Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are required for impulse conductance in excitable tissues. Navs have been linked to human cancers, including prostate. The expression and distribution of Nav isoforms (Nav1.1-Nav1.9) in human prostate cancer are not well established. Here, we evaluated the expression of these isoforms and investigated the expression of Nav1.8 in human prostate cancer tissues. Nav1.8 was highly expressed in all examined cells. Expression of Nav1.1, Nav1.2, and Nav1.9 were high in DU-145, PC-3 and PC-3M cells compared to LNCaP (hormone-dependent), C4-2, C4-2B, and CWR22Rv-1 cells. Nav1.5 and Nav1.6 were expressed in all cells examined. Nav1.7 expression was absent in PC-3M and CWR22Rv-1, but expressed in the other cells examined. Immunohistochemistry revealed intensive Nav1.8 staining correlated with more advanced pathologic stage of disease. Increased intensity of nuclear Nav1.8 correlated with increased Gleason grade. Our results revealed that Nav1.8 is universally expressed in human prostate cancer cells. Nav1.8 expression statistically correlated with pathologic stage (P=0.04) and Gleason score (P=0.01) of human prostate tissue specimens. The aberrant nuclear localization of Nav1.8 with advanced prostate cancer tissues warrant further investigation into use of Nav1.8 as a potential biomarker to differentiate between early and advanced disease.
Voltage-gated sodium channel; Prostate cancer; Prostate biomarker; Gleason score
Resveratrol (RSV), a natural compound present in the skin and seeds of red grapes, is considered a phytoestrogen and has structural similarity to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol. RSV inhibits tumor cell growth in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and negative (ER-) breast cancer cell lines resulting in cell specific regulation of the G1/S and G2/M stages of the cell cycle. However apoptotic cell death was only observed in ER+ MCF-7 cells. In this study, we designed and synthesized boronic acid derivative of RSV and evaluated their biological effects on ER+ MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The trans-4 analog inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells and is not a substrate for p-glycoprotein. The trans-4 analog induces G1 cell cycle arrest, which coincides with marked inhibition of G1 cell cycle proteins and a greater pro-apoptotic effect. Finally, the trans-4 analog had no effect on the estrogen-stimulated growth of MCF-7 cells. Our results demonstrate that the trans-4 analog inhibits MCF-7 breast cancer cells by a different mechanism of action than that of RSV (S-phase arrest), and provides a new class of novel boronic acids of RSV that inhibit breast cancer cell growth.
anticancer agent; boronic acid; estrogen receptor positive breast cancer; resveratrol
Many types of mutations in tumor suppressor p53 are oncogenic through gain-of-function. Therefore, targeting mutant p53 (mtp53) is a promising therapeutic approach to fight against many types of cancers. We report here a small molecule compound YK-3-237 that reduces acetylation of mtp53 and exhibits anti-proliferative effects toward triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells carrying mtp53. YK-3-237 activates SIRT1 enzyme activities in vitro and deacetylation of both mtp53 and wild type p53 (WTp53) in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Deacetylation of mtp53 resulted in depletion of mtp53 protein level and up-regulated the expression of WTp53-target genes, PUMA and NOXA. YK-3-237 also induces PARP-dependent apoptotic cell death and arrests the cell cycle at G2/M phase in mtp53 TNBC cells. Taken together, our data suggest that targeting acetylation of mtp53 is a potential target to treat human cancers.
mutant p53 (mtp53); deacetylation; SIRT1; activator; triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)
Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) are an important emerging class of drugs for the treatment of cancers. HDAC inhibitors are currently under evaluation in clinical trials as single agents and as sensitizers in combinations with chemotherapies and radiation therapy. Although these drugs have important effects on cancer cell growth and functions, the mechanisms underlying HDAC inhibitor activities remain to be fully defined. By using rational drug design, compound 2, a fluorescent class II HDAC targeting inhibitor, was synthesized and observed to accumulate in the cytoplasmic compartments of treated cells, but not in the nuclei. Furthermore, immunostaining of inhibitor exposed cells for HDAC4 showed accumulation of this enzyme in the cytoplasmic compartment with concomitant increased acetylation of tubulin and nuclear histones. These observations support a mechanism by which nuclear histone acetylation is increased as a result of HDAC4 trapping and sequestration in the cytoplasm after binding to compound 2. The HDAC inhibitor offers potential as a novel theranostic agent, combining diagnostic and therapeutic properties in the same molecule.
Myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) is an enzyme important to regulation of cell cycle and motility that is shown to be upregulated in aggressive prostate cancer cells and tissue. We developed a fluorescent small molecule inhibitor of MLCP using structure based design in recombinant protein phosphatase 1C. Several best fit compounds were synthesized and evaluated by their inhibition of MLCP/32P-MLC dephosphorylation, which resulted in the identification of novel MLCP inhibitors. Androgen dependent (AD) and castration resistant prostate cancer cell (CRPC) lines were treated with the lead inhibitor resulting in decreased growth rate, reduced DNA synthesis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Moreover, CRPC cell lines showed an increased sensitivity to drug treatment having GI50 values four times lower than the AD prostate cancer cell line. This was reinforced by reduced BrdU DNA incorporation into CRPC cells compared to AD cells. β-actin disruption was also seen at much lower drug concentrations in CR cells which caused a dose dependent reduction in cellular chemotaxis of PC-3 cells. Since there are currently few clinical therapeutics targeting CR prostate cancer, MLCP represents a new target for preclinical and clinical development of new potential therapeutics which inhibit this disease phenotype.
myosin phosphatase; prostate cancer; chemotaxis
The erythroblastosis virus E26 transforming sequences (ETS) family of transcription factors consists of a highly conserved group of genes that play important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. Chromosomal translocations fusing ETS factors to promoters of androgen responsive genes have been found in prostate cancers, including the most clinically aggressive forms. ERG and ETV1 are the most commonly translocated ETS proteins. Over-expression of these proteins in prostate cancer cells results in a more invasive phenotype. Inhibition of ETS activity by small molecule inhibitors may provide a novel method for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Methods and Findings
We recently demonstrated that the small molecule YK-4-279 inhibits biological activity of ETV1 in fusion-positive prostate cancer cells leading to decreased motility and invasion in-vitro. Here, we present data from an in-vivo mouse xenograft model. SCID-beige mice were subcutaneously implanted with fusion-positive LNCaP-luc-M6 and fusion-negative PC-3M-luc-C6 tumors. Animals were treated with YK-4-279, and its effects on primary tumor growth and lung metastasis were evaluated. YK-4-279 treatment resulted in decreased growth of the primary tumor only in LNCaP-luc-M6 cohort. When primary tumors were grown to comparable sizes, YK-4-279 inhibited tumor metastasis to the lungs. Expression of ETV1 target genes MMP7, FKBP10 and GLYATL2 were reduced in YK-4-279 treated animals. ETS fusion-negative PC-3M-luc-C6 xenografts were unresponsive to the compound. Furthermore, YK-4-279 is a chiral molecule that exists as a racemic mixture of R and S enantiomers. We established that (S)-YK-4-279 is the active enantiomer in prostate cancer cells.
Our results demonstrate that YK-4-279 is a potent inhibitor of ETV1 and inhibits both the primary tumor growth and metastasis of fusion positive prostate cancer xenografts. Therefore, YK-4-279 or similar compounds may be evaluated as a potential therapeutic tool for treatment of human prostate cancer at different stages.
