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1.  Lesbians and cervical screening. 
Confusion exists in clinical practice about whether lesbians should be offered routine cervical smears. We found cervical smear abnormalities in a sample of 624 lesbians, including those who had never been sexually active with men. These findings suggest that lesbians should be routinely offered cervical cytology as part of the national screening programme. Evidence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in the 'exclusively lesbian' group indicates that sexual transmission of HPV may occur between women. The belief by some lesbians that they have less need for cervical smears, coupled with poor uptake of cervical screening by a significant proportion, demonstrates a need for education of lesbians and health service providers.
PMCID: PMC1313729  PMID: 10962789
2.  Bilateral Carpus Valgus with Cranial Bowing of the Distal Radius in a Foal 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1986;27(6):242-244.
Bilateral carpus valgus with concomitant outward rotation and cranial bowing of the distal radii was diagnosed in a crossbred foal. The foal was not lame on admission and showed no radiographic evidence of carpal bone abnormalities. Surgery was limited to the most severely affected leg, and consisted of a combination of growth promotion (periosteal transection and stripping) and temporary physeal retardation (transphyseal bridging) procedures. Correction of the valgus deformity was nearly complete in the operated limb and substantial improvement was observed in the cranial bowing and outward rotation in both limbs, five months postoperatively.
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PMCID: PMC1680257  PMID: 17422668
Horse; angular limb deformity; surgery; carpus valgus
3.  Herniation of Small Intestine Through the Right Lateral Ligament of the Bladder in a Bull 
A three year old Charolais bull was examined because of anorexia and depression of five days duration and progressive abdominal distention. Intestinal obstruction was diagnosed. A right flank celiotomy allowed diagnosis and correction of a herniated jejunoileal loop through the right lateral ligament of the bladder. An annular constriction located in mid-ileum was by-passed by ileocecal side-to-side anastomosis. The bull's appetite and fecal production returned to normal within 72 hours of surgery. Ten months following discharge the bull was reported to be well.
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PMCID: PMC1680056  PMID: 17422490
Intestinal obstruction; hernia; surgery; bovine
4.  Subluxation of the Carpus in Thirteen Horses 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1984;25(8):311-314.
The records of 13 horses of various breeds with subluxation of the radiocarpal, intercarpal or carpometacarpal joint, or combinations of these were reviewed. Subluxation was most common at the carpometacarpal joint (n = 10) and concomitant fractures of individual carpal bones or metacarpus II and IV were seen (n = 12).
Treatment comprised of immobilization in a full leg plaster cast for from four to 18 weeks. Three animals were euthanized, two because of cast complications and one because of a request by the owner. The remaining ten were saved to function as breeding animals.
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PMCID: PMC1790629  PMID: 17422436
Subluxation; carpus; horse
5.  Unusual Bone Healing in a White-tailed Deer 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1983;24(11):335-337.
Two sequential fractures in the left hind leg of a deer and their treatments are described. The first, a tibial fracture was treated using an intramedullary pin with full cerclage wires supported by a plaster cast. This fracture healed uneventfully. A subsequent second fracture involving the distal metatarsus was stabilized by external fixation. This fracture healed with the formation of a periosteal involucrumlike structure which encased the full length of the metatarsal bone. This involucrum was thought to be due to a sub-periosteal hematoma.
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PMCID: PMC1790462  PMID: 17422325
6.  Attempts at Surgical Correction of Unusual Colonic Fistulae in the Horse 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1983;24(7):222-223.
Two incidents of penetrating wounds into the abdominal cavity of horses are presented. In both events these had resulted in penetraton of the intestinal tract. Both animals had received only minimal veterinary attention in the acute stage and had survived with the formation of intestinal fistulae.
Attempts at surgical repair resulted in failure in one animal and in closure of the fistula in the second with some subsequent cosmetic defect.
