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author:("agga, M R")
1.  Analysis of X chromosome genomic DNA sequence copy number variation associated with premature ovarian failure (POF) 
Human reproduction (Oxford, England)  2010;25(8):10.1093/humrep/deq158.
BACKGROUND
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a heterogeneous disease defined as amenorrhoea for >6 months before age 40, with an FSH serum level >40 mIU/ml (menopausal levels). While there is a strong genetic association with POF, familial studies have also indicated that idiopathic POF may also be genetically linked. Conventional cytogenetic analyses have identified regions of the X chromosome that are strongly associated with ovarian function, as well as several POF candidate genes. Cryptic chromosome abnormalities that have been missed might be detected by array comparative genomic hybridization.
METHODS
In this study, samples from 42 idiopathic POF patients were subjected to a complete end-to-end X/Y chromosome tiling path array to achieve a detailed copy number variation (CNV) analysis of X chromosome involvement in POF. The arrays also contained a 1 Mb autosomal tiling path as a reference control. Quantitative PCR for selected genes contained within the CNVs was used to confirm the majority of the changes detected. The expression pattern of some of these genes in human tissue RNA was examined by reverse transcription (RT)–PCR.
RESULTS
A number of CNVs were identified on both Xp and Xq, with several being shared among the POF cases. Some CNVs fall within known polymorphic CNV regions, and others span previously identified POF candidate regions and genes.
CONCLUSIONS
The new data reported in this study reveal further discrete X chromosome intervals not previously associated with the disease and therefore implicate new clusters of candidate genes. Further studies will be required to elucidate their involvement in POF.
doi:10.1093/humrep/deq158
PMCID: PMC3836253  PMID: 20570974
ovarian failure; X chromosome; CNV; female infertility; Q-PCR
2.  Immunolocalisation studies on six matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, in synovia from patients with osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis. 
OBJECTIVE--To assess the likely importance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) in the arthritic process. METHODS--Synovial samples from seven joints with rheumatoid arthritis and three osteoarthritic joints were analysed by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Using specific human antisera, we documented the frequencies and distributions of collagenase, stromelysins 1 and 2, matrilysin, gelatinases A and B, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. RESULTS--Stromelysin 1 was found in all synovia, bound to extracellular matrix, within cells, or both, indicating stromelysin synthesis. Matrilysin was present in only one active inflammatory synovium, and focal synthesis of collagenase and gelatinase A was seen in four synovia. Stromelysin 2 and TIMP-2 were not observed, but TIMP-1 synthesis was seen in five synovia, and in two active synovia the distribution of TIMP-1 positive cells was more widespread than that of MMPs. CONCLUSIONS--The presence of stromelysin 1 in all synovia clearly implicates this enzyme in joint damage. Collagenase, gelatinase A and matrilysin may also have a role in rheumatoid arthritis, but are not significant in osteoarthritis. However, marked regional variations were found in the synthesis of these MMPs, indicating not only that these diseases are episodic but that control of enzyme synthesis is focal. Only TIMP-1 may be considered an inhibitory factor.
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PMCID: PMC1005508  PMID: 7880117

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