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1.  The risk for multiple sclerosis in female nurse anaesthetists: a register based study 
Background
Previous studies have suggested that exposure to organic solvents, including volatile anaesthetic agents, may be a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), possibly in combination with genetic and other environmental factors.
Aims
To further investigate the role of volatile anaesthetic agents having similar acute toxic effects to other organic solvents.
Methods
Female nurse anaesthetists, other female nurses, and female teachers from middle and upper compulsory school levels were identified and retrieved from the 1985 census, Statistics Sweden. By means of the unique personal identity number in Sweden, these individuals were linked with the disability pension registers at The National Social Insurance Board and also with data on hospital care 1985–2000 at The National Board of Health and Welfare.
Results
The cumulative incidence rate ratio of MS was found to be increased in female nurse anaesthetists in relation to other nurses (statistically not significant) and teachers (statistically significant), respectively.
Conclusions
These findings give some support to previous findings of an increased risk for MS in nurse anaesthetists. This is interesting in the context of previous observations of organic solvents in general as a potential risk factor in MS.
doi:10.1136/oem.2005.024604
PMCID: PMC2078114  PMID: 16709703
exposure; volatile anaesthetic gases; organic solvents; risk
2.  Increase of regional total cancer incidence in north Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident? 
Study objective: Is there any epidemiologically visible influence on the cancer incidence after the Chernobyl fallout in Sweden?
Design: A cohort study was focused on the fallout of caesium-137 in relation to cancer incidence 1988–1996.
Setting: In northern Sweden, affected by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, 450 parishes were categorised by caesium-137 deposition: <3 (reference), 3–29, 30–39, 40–59, 60–79, and 80–120 kiloBecquerel/m2.
Participants: All people 0–60 years living in these parishes in 1986 to 1987 were identified and enrolled in a cohort of 1 143 182 persons. In the follow up 22 409 incident cancer cases were retrieved in 1988–1996. A further analysis focused on the secular trend.
Main results: Taking age and population density as confounding factors, and lung cancer incidence in 1988–1996 and total cancer incidence in 1986–1987 by municipality as proxy confounders for smoking and time trends, respectively, the adjusted relative risks for the deposition categories were 1.00 (reference <3 kiloBecquerel/m2), 1.05, 1.03, 1.08, 1.10, and 1.21. The excess relative risk was 0.11 per 100 kiloBecquerel/m2 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.20). Considering the secular trend, directly age standardised cancer incidence rate differences per 100 000 person years between 1988 to 1996 and the reference period 1986–1987, were 30.3 (indicating a time trend in the reference category), 36.8, 42.0, 45.8, 50.1, and 56.4. No clear excess occurred for leukaemia or thyroid cancer.
Conclusions: Unless attributable to chance or remaining uncontrolled confounding, a slight exposure related increase in total cancer incidence has occurred in northern Sweden after the Chernobyl accident.
doi:10.1136/jech.2003.017988
PMCID: PMC1732641  PMID: 15547062
3.  Occupations and exposures in the work environment as determinants for rheumatoid arthritis 
Background and Aims: Several occupational categories have been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); this study was conducted to further evaluate these associations.
Methods: Lifelong occupational history together with exposure experiences were collected through a postal questionnaire answered by 293 incident cases and 1346 population based referents. Occupational determinants were evaluated through stratified and multivariate analyses; pooled analyses with previously gathered data on 422 prevalent cases and 858 referents were also performed.
Results: In both materials, significantly increased logistic odds ratios (LORs) were seen for male conductors, freight and transport workers (LOR 17.8, 95% CI 1.5 to 207.8 and LOR 4.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 16.3, respectively), and farmers and farm workers (LOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.2, and LOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.5, respectively). Among women, increased LORs were seen in the separate and the pooled material for printmakers and process engravers (LOR 5.5, 95% CI 0.9 to 32.6, and LOR 3.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 10.3, respectively). Increased risks were seen in both materials for men exposed to asbestos (LOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 6.8, and LOR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8 to 3.3, respectively), and vibrations (LOR 2.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 4.4, and LOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8, respectively). The risk for RA increased with increasing duration of exposure to vibrations and mineral dust, respectively.
