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1.  A Comparative Study of Serum Level of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM-1) and High Sensitive C - reactive protein (hs-CRP) in Normal and Pre-eclamptic Pregnancies 
Objective(s): Pre-eclampsia is characterized by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and increased systemic inflammatory response and has been associated with an increased maternal risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be a central pathogenic feature in pre-eclampsia on the basis of elevated adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to determine the level of plasma serum level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), high sensitive C- reactive protein (hs-CRP) in pre-eclampsia and to compare hs-CRP levels between normal pregnant women, mild and severe pre-eclampsia.
Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1, ICAM-1 and hs-CRP in peripheral blood obtained from normal pregnant women (n=40), mild pre-eclampsia (n=37) and severe pre-eclampsia (n=38). Concentrations of soluble adhesion molecule was determined with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: There were significant difference in the means serum hs-CRP between normal pregnant women and mild pre-eclamptic women (P<0.05). Serum concentration of hs-CRP, sVCAM-1(ng.ml) and sICAM-1(ng.ml) were significantly higher in severe pre-eclampsia (P<0.05) than normal pregnancy. There were also significant differences in hs-CRP, s ICAM- 1 and in sVCAM- 1 levels between mild and severe pre-eclampsia (P<0.05). There was no difference in the mean plasma log sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 between normal pregnant women and mild pre-eclamptic women.
Conclusion: We have determined the serum concentration of soluble adhesion molecule ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and hsCRP in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Adhesion molecule is elevated in severe pre-eclampsia compared with normal pregnancy, hsCRP are elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with mild preeclampsia and normal pregnancy and may be useful in predicting the severity of pre-eclampsia.
PMCID: PMC3700043  PMID: 23826490
Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1); High sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); Intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1); Pre-eclampsia; Soluble vascular cell
2.  A comparative study of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and high-sensitive C-reactive protein in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies 
Abstract
Background
Preeclampsia is characterized by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and systemic inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to determine the level of serum level of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in preeclampsia and to compare normal pregnant, mild preeclamptic, and severe preeclamptic women.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1 and hsCRP in peripheral blood obtained from normal pregnant (n = 40), mild preeclamptic (n = 37), and severe preeclamptic women (n = 38). A concentration of soluble adhesion molecule was determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. hsCRP was measured with immunoturbidometric.
Results
There was significant difference in the means serum hsCRP between normal pregnant women and mild preeclamptic women (P < 0.05). Serum concentration of hsCRP and sVCAM-1 (ng/mL) were significantly higher in severe preeclampsia (P < 0.05) than normal pregnancy. There were also significant differences in hsCRP and sVCAM-1 levels between mild and severe (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the mean sVCAM-1 between normal pregnant and mild preeclamptic women.
Conclusion
We have determined the serum concentration of VCAM-1 and hsCRP in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. sVCAM-1 is elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy, and hsCRP is elevated in severe preeclampsia compared with mild preeclampsia and normal pregnancy.
doi:10.1556/IMAS.5.2013.1.5
PMCID: PMC3831793  PMID: 24265885
preeclampsia; soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1); high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP); normal pregnancies; systemic inflammatory response
3.  Comparison Between Preoperative Administration of Methylprednisolone With its Administration Before and During Congenital Heart Surgery on Serum Levels of IL-6 And IL-10 
Background
Steroid administration during cardiopulmonary bypass is considered to improve cardiopulmonary function by modulating inflammations caused by bypass.
Objectives
This study was performed to compare effectiveness of preoperative and intraoperative methylprednisolone (MP) to preoperative methylprednisolone alone in post bypass inflammatory (IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) factors.
Patients and Methods
Fifty pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery from August 2011 to 2012 in the cardiac surgery department of Imam Reza Hospital, the major center for CPB, in Mashhad, Iran were randomly assigned to receive preoperative and intraoperative MP (30 mg/kg, 4 hours before bypass and in bypass prime, number 25) or preoperative MP only (30 mg/kg, number 25). Before and after bypass, four and 24 hours after bypass, serum IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA.
Results
In both groups, no significant difference with variation of expression for IL-6 (inflammatory factor) and IL-10 (anti-inflammatory factor) in different times after bypass was observed.
Conclusions
No significant difference in reducing post bypass inflammation between preoperative steroid treatment and combined preoperative and intraoperative steroid administration reported and they had the same effects.
doi:10.5812/ircmj.8093
PMCID: PMC3652502  PMID: 23682327
Cardiopulmonary Bypass; Heart Defects, Congenital; Interleukins; Inflammation
4.  Is there any relationship between Chlamydophila pneumoniae and coronary atherosclerosis among Iranians? 
Background:
Atherosclerosis is a coronary heart disease, andis the most common cause of death in the industrialized world. Some studies suggested that atherosclerosis may be triggered by infectious agents, mostly Chlamydophila pneumoniae. However, the role of C. pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis is still controversial.
