To examine national trends of pediatric epilepsy surgery usage in the United States between 1997 and 2009.
We performed a serial cross-sectional study of pediatric epilepsy surgery using triennial data from the Kids’ Inpatient Database from 1997 to 2009. The rates of epilepsy surgery for lobectomies, partial lobectomies, and hemispherectomies in each study year were calculated based on the number of prevalent epilepsy cases in the corresponding year. The age-race-sex adjusted rates of surgeries were also estimated. Mann-Kendall trend test was used to test for changes in the rates of surgeries over time. Multivariable regression analysis was also performed to estimate the effect of time, age, race, and sex on the annual incidence of epilepsy surgery.
The rates of pediatric epilepsy surgery significantly increased from 0.85 epilepsy surgeries per 1,000 children with epilepsy in 1997 to 1.44 epilepsy surgeries per 1,000 children with epilepsy in 2009. An increment in the rates of epilepsy surgeries was noted across all age groups, in boys and girls, all races, and all payer types. The rate of increase was lowest in blacks and in children with public insurance. The overall number of surgical cases for each study year was lower than 35% of children who were expected to have surgery, based on the estimates from the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy.
In contrast to adults, pediatric epilepsy surgery numbers have increased significantly in the past decade. However, epilepsy surgery remains an underutilized treatment for children with epilepsy. In addition, black children and those with public insurance continue to face disparities in the receipt of epilepsy surgery.
Epilepsy surgery; Pediatrics; Trends
To examine mortality and causes of death (COD) in socioeconomically disadvantaged persons with epilepsy (PWE) in the US.
We performed a retrospective open cohort analysis using Ohio Medicaid claims data between 1992 and 2008 to assess mortality and COD in 68,785 adult Medicaid beneficiaries with epilepsy. Case fatality (CF), mortality rates (MRs), standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), and years of potential life lost (YPLL) were calculated. The SMRs were estimated to compare risk of death in PWE with that in the general Medicaid population with and without disabilities. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs), YPLLs, and SMRs for specific COD were also obtained.
There were 12,630 deaths in PWE. CF was 18.4%, the age-race-sex adjusted MR was 18.6/1,000 person-years (95% CI, 18.3–18.9). The SMR was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.8 – 1.9) when compared to the general Medicaid population, and was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.3–1.6) when compared to those with disabilities. The average YPLL was 16.9 years (range, 1–47 years). Both epilepsy and comorbid conditions significantly contributed to premature mortality in PWE. Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and unintentional injuries were the most common COD and account for a large proportion of YPLL. Deaths from epilepsy-related causes occurred in about 10% of the cases.
Socioeconomically deprived PWE, especially young adults, experience high mortality and die 17 years prematurely. The high mortality in Medicaid beneficiaries with epilepsy affirms that comorbid conditions and epilepsy play a crucial role in premature death. Management of comorbid conditions is, at a minimum, as important as epilepsy management, and therefore deserves more attention from physicians, particularly those who care for Medicaid individuals with epilepsy.
Medicaid; Epilepsy; Premature mortality; Comorbid conditions
There is a dearth of studies on cancer outcomes in individuals with mental illness. We compared breast cancer outcomes in Medicaid beneficiaries with and without mental illness.
Using records from the 1996 to 2005 Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System (OCISS) and Medicaid files, we identified fee-for-service women age < 65 years diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer who had enrolled in Medicaid ≥ 3 months before cancer diagnosis (n = 2,177). We retrieved cancer stage, patient demographics, and county of residence from the OCISS. From Medicaid claims data, we identified breast cancer treatment based on procedure codes and mental illness status based on diagnosis codes, prescription drugs dispensed, and service codes. We developed logistic regression models to examine the association between mental illness, cancer stage, and treatment for locoregional disease, adjusting for potential confounders.