Conclusions: There was evidence of a causal relation between exposures to vibrations and mineral dust and development of RA among men. Occupational factors seem to be aetiologically more important for men, and most occupations at risk involve multiple exposures. Several exposures associated with an increased risk for RA are frequent among farmers, and some of the occupations at risk include exposure to organic dust.
doi:10.1136/oem.2003.007971
PMCID: PMC1740725  PMID: 14985518
4.  Ethylene oxide and cancer 
PMCID: PMC1757796  PMID: 14691265
5.  Glutathione S-transferases M1-1 and T1-1 as risk modifiers for renal cell cancer associated with occupational exposure to chemicals 
Aims: To investigate the possible interaction between occupational risk factors and genotype for glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 (GSTM1 and GSTT1) in renal cell cancer (RCC).
Methods: One hundred patients with RCC and 200 outpatient controls were enrolled at Parma University Hospital. The polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1-1 (GSTM1) and T1-1 (GSTT1) were investigated by PCR; occupational history was collected by a structured questionnaire.
Results: Subjects with GSTM1 present genotype showed higher risks for RCC, compared to GSTM1 null subjects, if exposed to metals (OR 2.73; 95% CI 0.91 to 8.22 v 1.14; 95% CI 0.46 to 2.82) or pesticides (OR 3.46; 95% CI 1.12 to 10.74 v 1.59; 95% CI 0.48 to 5.34). The GSTT1 present genotype also enhanced the risk (about twofold) of RCC among subjects exposed to solvents and pesticides, compared with those GSTT1 null.
Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms can interact with several occupational exposures to significantly modify the risk of RCC among exposed subjects.
doi:10.1136/oem.60.10.789
PMCID: PMC1740386  PMID: 14504370
6.  Multiple sclerosis in nurse anaesthetists 
Background: Volatile anaesthetics are chemically related to organic solvents used in industry. Exposure to industrial solvents may increase the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS).
Aim: To examine the risk among nurse anaesthetists of contracting MS.
Methods: Nurses with MS were identified by an appeal in the monthly magazine of the Swedish Nurse Union and a magazine of the Neurological Patients Association in Sweden. Ninety nurses with MS responded and contacted our clinic. They were given a questionnaire, which was filled in by 85 subjects; 13 of these were nurse anaesthetists. The questionnaire requested information about work tasks, exposure, diagnosis, symptoms, and year. The number of active nurse anaesthetists was estimated based on information from the National Board of Health and Welfare and The Nurse Union. Incidence data for women in the region of Gothenburg and Denmark were used as the reference to estimate the risk by calculation of the standardised incidence ratio (SIR).
Results: Eleven of the 13 nurse anaesthetists were exposed to anaesthetic gases before onset of MS. Mean duration of exposure before diagnosis was 14.4 years (range 4–27 years). Ten cases were diagnosed in the study period 1980–99, resulting in significantly increased SIRs of 2.9 and 2.8 with the Gothenburg and the Danish reference data, respectively.
Conclusion: Although based on crude data and a somewhat approximate analysis, this study provides preliminary evidence for an excess risk of MS in nurse anaesthetists. The risk may be even greater than observed, as the case ascertainment might have been incomplete because of the crude method applied. Further studies in this respect are clearly required to more definitely assess the risk.
