The genome of periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans exhibits substantial variations in gene content among unrelated strains primarily due to the presence or absence of genomic islands. This study examined the genomic stability of A. actinomycetemcomitans during its persistent infection in the same host. Four pairs of A. actinomycetemcomitans strains, each pair isolated from an individual over time (0–10 years), were examined for their gains/losses of genes by whole genome sequencing, comparative genomic hybridization by microarray and PCR analysis. Possible effects due to genomic changes were further assessed by comparative transcriptome analysis using microarrays. The results showed that each pair of strains was clonally identical based on phylogenetic analysis of 150 core genes. A novel 24.1-Kb plasmid found in strain S23A was apparently lost in the sibling strain I23C. A 353-bp inversion affecting two essential genes of the serotype-specific gene cluster was found in the serotype antigen-nonexpressing strain I23C, while the same gene cluster was intact in the serotype-expressing sibling strain S23A. A 2,293-bp deletion affecting a gene encoding oxaloacetate decarboxylase and its neighbor region was found in strain SCC2302 but not in the sibling strain AAS4a. However, no evidence of gains or losses of genomic islands was found in the paired strains. Transcriptome profiles showed little or no difference in the paired strains. In conclusion, the genome of A. actinomycetemcomitans appears to be relatively stable during short-term infection. Several types of genomic changes were observed in the paired strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans recovered from the same subjects, including a mutation in serotype-specific gene cluster that may allow the bacteria to evade host immune response.
A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb) recordings, change-point analysis (CPA), home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS), the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA.
Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity.
Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.
Body temperature; Change-point analysis; Fatty acid signature; Foraging ecology; GPS tracking; Home range; Nyctereutes procyonoides; Winter sleep
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is implicated in aggressive forms of periodontitis. Similarly to several other Gram-negative species, this organism produces and excretes a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), a genotoxin associated with cell distention, G2 cell cycle arrest, and/or apoptosis in many mammalian cell types. In this study, we have identified A. actinomycetemcomitans outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) as a vehicle for simultaneous delivery of multiple proteins, including CDT, into human cells. The OMV proteins were internalized in both HeLa cells and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) via a mechanism of OMV fusion with lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. The active toxin unit, CdtB, was localized inside the nucleus of the intoxicated cells, whereas OmpA and proteins detected using an antibody specific to whole A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype a cells had a perinuclear distribution. In accordance with a tight association of CdtB with OMVs, vesicles isolated from A. actinomycetemcomitans strain D7SS (serotype a), in contrast to OMVs from a D7SS cdtABC mutant, induced a cytolethal distending effect on HeLa and HGF cells, indicating that OMV-associated CDT was biologically active. Association of CDT with OMVs was also observed in A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates belonging to serotypes b and c, indicating that OMV-mediated release of CDT may be conserved in A. actinomycetemcomitans. Although the role of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMVs in periodontal disease has not yet been elucidated, our present data suggest that OMVs could deliver biologically active CDT and additional virulence factors into susceptible cells of the periodontium.
Premature birth and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are risk factors for disturbed lung development and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The molecular mechanisms related to prematurity and BPD remain largely unknown. Epithelial expression of the transcription factor GATA-6 has been implicated in normal and abnormal murine lung development.
The possible involvement of GATA-6 in the normal development and in RDS and BPD was investigated in the human and baboon lung.
Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression of GATA-6 and thyroid transcription factor 1 in lung specimens from different age groups of human and baboon fetuses and newborns with lung disease. Furthermore, the regulatory role of TGF-β1 in GATA-6 expression was investigated in human pulmonary epithelial cell lines using RT-PCR.
GATA-6 expression increased in the developing human airway epithelium along with advancing gestation, but diminished to negligible at birth. In RDS, GATA-6 expression was enhanced at 5–7 days after birth, and decreased thereafter. In BPD, the expression of GATA-6 in alveolar epithelial cells was low. These results were confirmed and extended using an established baboon model of prematurity. The in vitro experiments revealed that TGF-β1 induces GATA-6 and thyroid transcription factor 1 expression in lung epithelial cells.
Our results suggest that the expression of GATA-6 at the early stages of the preterm lung may be related to impaired postnatal alveolar development.
Transcription factor GATA-6; Lung development; Respiratory distress syndrome; Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is genetically heterogeneous and comprises distinct clonal lineages that may have different virulence potentials. However, limited information of the strain-to-strain genomic variations is available.