Women with mental illness represented 60.2% of the study population. Adjusting for potential confounders, women with mental illness were less likely than those without mental illness to have unstaged or unknown-stage cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.86; P = .005) or to be diagnosed with distant-stage cancer (adjusted OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.85; P = .005). We observed no difference by mental illness status in receipt of definitive treatment (adjusted OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.29; P = .08).
Among Ohio Medicaid beneficiaries, women with mental illness did not experience disparities in breast cancer stage or treatment of locoregional disease. These findings may reflect the equalizing effects of Medicaid through vulnerable individuals' improved access to both physical and mental health care.
The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (BCCP) in Ohio provides screening and treatment services for uninsured low-income women aged 40 to 64. Because participation in the BCCP might engender greater self-efficacy for cancer screening, we hypothesized that breast cancer and survival outcomes would be better in BCCP participants who become age-eligible to transition to Medicare than in their low-income non-BCCP counterparts.
Linking data from the 2000 through 2009 Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System with the BCCP database, Medicare files, Ohio death certificates (through 2010), and the US Census, we identified Medicare beneficiaries who were aged 66 to 74 and diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer. We compared the following outcomes between BCCP women (n = 93) and low-income non-BCCP women (n = 420): receipt of screening mammography in previous year, advanced-stage disease at diagnosis, timely and standard care, all-cause survival, and cancer survival. We conducted multivariable logistic regression and survival analysis to examine the association between BCCP status and each of the outcomes, adjusting for patient covariates.
Women who participated in the BCCP were nearly twice as likely as low-income non-BCCP women to have undergone screening mammography in the previous year (adjusted odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–3.09). No significant differences were detected in any other outcomes.
With the exception of screening mammography, the differences in outcomes were not significant, possibly because of the small size of the study population. Future analysis should be directed toward identifying the factors that explain these findings.
HIV status disclosure is a difficult emotional task for HIV-infected persons and may create the opportunity for both social support and rejection. In this study, we evaluated the proportions, patterns, barriers and outcomes of HIV- 1 status disclosure among a group of women in Uganda.
An exit interview was conducted one year post-partum for 85 HIV-infected women who participated in a study of HIV-1 transmission rates among NVP-experienced compared with NVP-naïve women in “The Nevirapine Repeat Pregnancy (NVP-RP) Study” at the Makerere University-Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, Kampala-Uganda, between June 2004 and June 2006.
Of the 85 women interviewed, 99 % had disclosed their HIV status to at least one other person. Disclosure proportions ranged between 1 % to employer(s) and 69 % to a relative other than a parent. Only 38 % of the women had disclosed to their sex partners. Women with an HIV-infected baby were more likely than those with an uninfected baby to disclose to their sex partner, OR 4.9 (95 % CI, 2.0 –11.2), and women were less likely to disclose to a partner if they had previously disclosed to another relative than if they had not, OR 0.19 (95 % CI, 0.14–0.52). The most common reasons for non-disclosure included fear of separation from the partner and subsequent loss of financial support 34 %, and not living with the partner (not having opportunities to disclose) 26 %. While most women (67 %) reported getting social support following disclosure, 22 % reported negative outcomes (neglect, separation from their partners, and loss of financial support). Following disclosure of HIV status, 9 % of women reported that their partner (s) decided to have an HIV test.
Results from this study show high overall HIV disclosure proportions and how this disclosure of HIV status can foster social support. However, proportions of disclosure specifically to male sex partners were low, which suggests the need for interventions aimed at increasing male involvement in perinatal care, along with supportive counseling.
HIV status; Disclosure; Perinatal; Mother-to-child; Partner
Background and Objectives
Epidural analgesia may increase survival after cancer surgery by reducing recurrence. This population-based study compared survival and treated recurrence after gastric cancer resection between patients receiving epidurals and those who did not.
We used the linked federal Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program/Medicare database to identify patients aged ≥66 with nonmetastatic gastric carcinoma diagnosed 1996–2005 who underwent resection. Exclusions included diagnosis at autopsy, no Medicare Part B, familial cancer syndrome, emergency surgery, and laparoscopic procedures. Epidurals were identified by CPT codes.
