Elevated left ventricular mass (LVM) is a strong predictor of negative cardiovascular outcomes, including heart failure, stroke, and sudden cardiac death. A relationship between close (< 50 m compared with > 150 m) residential proximity to major roadways and higher LVM has previously been described, but the mechanistic pathways that are involved in this relationship are not known. Understanding genetic factors that influence susceptibility to these effects may provide insight into relevant mechanistic pathways.
We set out to determine whether genetic polymorphisms in genes affecting vascular and autonomic function, blood pressure, or inflammation influence the relationship between traffic proximity and LVM.
This was a cross-sectional study of 1,376 genotyped participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed between 2000 and 2002. The impact of tagged single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) and inferred haplotypes in 12 candidate genes (ACE, ADRB2, AGT, AGTR1, ALOX15, EDN1, GRK4, PTGS1, PTGS2, TLR4, VEGFA, and VEGFB) on the relationship between residential proximity to major roadways and LVM was analyzed using multiple linear regression, adjusting for multiple potential confounders.
After accounting for multiple testing and comparing homozygotes, tagSNPs in the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AGTR1, rs6801836) and arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15, rs2664593) genes were each significantly (q < 0.2) associated with a 9–10% difference in the association between residential proximity to major roadways and LVM. Participants with suboptimal blood pressure control demonstrated stronger interactions between AGTR1 and traffic proximity.
Common polymorphisms in genes responsible for vascular function, inflammation, and oxidative stress appear to modify associations between proximity to major roadways and LVM. Further understanding of how genes modify effects of air pollution on CVD may help guide research efforts into specific mechanistic pathways.