Nicotine elicits hypothermic responses in rodents. This effect appears to be related to nicotinic receptor desensitization because sazetidine-A, an α4β2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent, produces marked hypothermia and potentiates nicotine-induced hypothermia in mice. To determine the specificity of sazetidine-A induced hypothermia to β2 subunit-containing nicotinic receptors, we tested its efficacy in β2 knockout (β2−/−) mice. These effects were compared with wildtype (WT) and α7 knockout (α7−/−) mice. Confirming our earlier results, sazetidine-A elicited a pronounced and long-lasting hypothermia in WT mice. In comparison, sazetidine-A induced a much attenuated and shorter hypothermic response in β2−/− mice. This indicates that the greater proportion of sazetidine-A induced hypothermia is mediated via actions on β2-containing nicotinic receptors, while a smaller component of hypothermia induced by sazetidine-A is mediated by non-β2 nicotinic receptors. Similar to WT mice, α7−/− mice showed the full extent of the sazetidine-A effect, suggesting that the hypothermia produced by sazetidine-A did not depend on actions on α7 nicotinic receptor subtype. Three other novel nicotinic receptor desensitizing agents derived from sazetidine-A, triazetidine-O, VMY-2-95 and YL-1-127 also produced hypothermia in WT and α7−/− mice. Furthermore, unlike sazetidine-A, triazetidine-O and YL-1-127 did not show any hint of a hypothermic effect in β2−/− mice. VMY-2-95 like sazetidine-A did show a residual hypothermic effect in the β2−/− mice. These studies show that the hypothermic effects of sazetidine-A and the related compound VMY-2-95 are mainly mediated by nicotinic receptors containing β2 subunit, but that a small component of the effect is apparently mediated by non-β2 containing receptors.
Nicotinic; Temperature Regulation; sazetidine-A; Desensitization; Knockout
Voltage-gated sodium channels are known to be expressed in neurons and other excitable cells. Recently, voltage-gated sodium channels have been found to be expressed in human prostate cancer cells. α-Hydroxy-α-phenylamides are a new class of small molecules that have demonstrated potent inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels. The hydroxyamide motif, an isostere of a hydantoin ring, provides an active scaffold from which several potent racemic sodium channel blockers have been derived. With little known about chiral preferences, the development of chiral syntheses to obtain each pure enantiomer for evaluation as sodium channel blockers is important. Using Seebach and Frater's chiral template, cyclocondensation of (R)-3-chloromandelic acid with pivaldehyde furnished both the cis- and trans-2,5-disubsituted dioxolanones. Using this chiral template, we synthesized both enantiomers of 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxynonanamide, and evaluated their ability to functionally inhibit hNav isoforms, human prostate cancer cells and xenograft. Enantiomers of lead demonstrated significant ability to reduce prostate cancer in vivo.
Ion channel blocker; Prostate cancer; Frater; Seebach
The HDAC shuttling inhibitor, YK-4-272 functions by restricting nuclear shuttling of Class II HDACs. Pre-clinical investigations of YK-4-272 bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, in vivo toxicity and tumor growth inhibition were performed to determine its potential as an HDAC shuttling disruptor for use in clinical applications.
The solubility, lipophilicity, in vitro metabolic stability, in vitro intestinal permeability, and in vivo pharmacokinetics of YK-4-272 were determined by HPLC methods. The anti-tumor activity of YK-4-272 was determined by monitoring athymic Balb/c nude mice bearing PC-3 xenografts.
Oral bioavailability of YK-4-272 is supported by its solubility (0.537 mg/mL) and apparent partition coefficient of 2.0. The compound was chemically and metabolically stable and not a substrate for CYP450. In Caco-2 cell transport studies, YK-4-272 was highly permeable. The time-concentration profile of YK- 4-272 in plasma resulted in a Cmax of 2.47 µg/mL at 0.25 h with a AUC of 3.304 µg×h/mL. Treatment of PC-3 tumor xenografts with YK-4-272 showed significant growth delay.
YK-4-272 is stable and bio-available following oral administration. Growth inhibition of cancer cells and tumors was observed. These studies support advancing YK-4-272 for further evaluation as a novel HDAC shuttling inhibitor for use in cancer treatment.
histone deacetylase shuttling disruptor; metabolism; YK-4-272
Here we report on a novel fluorescent analog of phenytoin as a potential inhibitor of neuropathic pain with potential use as an imaging agent. Compound 2 incorporated a heptyl side chain and dansyl moiety onto the parent compound phenytoin and produced greater displacement of BTX from sodium channels and greater functional blockade with greatly reduced toxicity. Compound 2 reduced mechano-allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain and was visualized ex vivo in sensory neuron axons with two-photon microscopy. These results suggest a promising strategy for developing novel sodium channel inhibitors with imaging capabilities.