doi:10.1136/oem.60.1.66
PMCID: PMC1740375  PMID: 12499460
7.  Relations between exposure to arsenic, skin lesions, and glucosuria 
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to arsenic causes keratosis, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation and seemingly also diabetes mellitus, at least in subjects with skin lesions. Here we evaluate the relations of arsenical skin lesions and glucosuria as a proxy for diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Through existing measurements of arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh, wells with and without arsenic contamination were identified. Based on a questionnaire, 1595 subjects > or = 30 years of age were interviewed; 1481 had a history of drinking water contaminated with arsenic whereas 114 had not. Time weighted mean arsenic concentrations and mg-years/l of exposure to arsenic were estimated based on the history of consumption of well water and current arsenic concentrations. Urine samples from the study subjects were tested by means of a glucometric strip. People with positive tests were considered to be cases of glucosuria. RESULTS: A total of 430 (29%) of the exposed people were found to have skin lesions. Corresponding to drinking water with < 0.5, 0.5-1.0, and > 1.0 mg/l of arsenic, and with the 114 unexposed subjects as the reference, the prevalence ratios for glucosuria, as adjusted for age and sex, were 0.8, 1.4, and 1.4 for those without skin lesions, and 1.1, 2.2, and 2.6 for those with skin lesions. Taking exposure as < 1.0, 1.0-5.0, > 5.0-10.0 and > 10.0 mg- years/l of exposure to arsenic the prevalence ratios, similarly adjusted, were 0.4, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.7 for those without and 0.8, 1.7, 2.1, and 2.9 for those with skin lesions. All series of risk estimates were significant for trend, (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that skin lesions and diabetes mellitus, as here indicated by glucosuria, are largely independent effects of exposure to arsenic although glucosuria had some tendency to be associated with skin lesions. Importantly, however, glucosuria (diabetes mellitus) may occur independently of skin lesions.
 
PMCID: PMC1757723  PMID: 10450246
8.  Adult myeloid leukaemia, geology, and domestic exposure to radon and gamma radiation: a case control study in central Italy 
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether indoor randon or gamma radiation might play a part in myeloid leukaemia as suggested by studies based on crude geographical or geological data for exposure assessment. METHODS: For six months randon and gamma radiation was measured with solid state nuclear track detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters in dwellings of 44 adult male cases of acute myeloid leukaemia and 211 controls (all subjects deceased). Conditional logistic regression ORs (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated for quartiles of radon and gamma radiation and for municipality and dwelling characteristics. RESULTS: The risk of leukaemia was associated with an increasing urbanisation index (p value for trend = 0.008). An increased OR was found among those living in more modern houses (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.6). Confirming the findings of a previous study in the same area, geological features bore a positive association with myeloid leukemia, even by adjusting for level of urbanisation. Contrary to expectations from the previous study, however, no association appeared between myeloid leukaemia and radon and gamma radiation; for the highest quartiles of exposure, ORs were 0.56 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.4) and 0.52 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.4), respectively. Considering only subjects who had lived > or = 20 years in the monitored home and adjusting for urbanisation, there was still no effect of exposure to radiation. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the limited numbers, the results do not in general refute a possible risk of myeloid leukaemia from exposure to indoor radon or gamma radiation, but decrease the credibility of such a relation in the area studied and also of other studies suggesting an effect without monitoring indoor radiation. Some other fairly strong determinants have appeared--that is, level of urbanisation and living in modern houses-- that might need further consideration.
 
PMCID: PMC1757546  PMID: 9614394
9.  Exposure to indoor background radiation and urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1999;107(3):213-215.
We investigated whether exposure to indoor [gamma]-radiation and radon might be associated with enough free radical formation to increase urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a sensitive marker of DNA damage, due to a hydroxyl radical attack at the C8 of guanine. Indoor radon and [gamma]-radiation levels were measured in 32 dwellings for 6 months by solid-state nuclear track detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters, respectively. Urine samples for 8-OHdG determinations were obtained from 63 healthy adult subjects living in the measured dwellings. An overall tendency toward increasing levels of 8-OHdG with increasing levels of radon and [gamma]-radiation was seen in the females, presumably due to their estimated longer occupancy in the dwellings measured. Different models were considered for females, with the steepest slopes obtained for [gamma]-radiation with a coefficient of 0.500 (log nmol/l of 8-OHdG for each unit increase of [gamma]-radiation on a log scale) (p<0.01), and increasing to 0.632 (p = 0.035), but with larger variance, when radon was included in the model. In conclusion, there seems to be an effect of indoor radioactivity on the urinary excretion of 8-OHdG for females, who are estimated to have a higher occupancy in the dwellings measured than for males, for whom occupational and other agents may also influence 8-OHdG excretion. ree radicals; [gamma]-radiation; radon.