The genome sequences of 11 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains (serotypes a-f) were generated de novo, annotated and combined with three previously sequenced genomes (serotypes a-c) for comparative genomic analysis. Two major groups were identified; serotypes a, d, e, and f, and serotypes b and c. A serotype e strain was found to be distinct from both groups. The size of the pangenome was 3,301 genes, which included 2,034 core genes and 1,267 flexible genes. The number of core genes is estimated to stabilize at 2,060, while the size of the pangenome is estimated to increase by 16 genes with every additional strain sequenced in the future. Within each strain 16.7–29.4% of the genome belonged to the flexible gene pool. Between any two strains 0.4–19.5% of the genomes were different. The genomic differences were occasionally greater for strains of the same serotypes than strains of different serotypes. Furthermore, 171 genomic islands were identified. Cumulatively, 777 strain-specific genes were found on these islands and represented 61% of the flexible gene pool.
Substantial genomic differences were detected among A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Genomic islands account for more than half of the flexible genes. The phenotype and virulence of A. actinomycetemcomitans may not be defined by any single strain. Moreover, the genomic variation within each clonal lineage of A. actinomycetemcomitans (as defined by serotype grouping) may be greater than between clonal lineages. The large genomic data set in this study will be useful to further examine the molecular basis of variable virulence among A. actinomycetemcomitans strains.
Bacterial biofilms resist host defenses and antibiotics partly because of their decreased metabolism. Some bacteria use proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, as cues to promote biofilm formation and to alter virulence. Although one potential bacterial IL-1β receptor has been identified, current knowledge of the bacterial IL-1β sensing mechanism is limited. In chronic biofilm infection, periodontitis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans requires tight adherence (tad)-locus to form biofilms, and tissue destroying active lesions contain more IL-1β than inactive ones. The effect of IL-1β on the metabolic activity of A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm was tested using alamarBlue™. The binding of IL-1β to A. actinomycetemcomitans cells was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. To identify the proteins which interacted with IL-1β, different protein fractions from A. actinomycetemcomitans were run in native-PAGE and blotted using biotinylated IL-1β and avidin-HRP, and identified using mass spectroscopy. We show that although IL-1β slightly increases the biofilm formation of A. actinomycetemcomitans, it reduces the metabolic activity of the biofilm. A similar reduction was observed with all tad-locus mutants except the secretin mutant, although all tested mutant strains as well as wild type strains bound IL-1β. Our results suggest that IL-1β might be transported into the A. actinomycetemcomitans cells, and the trimeric form of intracellular ATP synthase subunit β interacted with IL-1β, possibly explaining the decreased metabolic activity. Because ATP synthase is highly conserved, it might universally enhance biofilm resistance to host defense by binding IL-1β during inflammation.
Analysis of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples may give information of unattached (planktonic) subgingival bacteria. Our study represents the first one targeting the identity of bacteria in GCF.
We determined bacterial species diversity in GCF samples of a group of periodontitis patients and delineated contributing bacterial and host-associated factors. Subgingival paper point (PP) samples from the same sites were taken for comparison. After DNA extraction, 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified and DNA-DNA hybridization was performed using a microarray for over 300 bacterial species or groups. Altogether 133 species from 41 genera and 8 phyla were detected with 9 to 62 and 18 to 64 species in GCF and PP samples, respectively, per patient. Projection to latent structures by means of partial least squares (PLS) was applied to the multivariate data analysis. PLS regression analysis showed that species of genera including Campylobacter, Selenomonas, Porphyromonas, Catonella, Tannerella, Dialister, Peptostreptococcus, Streptococcus and Eubacterium had significant positive correlations and the number of teeth with low-grade attachment loss a significant negative correlation to species diversity in GCF samples. OPLS/O2PLS discriminant analysis revealed significant positive correlations to GCF sample group membership for species of genera Campylobacter, Leptotrichia, Prevotella, Dialister, Tannerella, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium, Eubacterium, and Actinomyces.
Among a variety of detected species those traditionally classified as Gram-negative anaerobes growing in mature subgingival biofilms were the main predictors for species diversity in GCF samples as well as responsible for distinguishing GCF samples from PP samples. GCF bacteria may provide new prospects for studying dynamic properties of subgingival biofilms.
In light of the 2009 influenza pandemic and potential future pandemics, Maria Van Kerkhove and colleagues anticipate six public health challenges and the data needed to support sound public health decision making.
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral bacterium associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis. Increasing evidence points to a link between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the pathogenic potential of free-soluble surface material, released from live planktonic and biofilm A. actinomycetemcomitans cells.