PMCID: PMC1790342  PMID: 17422280
7.  Biotransformation of Sisomicin to Gentamicin C2b 
Sisomicin was transformed to gentamicin C2b by Micromonospora rhodorangea NRRL 5326. The mechanisms involved in the biotransformation are the 6′-N-methylation and the (4′-5′)-reduction. The progression of the methylation was followed by the isotope technique, but the reduction reaction was not monitored.
PMCID: PMC429914  PMID: 907326
8.  Outcome of limb amputations in wapiti: 13 cases (1995-2001). 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2001;42(12):936-939.
The object of this investigation was to determine the outcome of limb amputation in wapiti. Medical records of 13 wapiti that underwent limb amputation were reviewed to determine age, weight, sex, injury preceding amputation, limb amputated, amputation location, length of hospital stay, complications, and outcome. Ages ranged from 3 months to 8 years and weights from 70 kg to 280 kg. All animals were female. Eleven animals sustained catastrophic long bone fractures prior to amputation. Five animals had front limb amputations and 8 had hind limb amputations. Of these animals, 1 with a front limb amputaiton and 5 with hind limb amputations survived. Postsurgical inability to stand is associated with hospitalization of > 1 day. Of the 13 wapiti reviewed, 5 with hind limb amputations have produced and reared offspring. Hind limb amputation can be considered a viable alternative to euthanasia when catastrophic orthopedic injuries occur in female wapiti.
PMCID: PMC1476690  PMID: 11769619
9.  Comparison of 2 techniques for regional antibiotic delivery to the equine forelimb: intraosseous perfusion vs. intravenous perfusion. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2001;42(8):617-622.
The purpose of this study was to compare the synovial fluid concentrations and pharmacokinetics of amikacin in the equine limb distal to the carpus following intraosseous and intravenous regional perfusion. The front limbs of 6 horses were randomly assigned to either intraosseous or intravenous perfusion. A tourniquet was placed distal to each carpus and the limb perfused with 500 mg of amikacin. Systemic blood samples and synovial fluid samples were collected over 70 min from the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint, metacarpophalangeal joint, and digital flexor sheath. The tourniquet was removed following the 30 min sample collection. The mean peak amikacin concentration for the DIP joint was significantly higher with intravenous perfusion. There were no significant differences in time to peak concentration or elimination half-life between methods at each synovial structure. Each technique produced mean peak concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 times that of recommended peak serum concentrations for therapeutic efficacy.
PMCID: PMC1476572  PMID: 11519271
10.  An evaluation of chemical arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint in the horse by using monoiodoacetate. 
The use of monoiodoacetate (MIA) for arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIJ) and the effect of exercise on the degree of fusion were investigated. Eight horses received 3 injections (Weeks 0, 3, 6) of MIA (2 mL; 60 mg/mL) into the right or left front PIJ. Peri-operatively, the horses received phenylbutazone, butorphanol, and abaxial sesamoidean nerve blocks to relieve pain. During the study, the horses were monitored for general health, lameness, and swelling around the injection area. Radiographs were taken biweekly to evaluate bony fusion. Horses were randomly divided into non-exercised and exercised groups. Exercise consisted of 20 minutes of trotting on a treadmill (4 m/s), 3 days per week for 13 weeks. The horses were euthanized at 24 weeks. Slab sections of the PIJ were evaluated grossly and radiographically for bony fusion. Histologic examinations were performed to evaluate articular cartilage. Three horses were excluded from the study after developing soft tissue necrosis around the injection site, septic arthritis, and necrotic tendinitis. The remaining horses remained healthy, developed a grade 1 to 4 lameness with minimal to severe swelling in the PIJ region. All 5 horses showed radiographic evidence of bony fusion, however, no fusion was present when injected joints were examined on postmortem examination. Histologic examination revealed thinning of the cartilage, diffuse necrosis of chondrocytes, with the calcified zone intact. Subjectively, exercise did not influence the degree of cartilage destruction. Based on this study, chemical arthrodesis cannot be advocated in clinical cases because of the high complication rate and lack of bony fusion.