Treated recurrence was defined as chemotherapy ≥ 16 months and/or radiation ≥ 12 months after surgery. Recurrence was compared by conditional logistic regression. Survival was compared via marginal Cox proportional hazards regression.
We identified 2745 patients, 766 of whom had epidural codes. Patients receiving epidurals were more likely to have regional disease, be white, and live in areas with relatively high socioeconomic status. Overall treated recurrence was 25.6% (27.5% epidural and 24.9% non-epidural). In the adjusted logistic regression, there was no difference in recurrence (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.05).
Median survival did not differ: 28.1 months (95% CI 24.8 to 32.3) in the epidural versus 27.4 months (95% CI 24.8 to 30.0) in the non-epidural groups. The marginal Cox models showed no association between epidural use and mortality (adjusted HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.03).
There was no difference between groups regarding treated recurrence or survival. Whether this is true or simply a result of insufficient power is unclear. Prospective studies are needed to provide stronger evidence.
To compare survival and 5-year mortality, by Medicaid status, in adults diagnosed with 8 select cancers.
Linking records from the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System (OCISS) with Ohio Medicaid enrollment data, we identified Medicaid and non-Medicaid patients aged 15–54 years and diagnosed with the following incident cancers in the years 1996–2002: cancer of the testis; Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; early-stage melanoma, colon, lung, and bladder cancer; or pediatric malignancies (n=12,703). Medicaid beneficiaries were identified in the pre-diagnosis group if they were enrolled in Medicaid at least 3 months before cancer diagnosis, and in the peri/post-diagnosis group if they enrolled in Medicaid upon or after being diagnosed with cancer. We also linked the OCISS with death certificates and data from the U.S. Census. Using Cox and logistic regression analysis, we examined the association between Medicaid status and each of survival and 5-year mortality, respectively, after adjusting for patient covariates.
Nearly 11% of the study population were Medicaid beneficiaries. Of those, 45% were identified in the peri/post-diagnosis group. Consistent with higher mortality, findings from the Cox regression model indicated that compared to non-Medicaid, patients in the Medicaid pre-diagnosis and peri/post-diagnosis groups experienced unfavorable survival outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.52, 95% confidence interval (1.27, 1.82), and 2.01 (1.70, 2.38), respectively).
Medicaid status was associated with unfavorable survival, even after adjusting for confounders.
The findings reflect the vulnerability of Medicaid beneficiaries and possible inadequacies in the process of care.
Curable Cancers; Survival Outcomes; Medicaid Status; Linked Databases
To determine the minimum enrollment duration for identifying incident cases of epilepsy in administrative data.
We performed a retrospective dynamic cohort study using Ohio Medicaid data from 1992–2006 to identify a total of 5,037 incident epilepsy cases who had at least 1 year of follow-up prior to epilepsy diagnosis (epilepsy-free interval). The incidence for epilepsy-free intervals from 1 to 8 years, overall and stratified by pre-existing disability status, was examined. The graphical approach between the slopes of incidence estimates and the epilepsy-free intervals was used to identify the minimum epilepsy-free interval that minimized misclassification of prevalent as incident epilepsy cases.
As the length of epilepsy-free interval increased, the incidence rates decreased. A graphical plot showed that the decline in incidence of epilepsy became nearly flat beyond the third epilepsy-free interval.
The minimum of 3-year epilepsy-free interval is needed to differentiate incident from prevalent cases in administrative data. Shorter or longer epilepsy-free intervals could result in over- or under-estimation of epilepsy incidence.
Incidence; Administrative data; Epilepsy
To determine the incidence and prevalence of treated epilepsy in an adult Medicaid population.