By employing an ex vivo insert model (filter pore size 20 nm) we demonstrated that the A. actinomycetemcomitans strain D7S and its derivatives, in both planktonic and in biofilm life-form, released free-soluble surface material independent of outer membrane vesicles. This material clearly enhanced the production of several proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1β) in human whole blood, as evidenced by using a cytokine antibody array and dissociation-enhanced-lanthanide-fluorescent-immunoassay. In agreement with this, quantitative real-time PCR indicated a concomitant increase in transcription of each of these cytokine genes. Experiments in which the LPS activity was blocked with polymyxin B showed that the stimulatory effect was only partly LPS-dependent, suggesting the involvement of additional free-soluble factors. Consistent with this, MALDI-TOF-MS and immunoblotting revealed release of GroEL-like protein in free-soluble form. Conversely, the immunomodulatory toxins, cytolethal distending toxin and leukotoxin, and peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein, appeared to be less important, as evidenced by studying strain D7S cdt/ltx double, and pal single mutants. In addition to A. actinomycetemcomitans a non-oral species, Escherichia coli strain IHE3034, tested in the same ex vivo model also released free-soluble surface material with proinflammatory activity.
A. actinomycetemcomitans, grown in biofilm and planktonic form, releases free-soluble surface material independent of outer membrane vesicles, which induces proinflammatory responses in human whole blood. Our findings therefore suggest that release of surface components from live bacterial cells could constitute a mechanism for systemic stimulation and be of particular importance in chronic localized infections, such as periodontitis.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Studies concerning transcriptional regulation of miRNAs have so far concentrated on those located within the intergenic region of the genome and the search for putative promoters, thus leaving open the question of the existence of possible regulatory elements common to all miRNAs including those located in introns of protein coding genes.
In this study, we initially searched for motifs occurring in the area 1000 bp upstream from all miRNAs independent of their genomic location. We discovered a previously unknown sequence motif GANNNNGA that displayed a conserved distribution in the nematode worms Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae. This motif had a peak occurrence at 500 bp upstream, with a sharp drop-off toward the miRNA start site. Further analysis indicated that this motif was locally restricted and not enriched 1000–5000 bp upstream or 0–2000 bp downstream of the miRNA start site. In addition, this motif was observed to be most abundant in the upstream sequences of two important miRNAs, mir-1 and mir-124. This abundance was also conserved in phylogenetically distant species including human and mouse.
The results show that the motif GANNNNGA is conserved close to miRNA precursor start sites, suggesting that it may be involved in miRNA sequence recognition or regulation. This data provides important knowledge for the identification and computational prediction of miRNA sequences.
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules mediate sequence specific silencing in RNA interference (RNAi), a gene regulatory phenomenon observed in almost all organisms. Large scale sequencing of small RNA libraries obtained from C. elegans has revealed that a broad spectrum of siRNAs is endogenously transcribed from genomic sequences. The biological role and molecular diversity of C. elegans endogenous siRNA (endo-siRNA) molecules, nonetheless, remain poorly understood. In order to gain insight into their biological function, we annotated two large libraries of endo-siRNA sequences, identified their cognate targets, and performed gene ontology analysis to identify enriched functional categories.
Systematic trends in categorization of target genes according to the specific length of siRNA sequences were observed: 18- to 22-mer siRNAs were associated with genes required for embryonic development; 23-mers were associated uniquely with post-embryonic development; 24–26-mers were associated with phosphorus metabolism or protein modification. Moreover, we observe that some argonaute related genes associate with siRNAs with multiple reads. Sequence frequency graphs suggest that different lengths of siRNAs share similarities in overall sequence structure: the 5' end begins with G, while the body predominates with U and C.
These results suggest that the lengths of endogenous siRNA molecules are consequential to their biological functions since the gene ontology categories for their cognate mRNA targets vary depending upon their lengths.
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral bacterium associated with aggressively progressing periodontitis. Extracellular release of bacterial outer membrane proteins has been suggested to mainly occur via outer membrane vesicles. This study investigated the presence and conservation of peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (AaPAL) among A. actinomycetemcomitans strains, the immunostimulatory effect of AaPAL, and whether live cells release this structural outer membrane lipoprotein in free-soluble form independent of vesicles.
