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1.  No Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on Fear-Potentiated Startle in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder 
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned 2-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive–compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context-potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of OCD without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders.
doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00305
PMCID: PMC4158815  PMID: 25249953
deep brain stimulation; obsessive–compulsive disorder; fear-potentiated startle; context; bed nucleus of the stria terminalis
2.  Human Fear Acquisition Deficits in Relation to Genetic Variants of the Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 and the Serotonin Transporter 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63772.
The ability to identify predictors of aversive events allows organisms to appropriately respond to these events, and failure to acquire these fear contingencies can lead to maladaptive contextual anxiety. Recently, preclinical studies demonstrated that the corticotropin-releasing factor and serotonin systems are interactively involved in adaptive fear acquisition. Here, 150 healthy medication-free human subjects completed a cue and context fear conditioning procedure in a virtual reality environment. Fear potentiation of the eyeblink startle reflex (FPS) was measured to assess both uninstructed fear acquisition and instructed fear expression. All participants were genotyped for polymorphisms located within regulatory regions of the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1 - rs878886) and the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR). These polymorphisms have previously been linked to panic disorder and anxious symptomology and personality, respectively. G-allele carriers of CRHR1 (rs878886) showed no acquisition of fear conditioned responses (FPS) to the threat cue in the uninstructed phase, whereas fear acquisition was present in C/C homozygotes. Moreover, carrying the risk alleles of both rs878886 (G-allele) and 5HTTLPR (short allele) was associated with increased FPS to the threat context during this phase. After explicit instructions regarding the threat contingency were given, the cue FPS and context FPS normalized in all genotype groups. The present results indicate that genetic variability in the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, especially in interaction with the 5HTTLPR, is involved in the acquisition of fear in humans. This translates prior animal findings to the human realm.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063772
PMCID: PMC3661730  PMID: 23717480
3.  Neural responses to auditory stimulus deviance under threat of electric shock revealed by spatially-filtered magnetoencephalography 
NeuroImage  2007;37(1):282-289.
Stimulus novelty or deviance may be especially salient in anxiety-related states due to sensitization to environmental change, a key symptom of anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We aimed to identify human brain regions that show potentiated responses to stimulus deviance during anticipatory anxiety. Twenty participants (14 men) were presented a passive oddball auditory task in which they were exposed to uniform auditory stimulation of tones with occasional deviations in tone frequency, a procedure that elicits the mismatch negativity (MMN) and its magnetic counterpart (MMNm). These stimuli were presented during threat periods when participants anticipated unpleasant electric shocks, and safe periods when no shocks were anticipated. Neuromagnetic data were collected with a 275-channel whole-head MEG system and event-related beamformer analyses were conducted to estimate source power across the brain in response to stimulus deviance. Source analyses revealed greater right auditory and inferior parietal activity to stimulus deviance under threat relative to safe conditions, consistent with locations of MMN and MMNm sources identified in other studies. Structures related to evaluation of threat, left amygdala and right insula, also showed increased activity to stimulus deviance under threat. As anxiety level increased across participants, right and left auditory cortical as well as right amygdala activity increased to stimulus deviance. These findings fit with evidence of a potentiated MMN in PTSD relative to healthy controls, and warrant closer evaluation of how these structures might form a functional network mediating sensitization to stimulus deviance during anticipatory anxiety.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.04.055
PMCID: PMC2717627  PMID: 17566766
4.  Cortisol and DHEA-S are associated with startle potentiation during aversive conditioning in humans 
Psychopharmacology  2005;186(3):434-441.
Rationale
Fear conditioning reliably increases the startle reflex and stress hormones, yet very little is known about the effect of stress hormones on fear-potentiated startle. Cortisol and the sulfate ester of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S) are involved in stress and anxiety. Evidence suggests that low cortisol/DHEA-S ratio has a buffering effect on stress and anxiety in preclinical and clinical studies, suggesting that there may be a relationship between fear-potentiated startle and cortisol and DHEA-S activity.
Objective
The aim of the study was to examine whether there is a relationship between cortisol/DHEA-S ratio and fear-potentiated startle.
Methods
Thirty healthy subjects participated in a differential aversive conditioning experiment during which one of two stimuli (CS+) was paired with a shock, and the other was not (CS-). Conditioned responses were assessed with the startle reflex, defined as startle potentiation during CS+ compared to CS-. DHEA-S and cortisol levels were assayed from blood samples collected in both a baseline and an aversive conditioning session. Subjective state anxiety, arousal, and valence were assessed at various times during testing.
Results
Fear-potentiated startle was larger in individuals with high compared to low cortisol/DHEA-S ratio. Multiple regression analyses revealed that fear-potentiated startle was positively associated with cortisol and negatively associated with DHEA-S. There was no significant correlation between DHEA-S and cortisol levels.
Conclusion
These data suggest that cortisol and DHEA-S are involved in fear conditioning.
doi:10.1007/s00213-005-0124-2
PMCID: PMC2702204  PMID: 16052364
Fear conditioning; Fear-potentiated startle; Cortisol; DHEA-S; Stress; HPA

Results 1-4 (4)