We performed a retrospective, dynamic cohort analysis using Ohio Medicaid claims data between 1992 and 2006. Individuals aged 18–64 years were identified as prevalent cases if they had ≥2 claims of epilepsy (ICD-9-CM: 345.xx) or ≥3 claims of convulsion (ICD-9-CM: 780.3 or 780.39) and ≥2 claims of antiepileptic drugs. Incident cases were required to have no epilepsy or convulsion claims for ≥5 years before epilepsy diagnosis. Subjects were determined as having preexisting disability and/or comorbid conditions, including brain tumor, depression, developmental disorders, migraine, schizophrenia, stroke, and traumatic brain injury, when at least one of these conditions occurred before epilepsy onset.
There were 9,056 prevalent cases of treated epilepsy in 1992–2006 and 1,608 incident cases in 1997–2006. The prevalence was 13.2/1,000 (95% confidence interval, 13.0–13.5/1,000). The incidence was 362/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 344–379/100,000 person-years). The incidence and prevalence were significantly higher in men, in older people, in blacks, and in people with preexisting disability and/or comorbid conditions. The most common preexisting conditions in epilepsy subjects were depression, developmental disorders, and stroke, whereas people with brain tumor, traumatic brain injury, and stroke had the higher risk of developing epilepsy.
The Medicaid population has a high incidence and prevalence of epilepsy, in an order of magnitude greater than that reported in the US general population. This indigent population carries a disproportionate amount of the epilepsy burden and deserves more attention for its health care needs and support services.
To examine the effects of the occurrence and co-occurrence of comorbidities (COM), functional limitations (FL), and geriatric syndromes (GS) on treatment and outcomes in older cancer patients.
Materials and Methods
We used records from the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System linked with Medicare data, clinical assessment data from the home health care Outcomes and Assessment Information Set, and death certificate data. Our patient population included fee-for-service HHC Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with incident loco-regional breast or colorectal cancer in years 1999–2001 (n=1236). We grouped patients according to the presence of multimorbidity: (0): none of COM, FL, or GS; (1): occurrence – but no co-occurrence – of COM, FL, or GS; (2): co-occurrence of any two of COM, FL, and GS; and (3): co-occurrence of all three of COM, FL, and GS. Our outcomes were receipt of standard treatment, as well as overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) through 2005. Multivariable regression models were developed to analyze the independent association between multimorbidity and the outcomes, before and after adjusting for age.
The effect of multimorbidity on our outcomes was attenuated considerably by age. Adjusting for age and compared with no multimorbidity (0), high multimorbidity (3) remained significantly and negatively associated with receipt of standard treatment (adjusted odds ratio: 0.57, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.33, 0.97). Furthermore, high multimorbidity (3) was associated with increased hazard for OS, but not for DSS (adjusted hazard ratio and 95% CI: 2.15 (1.58, 2.93) for three entities).
Multimorbidity is significantly and independently associated with cancer treatment and OS, but not DSS.
Comorbidity; Functional Limitations; Geriatric Syndromes; Multimorbidity; Colorectal Cancer; Breast Cancer; Standard Treatment; Survival
Disparities in receipt of preventive services by people with mental illness have been previously documented. However, whether these disparities extend to screening mammography among individuals experiencing comparable barriers to accessing care has not been fully examined.
To determine whether disparities exist in receipt of screening mammography between women with and without mental illness enrolled in Medicaid, a program with documented potential to reduce healthcare disparities.
Receipt of screening mammography was examined among women aged 50–64 years enrolled in Ohio’s Medicaid program during the years 2002–2008 (n=130,088). Receipt of annual screening mammography was examined among those with at least one screening mammography during the study period. Mental illness was identified through diagnostic, service, and pharmacotherapy codes (n=61,661).