Sodium channel inhibitor; Mechano-allodynia; Dansyl; Phenytoin; Neuropathic pain
Neuronal acetylcholine receptors mediate the addictive effects of nicotine and may also be involved in alcohol addiction. Varenicline, an approved smoking cessation medication, showed clear efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking smokers. More recently, sazetidine-A, which selectively desensitizes α4β2 nicotinic receptors, was shown to significantly reduce alcohol intake in a rat model. To develop novel therapeutics for treating alcohol use disorder, we designed and synthesized novel sazetidine-A analogs containing a methyl group at the 2-position of the pyridine ring. In vitro pharmacological studies revealed that some of the novel compounds showed similar overall pharmacological property profiles with that of sazetidine-A, but exhibited reduced agonist activity across all nicotinic receptor subtypes tested. In animal studies, compound (S)-9 significantly reduced alcohol uptake in rats. More importantly, preliminary results from studies in a ferret model indicate that these novel nAChR ligands have an improved adverse side-effect profile in comparison with that of varenicline.
nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; sazetidine-A; varenicline; desensitization; addiction; alcohol use disorders
Cadherin-11 (CDH11), associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transformation in development, poor prognosis malignancies and cancer stem cells, is also a major therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CDH11 expressing basal-like breast carcinomas and other CDH11 expressing malignancies exhibit poor prognosis. We show that CDH11 is increased early in breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in-situ. CDH11 knockdown and antibodies effective in RA slowed the growth of basal-like breast tumors and decreased proliferation and colony formation of breast, glioblastoma and prostate cancer cells. The repurposed arthritis drug celecoxib, which binds to CDH11, and other small molecules designed to bind CDH11 without inhibiting COX-2 preferentially affect the growth of CDH11 positive cancer cells in vitro and in animals. These data suggest that CDH11 is important for malignant progression, and is a therapeutic target in arthritis and cancer with the potential for rapid clinical translation
cadherin-11; breast cancer; glioblastoma; small molecule inhibitor; rheumatoid arthritis; celecoxib
The most effective way to move from target identification to the clinic is to identify already approved drugs with the potential for activating or inhibiting unintended targets (repurposing or repositioning). This is usually achieved by high throughput chemical screening, transcriptome matching or simple in silico ligand docking. We now describe a novel rapid computational proteo-chemometric method called “Train, Match, Fit, Streamline” (TMFS) to map new drug-target interaction space and predict new uses. The TMFS method combines shape, topology and chemical signatures, including docking score and functional contact points of the ligand, to predict potential drug-target interactions with remarkable accuracy. Using the TMFS method, we performed extensive molecular fit computations on 3,671 FDA approved drugs across 2,335 human protein crystal structures. The TMFS method predicts drug-target associations with 91% accuracy for the majority of drugs. Over 58% of the known best ligands for each target were correctly predicted as top ranked, followed by 66%, 76%, 84% and 91% for agents ranked in the top 10, 20, 30 and 40, respectively, out of all 3,671 drugs. Drugs ranked in the top 1–40, that have not been experimentally validated for a particular target now become candidates for repositioning. Furthermore, we used the TMFS method to discover that mebendazole, an anti-parasitic with recently discovered and unexpected anti-cancer properties, has the structural potential to inhibit VEGFR2. We confirmed experimentally that mebendazole inhibits VEGFR2 kinase activity as well as angiogenesis at doses comparable with its known effects on hookworm. TMFS also predicted, and was confirmed with surface plasmon resonance, that dimethyl celecoxib and the anti-inflammatory agent celecoxib can bind cadherin-11, an adhesion molecule important in rheumatoid arthritis and poor prognosis malignancies for which no targeted therapies exist. We anticipate that expanding our TMFS method to the >27,000 clinically active agents available worldwide across all targets will be most useful in the repositioning of existing drugs for new therapeutic targets.
