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1.  Human papilloma virus 16/18 genotypes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of cervix in northeast Iran 
A relation has been established between infection with high-risk types of human papilloma virus (HPV) and development of cervical cancer. To estimate the risk of HPV infection for cervical malignancies, we conducted a case-control study in northeast Iran.
Materials and Methods:
This study was carried out on 123 paraffin embedded blocks with exact diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A total of 100 cervical tissue specimens with normal histopathology product of hysterectomy were also used as control. Both groups were tested for the presence of HPV DNA and HPV 16/18 subtypes using PCR assay.
Large non-keratinising subtype of cervical carcinoma was the most frequent one (62.6%), followed by keratinising and small cell subtypes (27% and 10%, respectively). Overall prevalence of HPV infection in SCC of cervix was 34.2% (42 out of 123 cases). HPV 16 was the most common type in this group (21 cases, 17.1%), followed by HPV 18 (16 cases, 13%) and other subtypes (5 cases, 4.1%). In this study, overall prevalence of HPV infection in control group was 12% (including 3% HPV 16; 5% HPV 18 and 4% other subtypes).
Although association of HPV 16/18 and SCC of cervix was relatively higher than control group, compared with the previous study, the association between cervical SCC and HPV infection was significantly lower in our study; and possibly, the other risk factors play a major role in carcinogenesis of cervical carcinoma in this region.
PMCID: PMC4262847  PMID: 25538369
HPV 16/18; HPV; PCR; SCC of cervix
2.  Immunohistochemical Expression of Apoptosis Regulators in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix and Their Association with Human Papillomavirus 16/18 Subtypes 
Balkan Medical Journal  2014;31(3):202-207.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important aetiological factor in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix. Limited studies have been focused on the differences between carcinogenesis of SCCs with and without HPV infection.
The main goal of this study is to determine the expression of some of the apoptotic pathway regulators, including P53, Bax and Bcl2 in SCCs with and without high risk HPV 16/18 infection.
Study Design:
Cross sectional study.
A total of 42 paraffin-embedded blocks with the histopathological diagnosis of invasive SCC with determined HPV 16/18 status were selected; half of them were HPV positive and the rest were negative. Afterwards, immunohistochemistry stained slides for p53, Bcl2 and Bax were evaluated with H-score, multiplicative and Additive Quick score by two pathologists; in cases of controversy about the results, the mean results were recorded.
Mean results and percentage of expression of our three markers were significantly higher in the HPV 16/18 infected group than in uninfected individuals: Respectively, the mean score for Bcl2, Bax and p53 staining according to H-scoring method was 68.5, 234, 106.4 in the HPV 16/18 infected group and 4.5, 218.8, 5.07 in the uninfected group; and the Multiplicative Quick score was 4, 14.6, 8.2 in the HPV 16/18 infected group and 3, 12.3, 3.5 in the uninfected group.
High risk HPVs possibly act in favour of apoptotic pathway inactivation. The significant difference in apoptotic pathway between SCCs with and without high risk HPVs suggests a different early carcinogenesis pathway.
PMCID: PMC4299963  PMID: 25625017
Bax; Bcl2; cervix; human papilloma virus; p53; squamous cell carcinoma
3.  A Comparative Study of Serum Level of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM-1) and High Sensitive C - reactive protein (hs-CRP) in Normal and Pre-eclamptic Pregnancies 
Objective(s): Pre-eclampsia is characterized by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and increased systemic inflammatory response and has been associated with an increased maternal risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be a central pathogenic feature in pre-eclampsia on the basis of elevated adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to determine the level of plasma serum level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), high sensitive C- reactive protein (hs-CRP) in pre-eclampsia and to compare hs-CRP levels between normal pregnant women, mild and severe pre-eclampsia.
Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1, ICAM-1 and hs-CRP in peripheral blood obtained from normal pregnant women (n=40), mild pre-eclampsia (n=37) and severe pre-eclampsia (n=38). Concentrations of soluble adhesion molecule was determined with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: There were significant difference in the means serum hs-CRP between normal pregnant women and mild pre-eclamptic women (P<0.05). Serum concentration of hs-CRP, sVCAM-1( and sICAM-1( were significantly higher in severe pre-eclampsia (P<0.05) than normal pregnancy. There were also significant differences in hs-CRP, s ICAM- 1 and in sVCAM- 1 levels between mild and severe pre-eclampsia (P<0.05). There was no difference in the mean plasma log sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 between normal pregnant women and mild pre-eclamptic women.
Conclusion: We have determined the serum concentration of soluble adhesion molecule ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and hsCRP in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Adhesion molecule is elevated in severe pre-eclampsia compared with normal pregnancy, hsCRP are elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with mild preeclampsia and normal pregnancy and may be useful in predicting the severity of pre-eclampsia.