The pal locus and its gene product were confirmed in clinical A. actinomycetemcomitans strains by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and immunoblotting. Culturing under different growth conditions revealed no apparent requirement for the AaPAL expression. Inactivation of pal in a wild-type strain (D7S) and in its spontaneous laboratory variant (D7SS) resulted in pleiotropic cellular effects. In a cell culture insert model (filter pore size 0.02 μm), AaPAL was detected from filtrates when strains D7S and D7SS were incubated in serum or broth in the inserts. Electron microscopy showed that A. actinomycetemcomitans vesicles (0.05–0.2 μm) were larger than the filter pores and that there were no vesicles in the filtrates. The filtrates were immunoblot negative for a cytoplasmic marker, cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein. An ex vivo model indicated cytokine production from human whole blood stimulated by AaPAL.
Free-soluble AaPAL can be extracellularly released in a process independent of vesicles.
This study was designed to evaluate the suitability of a novel bioabsorbable material in treating bone defects. A poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine-ethyl ester carbonate) (PDTE carbonate) membrane (thickness 0.2–0.3 mm) was implanted into the mandibular angle of 20 New Zealand White rabbits to cover a through-and-through defect (12×6 mm). In group 1, the defects were left unfilled but covered with membrane and in group 2 the defects were filled with bioactive glass mesh and covered with membrane, too. Controls were left uncovered and unfilled. The animals were followed for 6, 12, 24 and 52 weeks, respectively. The material was evaluated by qualitative analysis of histological reactions and newly formed bone.
We found that PDTE carbonate elicited a modest foreign body reaction in the tissues, which was uniform throughout the study. New bone formation was seen in all samples after six weeks. Group 1 had more new bone formation until 24 weeks and after this the difference settled. Based on findings of this study it was concluded that PDTE carbonate membranes have good biocompatibility and are sufficient to enhance bone growth without additional supportive matrix.
poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine-ethyl ester carbonate); bioabsorbable membrane; rabbit; mandible; reconstruction; guided bone regeneration
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether periodontal disease or bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed before pregnancy increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 252 women who had discontinued contraception in order to become pregnant. The first 130 pregnant women were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4-21.2; p = 0.014), and a borderline association between BV and adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 3.2, 95% confidence interval 0.9-10.7; p = 0.061). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that pre-pregnancy counseling should include both oral and vaginal examinations to rule out periodontal disease and BV. This may ultimately have an impact on antenatal healthcare, and decrease the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome.
Background: The American College of Sports Medicine recommends 20–60 minutes of aerobic exercise three to five days a week at an intensity of 40/50–85% of maximal aerobic power (VO2MAX) reserve, expending a total of 700–2000 kcal (2.93–8.36 MJ) a week to improve aerobic power and body composition.
Objective: To ascertain the minimum effective dose of exercise.
Methods: Voluntary, healthy, non-obese, sedentary, postmenopausal women (n = 121), 48–63 years of age, were randomised to four low dose walking groups or a control group; 116 subjects completed the study. The exercise groups walked five days a week for 24 weeks with the following intensity (% of VO2MAX) and energy expenditure (kcal/week): group W1, 55%/1500 kcal; group W2, 45%/1500 kcal; group W3, 55%/1000 kcal; group W4, 45%/1000 kcal. VO2MAX was measured in a direct maximal treadmill test. Submaximal aerobic fitness was estimated as heart rates at submaximal work levels corresponding to 65% and 75% of the baseline VO2MAX. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percentage of body fat (F%) estimated from skinfolds.
Results: The net change (the differences between changes in each exercise group and the control group) in VO2MAX was 2.9 ml/min/kg (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 4.2) in group W1, 2.6 ml/min/kg (95% CI 1.3 to 4.0) in group W2, 2.4 ml/min/kg (95% CI 0.9 to 3.8) in group W3, and 2.2 ml/min/kg (95% CI 0.8 to 3.5) in group W4. The heart rates in standard submaximal work decreased 4 to 8 beats/min in all the groups. There was no change in BMI, but the F% decreased by about 1% unit in all the groups.
Conclusions: Walking (for 24 weeks) at moderate intensity 45% to 55% of VO2MAX, with a total weekly energy expenditure of 1000–1500 kcal, improves VO2MAX and body composition of previously sedentary, non-obese, postmenopausal women. This dose of exercise apparently approaches the minimum effective dose.