African-American (AA) men experience increased risk of developing prostate cancers as well as increased mortality following treatment as compared to European-American (EA) men. The aim of our study was to identify biological factors with potential to predispose AA men to prostate tumor progression and metastasis. To identify cancer-specific gene expression patterns in AA men, we established primary prostate cancer epithelial cells from 14 AA and 13 EA men. High-throughput microarrays were used to investigate differences in global gene expression comparing the two groups. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry validated mRNA and protein expression levels. RNAi knockdowns provided support for biological significance for the identified genes in prostate cancer cells. Son of sevenless homolog 1 (SOS1) was overexpressed in AA-derived primary prostate cancer epithelial cells. Depletion of SOS1 in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells resulted in decreased capacities for cell proliferation, migration and invasion, at least partially through inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Tissue microarray analyses of SOS1 expression in prostate carcinomas correlated with Gleason’s grades of tumors, consistent with a possible role in prostate cancer progression. Investigation of prostate cancer derived epithelial cells has led to identification of SOS1 as a potential candidate biomarker and molecular therapeutic target in prostate cancer in AA men, consistent with the hypothesis that a biological basis exists for prostate cancer aggressiveness in AA men.
Prostate cancer; African American men; global mRNA expression profiling; migration and survival
Sazetidine-A is a selective α4β2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent and partial agonist. It has been shown in previous studies to significantly reduce nicotine self-administration in rats after acute or repeated injections. However, the effects of continuous chronic infusions of sazetidine-A on maintenance of nicotine self-administration and relapse after abstinence have yet to be examined.
This study evaluated the efficacy of continuous sazetidine-A infusions (sc) over a period of four weeks to reduce nicotine self-administration in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.
Sazetidine-A was administered via Alzet osmotic minipumps to young adult female and male rats at doses of 0, 2 or 6 mg/kg/day for four weeks. The effects of sazetidine-A on IV nicotine self-administration were examined in repeated 3-hour sessions over the first two weeks of infusion followed by one week of forced abstinence from nicotine and one week of resumed nicotine access.
The 6 mg/kg/day sazetidine-A dose significantly reduced overall nicotine self-administration compared with vehicle control across the sessions for both male (p<0.001) and female (p<0.05) rats. The lower 2 mg/kg/day sazetidine-A infusion dose was effective in reducing nicotine self-administration for male (p<0.001), but not female rats. No attenuation in sazetidine-A effectiveness was seen over the course of the four-week treatment. In the vehicle control group, male rats self-administered significantly (p<0.001) more nicotine than females.
The continuing effectiveness of sazetidine-A in reducing nicotine self-administration in both male and female rats supports its promise as a new treatment to help people successfully quit smoking.
Nicotine; Sazetidine-A; chronic; Self-administration; Sex differences
Manipulations of nicotinic cholinergic receptors have been shown to influence both alcohol and nicotine intake. Sazetidine-A [6-(5(((S)-azetidine-2-yl)methoxy)pyridine-3-yl)hex-5-yn-1-ol] is a novel compound that potently and selectively desensitizes α4β2 nicotinic receptors with only modest receptor activation.
The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of sazetidine-A on alcohol and nicotine self-administration in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.
P rats were given the choice of water or alcohol. Once stable baselines were established, the acute (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, s.c.) and chronic (3 mg/kg for 10 days) effects of sazetidine-A on alcohol intake were assessed. Naltrexone (2.5 mg/kg) served as a positive control. The effect of sazetidine-A (3 mg/kg) and naltrexone (4 mg/kg) on saccharin (0.2%) preference was also assessed. In addition, the acute effects of sazetidine-A (3 mg/kg) and naltrexone (4 mg/kg) on alcohol intake after alcohol deprivation were evaluated. In another experiment, the effects of sazetidine-A (0, 1, or 3 mg/kg) on IV nicotine self-administration in P and NP rats were assessed.
Sazetidine-A caused a dose-dependent reduction in alcohol intake. Chronic sazetidine-A also effectively reduced alcohol intake until the seventh day of treatment, when partial tolerance appeared to develop. In the post-deprivation study, sazetidine-A significantly reduced alcohol intake and preference. Sazetidine-A at 3 mg/kg significantly reduced nicotine self-administration in both lines.
Sazetidine-A significantly reduced alcohol and nicotine intake in P rats that self-administer higher levels of both drugs. Sazetidine-A may hold promise for the treatment of alcohol and nicotine addiction.