PMCID: PMC3700043  PMID: 23826490
Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1); High sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); Intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1); Pre-eclampsia; Soluble vascular cell
4.  A comparative study of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and high-sensitive C-reactive protein in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies 
Preeclampsia is characterized by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and systemic inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to determine the level of serum level of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in preeclampsia and to compare normal pregnant, mild preeclamptic, and severe preeclamptic women.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1 and hsCRP in peripheral blood obtained from normal pregnant (n = 40), mild preeclamptic (n = 37), and severe preeclamptic women (n = 38). A concentration of soluble adhesion molecule was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. hsCRP was measured with immunoturbidometric.
There was significant difference in the means serum hsCRP between normal pregnant women and mild preeclamptic women (P < 0.05). Serum concentration of hsCRP and sVCAM-1 (ng/mL) were significantly higher in severe preeclampsia (P < 0.05) than normal pregnancy. There were also significant differences in hsCRP and sVCAM-1 levels between mild and severe (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the mean sVCAM-1 between normal pregnant and mild preeclamptic women.
We have determined the serum concentration of VCAM-1 and hsCRP in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. sVCAM-1 is elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy, and hsCRP is elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with mild preeclampsia and normal pregnancy.
PMCID: PMC3831793  PMID: 24265885
preeclampsia; soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1); high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP); normal pregnancies; systemic inflammatory response
5.  Comparison Between Preoperative Administration of Methylprednisolone With its Administration Before and During Congenital Heart Surgery on Serum Levels of IL-6 And IL-10 
Steroid administration during cardiopulmonary bypass is considered to improve cardiopulmonary function by modulating inflammations caused by bypass.
This study was performed to compare effectiveness of preoperative and intraoperative methylprednisolone (MP) to preoperative methylprednisolone alone in post bypass inflammatory (IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) factors.
Patients and Methods
Fifty pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery from August 2011 to 2012 in the cardiac surgery department of Imam Reza Hospital, the major center for CPB, in Mashhad, Iran were randomly assigned to receive preoperative and intraoperative MP (30 mg/kg, 4 hours before bypass and in bypass prime, number 25) or preoperative MP only (30 mg/kg, number 25). Before and after bypass, four and 24 hours after bypass, serum IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA.
In both groups, no significant difference with variation of expression for IL-6 (inflammatory factor) and IL-10 (anti-inflammatory factor) in different times after bypass was observed.
No significant difference in reducing post bypass inflammation between preoperative steroid treatment and combined preoperative and intraoperative steroid administration reported and they had the same effects.
PMCID: PMC3652502  PMID: 23682327
Cardiopulmonary Bypass; Heart Defects, Congenital; Interleukins; Inflammation
6.  Is there any relationship between Chlamydophila pneumoniae and coronary atherosclerosis among Iranians? 
Atherosclerosis is a coronary heart disease, andis the most common cause of death in the industrialized world. Some studies suggested that atherosclerosis may be triggered by infectious agents, mostly Chlamydophila pneumoniae. However, the role of C. pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis is still controversial.
This study was performed to evaluate whether there is a significant association between coronary artery atherosclerosis and C. pneumoniae by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
Materials and Methods:
This case-control study was carried out on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies of the coronary arteries obtained from 30 patients with coronary atherosclerosis and 30 subjects without atherosclerosis living in Northeast of Iran. All subjects' weight and height were determined, and the body mass index was calculated. We also reviewed the medical history and previous laboratory reports of patients. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted, and C. pneumonia DNA was amplified and detected using PCR assay.
The age of the patients in the study group was from 18 to 50 years, and the male to female ratio was 5:1. Only oneout of the 30 coronary tissue samples had positive PCR for C. pneumoniae (3.3%), while it was negative for patients in the control group.
This study showed that C. pneumoniae infection is not strongly associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis in Northeast of Iran.
PMCID: PMC3644743  PMID: 23661898
Atherosclerosis; Chlamydophila pneumonia; coronary artery; Iran
7.  Comparison of serum levels of Tri‐iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Thyroid‐Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy 
Background: The physiological changes in thyroid gland during pregnancy have been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic causes of preeclampsia.