PMCID: PMC1566395  PMID: 10064551
11.  A pilot study on risk factors and p53 gene expression in colorectal cancer. 
British Journal of Cancer  1996;73(11):1428-1430.
Of 311 colorectal cancers diagnosed in 1984-86 in the county of Ostergotland, Sweden, 179 were included in a case-control study, and, of these, 70 were investigated using immunohistochemical staining for p53 gene mutations. Alcohol use as well as medication with hydralazine-containing antihypertensive drugs, but not heredity were associated with p53 staining. The study is offered to illustrate the possible value of investigating molecularly defined tumour subtypes in relation to specific risk factors.
PMCID: PMC2074496  PMID: 8645592
12.  Diabetes mellitus and arsenic exposure: a second look at case-control data from a Swedish copper smelter. 
OBJECTIVES--To find out whether a newly found association between diabetes mellitus and arsenic in drinking water in Taiwan could be reproduced in copper smelters with arsenic exposure. METHODS--Extended analysis of a previous case-control study from 1978 was based on death records and objective exposure information from the company. The final analysis included only those employed at the smelter. Cases were 12 people with diabetes mellitus on the death certificate and those for whom there was clinical information on this disease. Controls were 31 people without cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease as these disease categories had been associated with arsenic exposure in the original study and elsewhere. RESULTS--The odds ratios found for diabetes mellitus with increasing arsenic exposure categories were (reference level = 1), 2.0, 4.2, and 7.0, but the 95% confidence intervals included unity. Unstratified test for trend was weakly significant, P = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS--Although based on small numbers, the findings provide some support for the suggestion that arsenic exposure could sometimes play a part in the development of diabetes mellitus.
PMCID: PMC1128360  PMID: 8535499
14.  Cancer risks from exposure to radon in homes. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1995;103(Suppl 2):37-43.
Exposure to radon and its decay products in mines is a well recognized risk of lung cancer in miners. A large number of epidemiologic studies from various countries are quite consistent in this respect even it the magnitude of the risk differs according to exposure levels. Indoor radon became a concern in the 1970s and about a dozen studies have been conducted since 1979, mainly of the case-control design. From first being of a simple pilot character, the designs have become increasingly sophisticated, especially with regard to exposure assessment. Crude exposure estimates based on type of house, building material and geological features have been supplemented or replaced by quite extensive measurements. Still, exposure assessment remains a difficult and uncertain issue in these studies, most of which indicate a lung cancer risk from indoor radon. Also a recent large scale study has confirmed a lung cancer risk from indoor radon. More recently there are also some studies, mainly of the correlation type, suggesting other cancers also to be related to indoor radon, especially leukemia, kidney cancer, and malignant melanoma, and some other cancers as well. The data are less consistent and much more uncertain than for indoor radon and lung cancer, however; and there is no clear support from studies of miners in this respect.
PMCID: PMC1518835  PMID: 7614945
15.  Controlled two year follow up of rehabilitation for disorders in the neck and shoulders. 
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the effects of an early, active, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for neck and shoulder disorders. METHODS--Primary health care and industrial health care of a nonrandomised, controlled, cohort was followed up over two years in a geographically defined area. The cohort consisted of working people who consulted a physician about disorders of the neck or shoulders from 1 August 1988 to 31 October 1989. Criteria for acceptance; not chronic symptoms, patients had sick leave of no more than four weeks. Disorders were not caused by trauma, infections, malignancy, rheumatic diseases, abuse, or pregnancy. 107 people qualified for the study, 87% were followed up for two years. They were divided into two groups. One group obtained active, multidisciplinary rehabilitation for eight weeks that comprised physical training, information, education, social interaction, and work place visits. Controls were given traditional treatment; physiotherapy, medication, rest, and sick leave. The main outcome measures were: average number of days of sick leave for the two years after rehabilitation, subjective pain on a visual analogue scale, and ratings on seven subscales of the sickness impact profile. RESULTS--At 12 and 24 months of follow up effects of the active rehabilitation programme did not differ from traditional treatment in any of the outcome measures. New work task (P < 0.05) or changed work place (P < 0.001) during the follow up period were associated with decreased sick leave, independent of treatment. CONCLUSIONS--Active, multidisciplinary rehabilitation of neck and shoulder disorders was not more effective than traditional treatment. Changed work conditions were associated with decreased sick leave, independent of type of treatment provided.