Alcoholism; P rats; Nicotinic agonists; Alcohol drinking; Naltrexone; Treatment; Animal model; Saccharin; Nicotine addiction
Voltage gated sodium channels represent an important therapeutic target for a number of neurological disorders including epilepsy. Unfortunately, medicinal chemistry strategies for discovering new classes of antagonist for trans-membrane ion channels have been limited to mostly broad screening compound arrays. We have developed new sodium channel antagonist based on a propofol scaffold using the ligand based strategy of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA). The resulting CoMFA model was correlated and validated to provide insights into the design of new antagonists and to prioritize synthesis of these new structural analogues (compounds 4 and 5) that satisfied the steric and electrostatic model. Compounds 4 and 5 were evaluated for [3H]-batrachotoxinin-A-20-α-benzoate ([3H]-BTX-B) displacement yielding IC50's of 22 and 5.7 μM, respectively. We further examined the potency of these two compounds to inhibit neuronal sodium currents recorded from cultured hippocampal neurons. At a concentration of 50 μM, compounds 4 and 5 tonically inhibited sodium channels currents by 59 ± 7.8% (n=5) and 70 ± 7.5% (n=7) respectively. This clearly demonstrates that these compounds functionally antagonize native neuronal sodium channel currents. In summary, we have shown that CoMFA can be effectively used to discover new classes of sodium channel antagonists.
amides; alcohols; sodium channels; hippocampal neurons; propofol
The glycan β-galactosamine-(1–4)-3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol, called INS-2, was previously isolated from liver as a putative second messenger-modulator for insulin. Synthetic INS-2 injected intravenously in rats is both insulin-mimetic and insulin-sensitizing. This bioactivity is attributed to allosteric activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase (PDHP) and protein phosphatase 2Cα (PP2Cα). Towards identification of potentially metabolically stable analogues of INS-2 and illumination of the mechanism of enzymatic activation, C-INS-2, the exact C-glycoside of INS-2, and C-INS-2-OH the deaminated analog of C-INS-2, were synthesized and their activity against these two enzymes evaluated. C-INS-2 activates PDHP comparable to INS-2, but failed to activate PP2Cα. C-INS-2-OH was inactive against both phosphatases. These results and modeling of INS-2, C-INS-2 and C-INS-2-OH into the 3D structure of PDHP and PP2Cα, suggest that INS-2 binds to distinctive sites on the two different phosphatases to activate insulin signaling. Thus the carbon analog could selectively favor glucose disposal via oxidative pathways.
C-glycoside; insulin mediator-modulator; pyruvate dehydrogenase; protein phosphatase
Hermitamides A and B are lipopeptides isolated from a Papau New Guinea collection of the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. We hypothesized that the hermitamides are ligands for the human voltage-gated sodium channel (hNaV) based on their structural similarity to the jamaicamides. Herein, we describe the nonracemic total synthesis of hermitamides A and B and their epimers. We report the ability of the hermitamides to displace [3H]-BTX at 10 μM more potently than phenytoin, a clinically used sodium channel blocker, a potential binding mode for (S)-hermitamide B in the BTX-binding site, and electrophysiology showing that these compounds are potent blockers of the hNav1.2 voltage-gated sodium channel.
Sodium channel blockers; Hermitamide A; Hermitamide B; Lyngbic acid; Lyngbya majuscula
Background: Unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3) regulates gene expression, but the mechanisms of its DNA binding are not fully understood.
Results: U-STAT3 binds to the same γ-activated sequence (GAS) DNA-binding site as phosphorylated STAT3. It also binds to AT-rich DNA structures.
Conclusion: U-STAT3 regulates gene expression by binding to GAS and influencing chromatin organization.
Significance: Our data provide an explanation of mechanisms of U-STAT3 binding to DNA.
Phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) on a single tyrosine residue in response to growth factors, cytokines, interferons, and oncogenes activates its dimerization, translocation to the nucleus, binding to the interferon γ (gamma)-activated sequence (GAS) DNA-binding site and activation of transcription of target genes. STAT3 is constitutively phosphorylated in various cancers and drives gene expression from GAS-containing promoters to promote tumorigenesis. Recently, roles for unphosphorylated STAT3 (U-STAT3) have been described in response to cytokine stimulation, in cancers, and in maintenance of heterochromatin stability. However, the mechanisms underlying U-STAT3 binding to DNA has not been fully investigated. Here, we explore STAT3-DNA interactions by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. We observed that U-STAT3 molecules bind to the GAS DNA-binding site as dimers and monomers. In addition, we observed that U-STAT3 binds to AT-rich DNA sequence sites and recognizes specific DNA structures, such as 4-way junctions and DNA nodes, within negatively supercoiled plasmid DNA. These structures are important for chromatin organization and our data suggest a role for U-STAT3 as a chromatin/genome organizer. Unexpectedly, we found that a C-terminal truncated 67.5-kDa STAT3 isoform recognizes single-stranded spacers within cruciform structures that also have a role in chromatin organization and gene expression. This isoform appears to be abundant in the nuclei of cancer cells and, therefore, may have a role in regulation of gene expression. Taken together, our data highlight novel mechanisms by which U-STAT3 binds to DNA and supports U-STAT3 function as a transcriptional activator and a chromatin/genomic organizer.
Atomic Force Microscopy; DNA Structure; STAT Transcription Factor; STAT3; Transcription Factors; DNA Binding; Microscale Thermophoresis
Oncogenic fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1, are excellent therapeutic targets as they are only located within the tumor. However, there are currently no agents targeted toward transcription factors, which are often considered to be ‘undruggable.’ A considerable body of evidence is accruing that refutes this claim based upon the intrinsic disorder of transcription factors. Our previous studies show that RNA Helicase A (RHA) enhances the oncogenesis of EWS-FLI1, a putative intrinsically disordered protein. Interruption of this protein-protein complex by small molecule inhibitors validates this interaction as a unique therapeutic target. Single enantiomer activity from a chiral compound has been recognized as strong evidence for specificity in a small molecule-protein interaction. Our compound, YK-4-279, has a chiral center and can be separated into two enantiomers by chiral HPLC. We show that there is a significant difference in activity between the two enantiomers. (S)-YK-4-279 is able to disrupt binding between EWS-FLI1 and RHA in an immunoprecipitation assay and blocks the transcriptional activity of EWS-FLI1, while (R)-YK-4-279 cannot. Enantiospecific effects are also established in cytotoxicity assays and caspase assays, where up to a log-fold difference is seen between (S)-YK-4-279 and the racemic YK-4-279. Our findings indicate that only one enantiomer of our small molecule is able to specifically target a protein-protein interaction. This work is significant for its identification of a single enantiomer effect upon a protein interaction suggesting that small molecule targeting of intrinsically disordered proteins can be specific. Furthermore, proving YK-4-279 has only one functional enantiomer will be helpful in moving this compound towards clinical trials.
YK-4-279; EWS-FLI1; RHA
Medulloblastoma is the most prevalent of childhood brain malignancies, constituting 25% of childhood brain tumors. Craniospinal radiotherapy is a standard of care, followed by a 12 mo regimen of multi-agent chemotherapy. For children less than 3 y of age, irradiation is avoided due to its destructive effects on the developing nervous system. Long-term prognosis is worst for these youngest children and more effective treatment strategies with a better therapeutic index are needed. VMY-1-103, a novel dansylated analog of purvalanol B, was previously shown to inhibit cell cycle progression and proliferation in prostate and breast cancer cells more effectively than purvalanol B. In the current study, we have identified new mechanisms of action by which VMY-1-103 affected cellular proliferation in medulloblastoma cells. VMY-1-103, but not purvalanol B, significantly decreased the proportion of cells in s phase and increased the proportion of cells in G2/M. VMY-1-103 increased the sub G1 fraction of apoptotic cells, induced paRp and caspase-3 cleavage and increased the levels of the Death Receptors DR4 and DR5, Bax and Bad while decreasing the number of viable cells, all supporting apoptosis as a mechanism of cell death. p21CIp1/WaF1 levels were greatly suppressed. Importantly, we found that while both VMY and flavopiridol inhibited intracellular CDK1 catalytic activity, VMY-1-103 was unique in its ability to severely disrupt the mitotic spindle apparatus, significantly delaying metaphase and disrupting mitosis. Our data suggest that VMY-1-103 possesses unique antiproliferative capabilities and that this compound may form the basis of a new candidate drug to treat medulloblastoma.