Objective: The aim of this study was comparison of serum levels of Tri‐iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Thyroid‐Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: In this case‐control study, 40 normal pregnant women and 40 cases of preeclampsia in third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated. They were compared for serum levels of Free T3 (FT3), Free T4 (FT4) and TSH. The data was analyzed by SPSS software with the use of t‐student, Chi‐square, Independent sample T-test and Bivariate correlation test. p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The mean age was not statistically different between two groups (p=0.297). No significant difference was observed in terms of parity between two groups (p=0.206). Normal pregnant women were not significantly different from preeclampsia cases in the view of FT3 level (1.38 pg/ml vs. 1.41 pg/ml, p=0.803), FT4 level (0.95 pg/ml vs. 0.96 pg/ml, p=0.834) and TSH level (3.51 μIU/ml vs. 3.10 μIU/ml, p=0.386).
Conclusion: The findings of the present study do not support the hypothesis that changes in FT3, FT4 and TSH levels could be possible etiology of preeclampsia.
PMCID: PMC4163263  PMID: 25242974
Tri‐iodothyronine (T3); Thyroxine (T4); Thyroid‐Stimulating Hormone (TSH); Preeclampsia; Pregnancy; Thyroid
8.  Serum Immunoglobulins in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia 
Iron deficiency is a common cause of anemia worldwide. Documentation shows that these patients have impaired immunity and are prone to infections. The aim of this study was to confirm whether serum immunoglobulins change in adult nonpregnant females with iron deficiency anemia. Based on patients’ clinical history, CBC results, and serum ferritin, iron and total iron binding capacity, 45 healthy patients and 45 iron deficiency anemia (hypochrom microcytic) patients were entered into this case–control study. Serum IgG, IgA and IgM were measured in patient and control groups using the nephelometry method. Both of the groups were compared using suitable statistical test. Mean serum values of IgG, IgA and IgM in the patient group were 12.47 ± 7.67, 1.93 ± 0.92 and 1.35 ± 0.90 g/l respectively. Mean serum values for the control group were 12.51 ± 6.85, 2.14 ± 0.88 and 1.49 ± 0.73 g/l respectively. Although serum immunoglobulins were slightly lower in the patient group compared to the control group these differences were not significant with the t test. Our study showed serum immunoglobulin levels did not change in iron deficiency anemia.
PMCID: PMC3002066  PMID: 21629635
Iron deficiency anemia; Humoral immunity; Immunoglobulin
9.  Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia 
Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA.
In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared.
Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043).
This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection.
PMCID: PMC3216203  PMID: 22135572
flow cytometry; immunology; iron-deficiency anaemia; pre-menopause; T lymphocytes; women
10.  Interleukin-6 and airflow limitation in chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the main late complications of sulfur mustard poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 in war veterans with pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard poisoning and their correlation with severity of airways disease.
Fifty consecutive patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and stable COPD, and of mean age 46.3 ± 9.18 years were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy men were selected as controls and matched to cases by age and body mass index. Spirometry, arterial blood gas, six- minute walk test, BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity), and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire about quality of life were evaluated. Serum IL-6 was measured in both patient and control groups.
Fifty-four percent of patients had moderate COPD. Mean serum IL-6 levels were 15.01 ± standard deviation (SD) 0.61 pg/dL and 4.59 ± 3.40 pg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.03). There was a significant correlation between IL-6 levels and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage (r = 0.25, P = 0.04) and between IL-6 and BODE index (r = 0.38, P = 0.01). There was also a significant negative correlation between serum IL-6 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, r = −0.36, P = 0.016).
Our findings suggest that serum IL-6 is increased in patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and COPD, and may have a direct association with airflow limitation.
PMCID: PMC2962299  PMID: 21037957
sulfur mustard; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; interleukin-6; inflammation; chemical warfare
11.  Alloimmunization among transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients 
Thalassemia is a common hemoglobin disorder in Iran and one of the major public health problems. Although blood transfusions are lifesavers for thalassemia patients, they may be associated with some complications especially erythrocyte alloimmunization. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of red blood cell alloantibodies and to determine types of these antibodies among multiple-transfused thalassemic patients.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 313 thalassemia patients in the northeast of Iran, who received regular blood transfusion, were included in this study. Screening of antibodies was performed on fresh serum of all patients and then antibodies were identified in patients’ serum that had positive antibody screening test using a panel of recognized blood group antigens.
We identified 12 alloantibodies in 9 patients (2.87%) that all were against Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens (D, C, E). Three patients developed 2 antibodies, and others had one antibody. The most common alloantibodies were Anti-D (88.88%) and followed by Anti-C and Anti-E. Higher frequency of alloimmunization was observed in female, Rh negative and splenectomized patients.
This study showed that evaluation of the packed cells for Rh (C, E) from the start of transfusion can be helpful in decreasing the rate of alloantibody synthesis.
PMCID: PMC2920480  PMID: 20808654
Alloantibody; thalassemia; transfusion

Results 1-11 (11)