PMCID: PMC1128125  PMID: 7849868
16.  Exposure to benzene and urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a biological marker of oxidative damage to DNA. 
OBJECTIVES--Benzene is an established animal and human carcinogen. The mechanism of benzene toxicity, particularly its leukaemogenic effect, is not fully understood. The modified base 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a sensitive marker of the DNA damage due to hydroxyl radical attack at the C8 of guanine. This damage, if left unrepaired, has been proposed to contribute to mutagenicity and cancer promotion. We conducted this biomonitoring study with the aim of evaluating the association between excretion of 8-OHdG and level of exposure to benzene and other aromatic compounds among occupationally exposed people. METHODS--A random sample of 65 filling station attendants from Rome, Italy was studied for personal exposure to benzene, toluene, and xylenes, and excretion of 8-OHdG. Information about age, length of employment, smoking habits, and diagnostic exposure to x rays was collected by questionnaire. An average yearly level of exposure to benzene and methylbenzenes was calculated for each filling station attendant on the basis of about seven repeated personal samples collected during one year. A spot sample of 20 ml of urine was collected from each worker. Concentrations of 8-OHdG were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with coupled columns. RESULTS--A mean (SD) concentration of 1.36 (0.49) mumol of 8-OHdG/mol of creatinine was measured. A significant correlation was found between urinary 8-OHdG and exposure to benzene (r = 0.34). In a multiple regression analysis relating the concentration of urinary 8-OHdG with the age, length of employment, smoking, diagnostic exposure to x rays and personal exposure to benzene, an increase of 0.15 mumol/mol creatinine in urinary 8-OHdG/unit increase in the natural logarithm of the average yearly benzene concentration was estimated. CONCLUSION--This study shows a dose-response effect between personal exposure to benzene and urinary 8-OHdG concentration; further studies are needed to clarify the biological significance of 8-OHdG as a marker of cancer risk.
PMCID: PMC1128097  PMID: 7849850
17.  Case-control study of risk factors for disease in the neck and shoulder area. 
A case-control study was performed to elucidate the strength of the relation between musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders and physical, organisational, and psychosocial aspects of the work environment. Cases were identified as those persons who consulted a physician in a community in southern Sweden for new musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders during a study period from August 1988 to the end of October 1989. One hundred and nine cases were collected and clinically examined. The cases also answered the Nordic questionnaire on symptoms as well as a questionnaire on work conditions and background factors. Controls were drawn as a random sample of the working population in the community where the cases appeared. A total of 637 controls answered the same questionnaires as the cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. The odds ratios were 11.4 for women, 4.9 for immigrant background, and 3.7 for current smoking. To exercise rarely, compared with often, appeared as a preventive factor with an OR of 0.3. The ORs for various determinants of physical work load were 7.5 for repetitive movements demanding precision, 13.6 for light lifting, 3.6 for uncomfortable sitting positions, 4.8 for work with lifted arms, and 3.5 for a rushed work pace. Regarding work organisational determinants, the ORs were 16.5 for ambiguity of work role (uncertainty whether the person could manage the work) 2.6 for low quality work, and 3.8 for high demands on attention. Several of the determinants showed a significant dose-response relation with disease. It seems that work organisation and psychosocial work conditions are as important determinants for disease in the neck and shoulders as are the physical work conditions.
PMCID: PMC1127958  PMID: 8199669
18.  A case-control study of motor neurone disease: its relation to heritability, and occupational exposures, particularly to solvents. 
