24 hours (6.3% vs. 7.7%). There were no differences in pain or in patient satisfaction.
Conclusions
After endoscopic thyroidectomy, total intravenous anesthesia with propofol-remifentanil is associated with less PONV during the early postoperative period (0-6 hours) than sevoflurane based balanced anesthesia.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2011.60.6.416
PMCID: PMC3121088  PMID: 21738844
Endoscopic surgery; PONV; Thyroidectomy
6.  Comparison of the effectiveness of lidocaine and salbutamol on coughing provoked by intravenous remifentanil during anesthesia induction 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(5):319-322.
Background
Coughing is a side effect of opioids that is rarely studied. Here, we evaluated the incidence of remifentanil induced coughing during anesthesia induction in an attempt to identify its risk factors and to examine the preventive effects of lidocaine and salbutamol.
Methods
A total of 237 patients scheduled to undergo general anesthesia were allocated randomly into three groups. Group C received no medication, while Group L received 2% lidocaine at 0.5 mg/kg intravenously 1 minute prior to remifentanil infusion and Group S inhaled one metered aerosol puff of salbutamol 15 minutes prior to entering the operating room. Remifentanil was infused at 5 ng/ml by target controlled infusion and coughing was measured for five minutes and graded as none, mild, moderate, or severe based on the number of coughs.
Results
The incidences of coughing were 30.4%, 25.3%, and 35.4% in Groups C, L, and S, respectively. The incidences, onset times, and severity of coughing did not differ significantly among groups. In addition, multivariate analysis showed that non-smoking and a lower body weight were risk factors of remifentanil-induced coughing (odds ratio, 8.13; P = 0.024, 1.11, and 0.004, respectively).
Conclusions
The incidence of remifentanil-induced coughing was 30%. A total of 0.5 mg/kg lidocaine and 1 metered aerosol puff of salbutamol did not prevent coughing. Non-smoking and low body weight were found to be risk factors of remifentanil-induced coughing.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2010.59.5.319
PMCID: PMC2998651  PMID: 21179293
Cough; Lidocaine; Remifentanil; Salbutamol

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