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1.  Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus, but not Dopaminergic Medication, Improves Proactive Inhibitory Control of Movement Initiation in Parkinson's Disease 
Neurotherapeutics  2012;10(1):154-167.
Slowness in movement initiation is a cardinal feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD) that is still poorly understood and unsuccessfully alleviated by standard therapies. Here, we raise this major clinical issue within the framework of a novel theoretical model that allows a better understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in movement initiation. This model assumes that movement triggering is inhibited by default to prevent automatic responses to unpredictable events. We investigated to which extent the top-down control necessary to release this locking state before initiating actions is impaired in PD and restored by standard therapies. We used a cue–target reaction time task to test both the ability to initiate fast responses to targets and the ability to refrain from reacting to cues. Fourteen patients with dopaminergic (DA) medication and 11 with subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation were tested on and off treatment, and compared with 14 healthy controls. We found evidence that patients withdrawn from treatment have trouble voluntarily releasing proactive inhibitory control; while DA medication broadly reduces movement initiation latency, it does not reinstate a normal pattern of movement initiation; and stimulation of the STN specifically re-establishes the efficiency of the top-down control of proactive inhibition. These results suggest that movement initiation disorders that resist DA medication are due to executive, not motor, dysfunctions. This conclusion is discussed with regard to the role the STN may play as an interface between non-DA executive and DA motor systems in cortico-basal ganglia loops.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13311-012-0166-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s13311-012-0166-1
PMCID: PMC3557357  PMID: 23184315
Response inhibition; Executive control; Reaction time; STN-DBS; Dopamine; Akinesia
2.  A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Pathophysiological Changes Responsible for Mirror Movements in Parkinson’s Disease 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66910.
Mirror movements correspond to involuntary movements observed in the limb contralateral to the one performing voluntary movement. They can be observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) but their pathophysiology remains unclear. The present study aims at identifying their neural correlates in PD using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Ten control subjects and 14-off drug patients with asymmetrical right-sided PD were included (8 with left-sided mirror movements during right-hand movements, and 6 without mirror movements). Between-group comparisons of BOLD signal were performed during right-hand movements and at rest (p<0.005 uncorrected). The comparison between PD patients with and without mirror movements showed that mirror movements were associated with an overactivation of the insula, precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex bilaterally and of the left inferior frontal cortex and with a deactivation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and pre-supplementary motor area and occipital cortex. These data suggest that mirror movements in Parkinson’s disease are promoted by: 1- a deactivation of the non-mirroring inhibitory network (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, pre-supplementary motor area); 2- an overactivation of prokinetic areas (notably the insula). The concomitant overactivation of a proactive inhibitory network (including the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus) could reflect a compensatory inhibition of mirror movements.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066910
PMCID: PMC3692538  PMID: 23825583
3.  Proactive Inhibitory Control of Response as the Default State of Executive Control 
Refraining from reacting does not only involve reactive inhibitory mechanisms. It was recently found that inhibitory control also relies strongly on proactive mechanisms. However, since most available studies have focused on reactive stopping, little is known about how proactive inhibition of response is implemented. Two behavioral experiments were conducted to identify the temporal dynamics of this executive function. They manipulated respectively the time during which inhibitory control must be sustained until a stimulus occurs, and the time limit allowed to set up inhibition before a stimulus occurs. The results show that inhibitory control is not set up after but before instruction, and is not transient and sporadic but sustained across time. Consistent with our previous neuroimaging findings, these results suggest that proactive inhibition of response is the default mode of executive control. This implies that top-down control of sensorimotor reactivity would consist of a temporary release (up to several seconds), when appropriate (when the environment becomes predictable), of the default locking state. This conclusion is discussed with regard to current anatomo-functional models of inhibitory control, and to methodological features of studies of attention and sensorimotor control.
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00059
PMCID: PMC3293188  PMID: 22403563
executive control; response inhibition; go/nogo; alertness; warning; psychophysics; human
4.  Dopamine Agonists Diminish Value Sensitivity of the Orbitofrontal Cortex: A Trigger for Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease? 
The neurobehavioral underpinnings of pathological gambling are not well understood. Insight might be gained by understanding pharmacological effects on the reward system in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Treatment with dopamine agonists (DAs) has been associated with pathological gambling in PD patients. However, how DAs are involved in the development of this form of addiction is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that tonic stimulation of dopamine receptors specifically desensitizes the dopaminergic reward system by preventing decreases in dopaminergic transmission that occurs with negative feedback. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we studied PD patients during three sessions of a probabilistic reward task in random order: off medication, after levodopa (LD) treatment, and after an equivalent dose of DA (pramipexole). For each trial, a reward prediction error value was computed using outcome, stake, and probability. Pramipexole specifically changed activity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in two ways that were both associated with increased risk taking in an out-of-magnet task. Outcome-induced activations were generally higher with pramipexole compared with LD or off medication. In addition, only pramipexole greatly diminished trial-by-trial correlation with reward prediction error values. Further analysis yielded that this resulted mainly from impaired deactivation in trials with negative errors in reward prediction. We propose that DAs prevent pauses in dopamine transmission and thereby impair the negative reinforcing effect of losing. Our findings raise the question of whether pathological gambling may in part stem from an impaired capacity of the OFC to guide behavior when facing negative consequences.
doi:10.1038/sj.npp.npp2009124
PMCID: PMC2972251  PMID: 19741594 CAMSID: cams1534
fMRI; impulse control disorder; dopamine agonist; reward; addiction; reinforcement

Results 1-4 (4)