Motor neurone disease (MND) was studied in relation to various determinants in a case-control study covering nine counties in southern Sweden. A questionnaire about occupational exposures, medical history, lifestyle factors etc was given to all cases in the age range 45-79 and to a random sample of 500 population controls in the same age range. The questionnaires were answered by 92 cases and 372 controls, a response rate of 85% and 75% respectively. Among men high Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (MHORs) were obtained for electricity work (MHOR = 6.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0-32.1), welding (MHOR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-13.0), and impregnating agents (MHOR = 3.5, 95% CI 0.9-13.1). Heritability with regard to a neurodegenerative disease or thyroid disease seemed to predispose to a risk of developing MND (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.3). The highest OR was found for the combination of such heritability, exposure to solvents, and male sex (OR = 15.6, 95% CI 2.8-87.0), a combination that occurred for seven cases and three controls. Hereditary factors and external exposures had a different distribution among cases with the spinal type of MND than among cases with involvement of the pyramidal tract or bulbar paresis also.
PMCID: PMC1039327  PMID: 1463680
19.  Cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the metal industry: a case-control study. 
The association between nasal cancer and work in the metal industry was investigated in a case-control study located in the province of Brescia, north eastern Italy. Thirty five cases of malignant epithelial neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses who were resident in the province of Brescia and diagnosed or treated by the ear, nose, and throat department and the radiotherapy unit (Centro Alte Energie) of the Brescia Hospital in the years 1980-9 were included in the study. Controls (102) were patients affected by benign and malignant neoplasms of the head and neck who were resident in the Brescia Province and matched the cases by age and sex. All the subjects were interviewed by telephone. Metal workers showed an increased risk of nasal cancer (odds ratio (OR) 3.1; 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.48-20); a higher risk was associated with work in foundries (OR 5.9; 90 CI 0.77-46). Work in wood, leather, and textile industries was also associated with increased risk of nasal cancer.
PMCID: PMC1012093  PMID: 1554616
20.  Dust exposure in coeliac disease: a case-referent study. 
Case series of coeliac disease show that chronic allergic alveolitis (farmers' lung) and fever reactions due to exposure to organic dust (organic dust toxic syndrome) commonly occur among subjects with coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis, these being related disorders. In this case-referent study 105 cases of coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis were compared with 237 referents from the general population by means of a mail inquiry regarding exposure to various environmental factors. Increased odds ratios were obtained with exposure to various farm animals and more clearly for cotton dust, although numbers were few. Animal husbandry in Sweden invariably means heavy exposure to organic dust. The fact that comparatively few persons reported dust exposure may be of doubtful validity in view of the high frequency of exposure to farm animals reported by the cases.
PMCID: PMC1012066  PMID: 1931732
21.  Mortality pattern of silicotic subjects in the Latium region, Italy. 
A mortality study was carried out on 595 workers who were compensated for silicosis in the Latium region, Italy, during the period 1946-84 who died between 1 January 1969 and 31 December 1984. Respiratory disorders, tuberculosis, lung cancer, bone cancer, and cirrhosis of the liver showed significantly increased risk ratios (4.1, 3.7, 1.5, 4.1, and 1.9 respectively); excesses of brain cancer and leukaemia did not reach statistical significance. Lung cancer mortality was further analysed by age, period of compensation, final degree of disability, and occupational activity. The possible confounding role of smoking was assessed by comparing the lifetime smoking habits of a sample of silicotic subjects with those of the general male population as estimated by a national health survey; the prevalence of ever smokers among silicotic subjects (70.7%) was similar to that estimated for the general population (68.5%). The present study indicates that silicosis is associated with lung cancer even though it does not clarify the respective roles of exposure to silica and silicosis.
PMCID: PMC1009886  PMID: 2611162
22.  Malignant lymphomas and occupational exposures. 
The effects of potential risk factors for Hodgkin's disease (HD) and for non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) were evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 54 cases of HD, 106 cases of NHL, and 275 referents, all alive. Exposure information was obtained by questionnaires posted to the subjects. Crude rate ratios were increased for various occupational exposures including solvents, welding, wood preservatives, phenoxy acids, and fresh wood (sawmill workers, lumberjacks, paper pulp workers). After further analyses based on logistic regression occupational exposures to welding and creosote remained as significant risk factors for HD. For NHL, occupational exposures to solvents, phenoxy acids, and creosote but also work as carpenter or cabinet maker and contacts with pets (other than dogs, cats, and birds) were associated with significantly increased risks.
PMCID: PMC1009820  PMID: 2775671

Results 1-25 (36)