Objectives:
This study was performed to evaluate whether there is a significant association between coronary artery atherosclerosis and C. pneumoniae by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
Materials and Methods:
This case-control study was carried out on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies of the coronary arteries obtained from 30 patients with coronary atherosclerosis and 30 subjects without atherosclerosis living in Northeast of Iran. All subjects' weight and height were determined, and the body mass index was calculated. We also reviewed the medical history and previous laboratory reports of patients. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted, and C. pneumonia DNA was amplified and detected using PCR assay.
Results:
The age of the patients in the study group was from 18 to 50 years, and the male to female ratio was 5:1. Only oneout of the 30 coronary tissue samples had positive PCR for C. pneumoniae (3.3%), while it was negative for patients in the control group.
Conclusions:
This study showed that C. pneumoniae infection is not strongly associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis in Northeast of Iran.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.108894
PMCID: PMC3644743  PMID: 23661898
Atherosclerosis; Chlamydophila pneumonia; coronary artery; Iran
5.  Serum Immunoglobulins in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia 
Iron deficiency is a common cause of anemia worldwide. Documentation shows that these patients have impaired immunity and are prone to infections. The aim of this study was to confirm whether serum immunoglobulins change in adult nonpregnant females with iron deficiency anemia. Based on patients’ clinical history, CBC results, and serum ferritin, iron and total iron binding capacity, 45 healthy patients and 45 iron deficiency anemia (hypochrom microcytic) patients were entered into this case–control study. Serum IgG, IgA and IgM were measured in patient and control groups using the nephelometry method. Both of the groups were compared using suitable statistical test. Mean serum values of IgG, IgA and IgM in the patient group were 12.47 ± 7.67, 1.93 ± 0.92 and 1.35 ± 0.90 g/l respectively. Mean serum values for the control group were 12.51 ± 6.85, 2.14 ± 0.88 and 1.49 ± 0.73 g/l respectively. Although serum immunoglobulins were slightly lower in the patient group compared to the control group these differences were not significant with the t test. Our study showed serum immunoglobulin levels did not change in iron deficiency anemia.
doi:10.1007/s12288-010-0025-3
PMCID: PMC3002066  PMID: 21629635
Iron deficiency anemia; Humoral immunity; Immunoglobulin
6.  Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia 
Background:
Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA.
Methods:
In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared.
Results:
Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043).
Conclusion:
This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection.
PMCID: PMC3216203  PMID: 22135572
flow cytometry; immunology; iron-deficiency anaemia; pre-menopause; T lymphocytes; women
7.  Interleukin-6 and airflow limitation in chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Objectives
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the main late complications of sulfur mustard poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 in war veterans with pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard poisoning and their correlation with severity of airways disease.
Methods
Fifty consecutive patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and stable COPD, and of mean age 46.3 ± 9.18 years were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy men were selected as controls and matched to cases by age and body mass index. Spirometry, arterial blood gas, six- minute walk test, BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity), and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire about quality of life were evaluated. Serum IL-6 was measured in both patient and control groups.
Results
Fifty-four percent of patients had moderate COPD. Mean serum IL-6 levels were 15.01 ± standard deviation (SD) 0.61 pg/dL and 4.59 ± 3.40 pg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.03). There was a significant correlation between IL-6 levels and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage (r = 0.25, P = 0.04) and between IL-6 and BODE index (r = 0.38, P = 0.01). There was also a significant negative correlation between serum IL-6 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, r = −0.36, P = 0.016).
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that serum IL-6 is increased in patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and COPD, and may have a direct association with airflow limitation.
doi:10.2147/COPD.S12545
PMCID: PMC2962299  PMID: 21037957
sulfur mustard; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; interleukin-6; inflammation; chemical warfare
8.  Alloimmunization among transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients 
Background:
Thalassemia is a common hemoglobin disorder in Iran and one of the major public health problems. Although blood transfusions are lifesavers for thalassemia patients, they may be associated with some complications especially erythrocyte alloimmunization. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of red blood cell alloantibodies and to determine types of these antibodies among multiple-transfused thalassemic patients.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 313 thalassemia patients in the northeast of Iran, who received regular blood transfusion, were included in this study. Screening of antibodies was performed on fresh serum of all patients and then antibodies were identified in patients’ serum that had positive antibody screening test using a panel of recognized blood group antigens.
Results:
We identified 12 alloantibodies in 9 patients (2.87%) that all were against Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens (D, C, E). Three patients developed 2 antibodies, and others had one antibody. The most common alloantibodies were Anti-D (88.88%) and followed by Anti-C and Anti-E. Higher frequency of alloimmunization was observed in female, Rh negative and splenectomized patients.
Conclusion:
This study showed that evaluation of the packed cells for Rh (C, E) from the start of transfusion can be helpful in decreasing the rate of alloantibody synthesis.
doi:10.4103/0973-6247.53884
PMCID: PMC2920480  PMID: 20808654
Alloantibody; thalassemia; transfusion

Results 1-8 (8)