Compared to women without mental illness, more women with mental illness received at least one screening mammography during the study period (38.1% vs 31.7%, p<0.001). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, including the presence of comorbid conditions and length of enrollment in Medicaid, women with mental illness were 32% less likely to undergo at least one screening mammography (AOR 0.68, 95% CI= 0.66, 0.70). Among those who received at least one screening mammography, fewer women with mental illness received screening mammography on an annual basis (5.9% vs 12.7%, p< 0.001; AOR 0.53 (95% CI= 0.49, 0.56)). For all beneficiaries, each year of enrollment in Medicaid increased the likelihood of screening mammography use by at least 50%.
Medicaid beneficiaries with mental illness constitute a particularly vulnerable population for suboptimal breast cancer screening.
Because of reduced financial barriers, dual Medicare-Medicaid enrollment of low-income Medicare beneficiaries may be associated with receipt of definitive cancer treatment and favorable survival outcomes.
We used a database developed by linking records from the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System with Medicare and Medicaid files, death certificates, and U.S. Census data. The study population included community-dwelling Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, age 66 years or older, with low incomes, residing in Ohio, and diagnosed with incident loco-regional breast (n=838), colorectal (n=784), or prostate cancer (n=946) in years 1997–2001. We identified as “duals” Medicare beneficiaries who were enrolled in Medicaid at least three months prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression and survival models were developed to analyze the association between dual status and (1) receipt of definitive treatment; and (2) overall and disease-specific survival, after adjusting for tumor stage and patient covariates.
Dual status was associated with a significantly lower likelihood to receive definitive treatment among colorectal cancer patients (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.60, 95% Confidence Interval, or CI, [0.38, 0.95]), but not among breast or prostate cancer patients. Furthermore, dual status was associated with decreased overall survival among prostate cancer patients (Adjusted Hazard Ratio, or AHR, 1.45, 95% CI [1.05, 2.02]), and decreased disease-specific survival among colorectal cancer patients (AHR: 1.52 [1.05, 2.19]).
Enrollment of low-income Medicare beneficiaries in Medicaid is not associated with favorable treatment patterns or survival outcomes. Differences in health and functional status between community-dwelling duals and non-duals might help explain the observed disparities.
Dually Eligible; Low-Income Medicare-Medicaid Beneficiaries; Cancer-Related Outcomes; Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Cancer treatment; Linked Databases
HIV-infected infants may have CXCR4-using (X4-tropic) HIV, CCR5-using (R5-tropic) HIV, or a mixture of R5-tropic and X4-tropic HIV (dual/mixed, DM HIV). The level of infectivity for R5 virus (R5-RLU) varies among HIV-infected infants. HIV tropism and R5-RLU were measured in samples from HIV-infected Ugandan infants using a commercial assay. DM HIV was detected in 7/72 (9.7%) infants at the time of HIV diagnosis (birth or 6–8 weeks of age, 4/15 (26.7%) with subtype D, 3/57 (5.3 %) with other subtypes, P=0.013). A transition from R5-tropic to DM HIV was observed in only two (6.7%) of 30 infants over 6–12 months. Six (85.7%) of seven infants with DM HIV died, compared to 21/67 (31.3%) infants with R5-tropic HIV (p=0.09). Higher R5-RLU at 6–8 weeks was not associated with decreased survival. Infants with in utero infection had a higher median R5-RLU than infants who were HIV-uninfected at birth (p=0.025).
CCR5; CXCR4; HIV-1; infant; survival; transmission; tropism
Single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) can reduce the risk of HIV vertical transmission. We assessed risk factors for NVP resistance in plasma and breast milk from sdNVP-exposed Ugandan women.
Samples were analyzed using the Roche AMPLICOR HIV-1 Monitor Test Kit, v1.5, and the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System. NVP concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy.
HIV genotypes (plasma and breast milk) were obtained for 30 women 4 weeks after sdNVP (HIV subtypes: 15A, 1C, 12D, 2 recombinant). NVP resistance was detected in 12 (40%) of 30 breast milk samples. There was a non-significant trend between detection of NVP resistance in breast milk and plasma (p=0.06). There was no association of HIV resistance in breast milk with median maternal pre-NVP viral load or CD4 cell count, median breast milk viral load at 4 weeks, breast milk sodium >10 mmol/L, HIV subtype, or concentration of NVP in breast milk or plasma.