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PMCID: PMC1189620  PMID: 11041498
11.  Osteochondritis dessicans and subchondral cystic lesions in draft horses: a retrospective study. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1998;39(10):627-633.
The clinical features, radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome in 51 draft horses with osteochondritis dessicans (OCD) or subchondral cystic lesions (SC) are reported. Clydesdale and Percheron were the most commonly affected breeds, and affected animals represented only 5% of the hospital population of draft horses. Horses were most frequently affected in the tibiotarsal joints and 73% (24 of 33 cases) of the horses with tibiotarsal effusion were affected bilaterally. Osteochondritis dessicans of the distal intermediate ridge was the most common lesion found in the tibiotarsal joint. The stifle was also frequently affected; 87% (13 of 15 cases) of horses with femoropatellar OCD only were lame, and lesions were most commonly located on the lateral trochlear ridge. Sixteen cases were managed conservatively, 30 received surgery, and 5 were euthanized. Lameness, effusion, or both clinical signs resolved in more than 50% of surgically treated cases, but clinical signs improved in 30% of conservatively-managed cases.
PMCID: PMC1539460  PMID: 9789673
12.  Comparison of herniorrhaphy versus clamping of umbilical hernias in horses: a retrospective study of 93 cases (1982-1994). 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1996;37(5):295-298.
Many uncomplicated umbilical hernias have been managed successfully in foals by the application of a hernia clamp. Isolated reports of complications following clamp application have led some authors to suggest that it is an unsuitable method of treatment. Little information has been published comparing the complication rates associated with the use of hernia clamps and herniorrhaphy in the treatment of umbilical hernias. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report the characteristics of clinical cases of umbilical hernia and to compare the complication rates following these 2 treatment approaches. Information was collected from records or from owners to identify the occurrence of complications and owner satisfaction following treatment. Of 93 cases, 10 complicated and 18 uncomplicated hernias were treated by herniorrhaphy, 40 uncomplicated hernias were treated by clamping, 1 originally uncomplicated hernia was treated by both techniques, and 24 cases were untreated. Nineteen percent of uncomplicated hernias treated by herniorrhaphy, and 19% of those clamped developed minor complications. This study demonstrates that although minor complications may be associated with either technique, they generally do not result in significant morbidity.
PMCID: PMC1576383  PMID: 8705974
14.  A comparison of systolic blood pressure measurement obtained using a pulse oximeter, and direct systolic pressure measurement in anesthetized sows. 
Systolic blood pressure measurement obtained with a pulse oximeter has been compared to values obtained by other indirect methods in man. Direct pressure measurement is subject to less error than indirect techniques. This study was designed to compare systolic pressure values obtained using a pulse oximeter, with values obtained by direct arterial pressure measurement. The pulse oximeter waveform was used as an indication of perfusion. A blood pressure cuff was applied proximal to the pulse oximeter probe. The cuff was inflated until the oximeter waveform disappeared, this value was recorded as the systolic pressure at the disappearance of the waveform (SPD). The cuff was inflated to a pressure > 200 mmHg, then gradually deflated until the waveform reappeared, this value was recorded as the systolic pressure at reappearance of the waveform (SPR). The average of the two values, SPD and SPR, was calculated and recorded as SPA. The study was performed in sows (n = 21) undergoing cesarean section under epidural anesthesia and IV sedation. A total of 280 measurements were made of SPD, SPR and SPA. Regression analysis of SPA and direct measurement revealed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.81. Calculation of mean difference (bias) and standard deviation of the bias (precision) for direct pressure--SPA revealed a value of 1.3 +/- 12.1. When compared with direct measurement, the correlation of this technique was similar to that recorded for other indirect techniques used in small animals. This indicates that this technique would be useful for following systolic pressure trends.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1263681  PMID: 8004540

Results 1-15 (15)