medulloblastoma; apoptosis; mitotic catastrophe; CDK inhibitor; mitosis; cell cycle
Neovascularization is essential for the survival and successful integration of most engineering tissues after implantation in vivo. The objective of this study was to elucidate possible mechanisms of phthalimide neovascular factor 1 (PNF1), a new synthetic small molecule proposed for therapeutic induction of angiogenesis. Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid microarray analysis was used to identify 568 transcripts in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) that were significantly regulated after 24-h stimulation with 30 μM of PNF1, previously known as SC-3–149. Network analysis tools were used to identify genetic networks of the global biological processes involved in PNF1 stimulation and to describe known molecular and cellular functions that the drug regulated most highly. Examination of the most significantly perturbed networks identified gene products associated with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), which has many known effects on angiogenesis, and related signal transduction pathways. These include molecules integral to the thrombospondin, plasminogen, fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, ephrin, Rho, and Ras signaling pathways that are essential to endothelial function. Moreover, real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of select genes showed significant increases in TGF-β-associated receptors endoglin and beta glycan. These experiments provide important insight into the pro-angiogenic mechanism of PNF1, namely, TGF-β-associated signaling pathways, and may ultimately offer new molecular targets for directed drug discovery.
Genomic rearrangements involving the ETS family of transcription factors occur in 40–70% of prostate cancer cases. ERG and ETV1 are the most common ETS members observed in these genetic alterations. The high prevalence of these rearrangements and their biological significance represents a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Methods and Findings
We recently reported the development of YK-4-279, a small molecule inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 oncoprotein in Ewing's Sarcoma. Since ERG and ETV1 belong to the same class of ETS factors as FLI1, we tested the ability of YK-4-279 to inhibit biological functions of ERG and ETV1 proteins in prostate cancer. YK-4-279 inhibited ERG and ETV1 mediated transcriptional activity in a luciferase assay. YK-4-279 also decreased ERG and ETV1 downstream target mRNA and protein expression in ETV1-fusion positive LNCaP and ERG fusion positive VCaP cells. YK-4-279 reduced the motility of LNCaP cells in a scratch assay and the invasive phenotype of both LNCaP and VCaP cells in a HUVEC invasion assay. Fusion-negative PC3 cells were unresponsive to YK-4-279. SiRNA mediated ERG knockdown in VCaP cells resulted in a loss of drug responsiveness. Concurrently, transient ERG expression in PC-3 cells resulted in increased invasive potential, which was reduced by YK-4-279.
These data demonstrate that YK-4-279 inhibits ERG and ETV1 biological activity in fusion-positive prostate cancer cells leading to decreased motility and invasion. Therefore, YK-4-279 may have an impact on metastasis in prostate cancer and it may be further evaluated for its clinical applications in prostate cancer in addition to Ewing's sarcoma.
The voltage-gated sodium channel remains a rich area for the development of novel blockers. In this study we used comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), a ligand-based design strategy, to generate a 3D model based upon local anesthetics, hydantoins, and α-hydroxyphenylamides to elucidate a SAR for their binding site in the neuronal sodium channel. Correlation by partial least squares (PLS) analysis of in vitro sodium channel binding activity (expressed as pIC50) and the CoMFA descriptor column generated a final non-cross-validated model with q2 = 0.926 for the training set. The CoMFA steric and electrostatic maps described a binding site predominately hydrophobic in nature. This model was then used to design and predict a series of novel sodium channel blockers that utilized overlapping structural features of phenytoin, hydroxy amides, and the local anesthetic lidocaine. Synthesis and evaluation of these compounds for their ability to inhibit [3H]-batrachotoxin revealed that these compounds have potent sodium channel blockade. Furthermore, the CoMFA model was able to accurately predict the binding of these compounds to the neuronal sodium channel. Synthesis and subsequent sodium channel evaluation of compound 37 (predicted IC50 = 7 μM, actual IC50 = 6 μM), established that novel compounds based on overlapping regions of phenytoin and lidocaine are better binders to the sodium channel than phenytoin itself (IC50 = 40 μM).
Sodium channels; CoMFA; Antagonist; Electrophysiology