NVP resistance was frequently detected in breast milk 4 weeks after sdNVP exposure. In this study, we were unable to identify specific factors associated with breast milk NVP resistance.
nevirapine; HIV-1; breast milk; Uganda; vertical transmission; nevirapine resistance
To examine patterns of colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment and survival in relation to comorbidities (COM), functional limitations (FL), and geriatric syndromes (GS).
Our study population consisted of Ohio elders diagnosed with incident invasive CRC in the period August 1999 to November 2001 and admitted to home health care (HHC) in the 30 days before or after cancer diagnosis (n = 1009). We used data from the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System, vital records, and Medicare administrative data, including the HHC Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS), which includes detailed clinical data for HHC patients. Counts of COM, FL, and GS at baseline were retrieved from the OASIS. Multivariable logistic and survival models were developed to examine the association between clinical attributes and outcomes, adjusting for demographic covariates and cancer stage.
Comorbidities were associated with increased likelihood of surgery-only, but not with surgery + chemotherapy. Both FL and GS were associated with lower likelihood to undergo surgery-only or surgery + chemotherapy. Two or more GS was associated with disease-specific mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 2.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.80–4.07) and overall mortality (AHR: 2.34; 95% CI: 1.74–3.15). Two or more FL was associated with overall mortality (AHR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.10–1.62), but not with disease-specific mortality. COM was not associated with overall mortality, but was negatively associated with disease-specific mortality at borderline level of significance (AHR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.61–1.00).
Our findings demonstrate the importance of accounting for FL and GS, in addition to COM, when studying cancer-related outcomes in elders.
Comorbidities; Functional limitations; Geriatric syndromes; Colorectal cancer
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also called Human herpesvirus 8 or HHV8) is a γ-2 herpesvirus that causes Kaposi sarcoma. KSHV seroprevalence rates vary geographically with variable rates recorded in different sub Sahara African countries, suggesting that effects of genetic and/or environmental factors may influence the risk of infection. One study conducted in South Africa, where KSHV seroprevalence is relatively low, found that carriage of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles HLA-A*6801, HLA-A*30, HLA-A*4301, and HLA-DRB1*04 was associated with increased shedding of KSHV DNA in saliva. Confirmation of those results would strengthen the hypothesis that genetic factors may influence KSHV distribution by modulating KSHV shedding in saliva. To explore these associations in another setting, we used high resolution HLA-A, B, and DRB1 typing on residual samples from the Uganda Sickle Cell Anemia KSHV study, conducted in a high KSHV seroprevalence region, to investigate associations between HLA and KSHV shedding in saliva or peripheral blood among 233 children and their mothers. HLA-A and HLA-DRB1 alleles were not associated with KSHV shedding in our study, but our study was small and was not adequately powered to exclude small associations. In exploratory analyses, we found marginal association of KSHV DNA shedding in saliva but not in peripheral blood among children carrying HLA- B*4415 and marginal association of KSHV DNA shedding in peripheral blood but not in saliva among children carrying HLA- B*0801 alleles. The contribution of individual HLA polymorphisms to KSHV shedding is important but it may vary in different populations. Larger population-based studies are needed to estimate the magnitude and direction of association of HLA with KSHV shedding and viral control.
In Kampala, Uganda, in 2001, hepatitis C virus antibodies were found in 27 (4%) of 603 children and in 62 (12%) of 525 of their mothers. However, only ≈10% of positive results were confirmed by reverse transcription–PCR, which suggests frequent false-positive results or viral clearance. All sequenced types were genotype 4.
hepatitis C virus; genotype 4; Africa; epidemiology; phylogeny; sequencing; sickle cell anemia; transmission