This study aimed to clarify how concentrations of vitamin C in plasma relate to the serology of periodontitis. The random sample used comprised 431 men, 194 from Finland and 237 from Russia. The plasma vitamin C concentration was determined by o-phtaldialdehyde-fluorometry, and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis were determined by a multiserotype enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean plasma vitamin C concentration was higher (P < 0.001) in Finnish subjects (mean ± standard deviation, 4.5 ± 2.8 mg/liter) than in Russian subjects (1.4 ± 1.8 mg/liter). Mean antibody levels to both A. actinomycetemcomitans (4.7 ± 3.6 versus 5.2 ± 3.1 ELISA units [P = 0.05]) and P. gingivalis (5.7 ± 2.5 versus 7.6 ± 2.9 ELISA units [P < 0.001]) were lower in Finnish men than in Russian men. In the combined Finnish and Russian population, the antibody levels to P. gingivalis were negatively correlated with vitamin C concentrations (r = −0.22; P < 0.001); this association remained statistically significant (P = 0.010) in a linear regression model after adjustment for confounding factors. The proportion of P. gingivalis-seropositive subjects decreased with increasing vitamin C concentrations (P for trend, <0.01), but no trend was seen among A. actinomycetemcomitans-seropositive subjects. In conclusion, P. gingivalis infection is associated with low concentrations of vitamin C in plasma, which may increase colonization of P. gingivalis or disturb the healing of the infected periodontium.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium which is associated especially with aggressive forms of periodontitis. Contradictory results on the localization of the A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype-specific antigen have been reported. The aim of the present study was to characterize the A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype d-specific antigen. The antigen was isolated by affinity chromatography. The affinity column was prepared from immunoglobulin G isolated from rabbit antiserum raised against A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype d. The isolated antigen was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and silver staining, all of which revealed a ladder-like structure typical for the O antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In a displacement enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the isolated antigen displaced in a concentration-dependent manner the binding of the polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype d to the competing whole-cell serotype d antigen. The isolated antigen contained LPS, and an equal concentration of LPS isolated from A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype d gave a similar displacement curve in the ELISA. In order to test the immunogenic properties of the isolated antigen, it was used to immunize a rabbit. The antiserum raised against the isolated antigen displayed specificity in Western blotting and ELISA similar to that of antibody raised against LPS isolated from A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype d. In conclusion, our results show that the A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype d-specific antigen contains the O-antigenic structure of LPS.
Periodontitis is associated with elevated levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen and it may be a coronary heart disease risk factor. We wanted to study if treatment of periodontitis can decrease the levels of these inflammatory markers.
C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were measured in 35 patients (21 M, 14 F, mean age 50 years) with adult periodontitis, before and after treatment.
The median baseline C-reactive protein level in the patients was 1.05 mg/l and it decreased to 0.7 mg/l (p = 0.05) after periodontal treatment. Of the 30 patients who could be included in the analyses, 24 patients had a baseline level below 2 mg/l (the 95th percentile limit in Finland); 6 patients had levels higher than this. Elevation of the baseline C-reactive protein level or the magnitude of its decrease were not associated with severe form of periodontitis. The decrease in C-reactive protein levels was at least 50 % in 4/6 of those with elevated baseline levels, as compared with 3/24 of the rest of the patients (p = 0.016). No corresponding effect was observed in fibrinogen levels.
Periodontitis seems to increase C-reactive protein only in some individuals, presumably the ones reacting to it with a systemic inflammatory reaction. Periodontal treatment decreases C-reactive protein levels in these individuals and it may thus decrease their risk of coronary heart disease.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a major pathogen in periodontitis. Data on the clinical relevance of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels against this species are controversial. The aim of the present study was to elucidate how different strains used as antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) influence the detection of individuals with elevated serum IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans. We hypothesized that the highest antibody levels are targeted to the autologous strains. A total of 19 strains—six antigenically diverse reference strains (serotypes a through e and a nonserotypeable strain) and 13 serotyped autologous strains—were used as whole-cell antigens in ELISA. Serum samples were from 26 untreated adult patients with periodontitis, whose subgingival bacterial samples were either culture positive (n = 13) or culture negative (n = 13) for A. actinomycetemcomitans, and from 10 culture-negative nonperiodontitis subjects. The highest individual (P < 0.05) IgG levels against the reference strains were most commonly against serotypes a and b in patients and against serotype c in nonperiodontitis subjects. The culture-positive patients had the highest (P < 0.05) IgG antibody levels against their autologous strains and against the reference strains of the same serotype. On the contrary, for these patients the levels of antibody against the reference strains of other serotypes were comparable to those of the nonperiodontitis subjects. The results indicated that the serum IgG antibody levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans strongly depend on the strains used as antigens in the ELISA. Elevated serum IgG levels against A. actinomycetemcomitans can be detected equally well using either the autologous strains or a variety of antigenically diverse reference strains as antigens.
Periodontitis is a common chronic oral infection caused by gram-negative bacteria, including Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontitis evokes inflammatory host response locally in the periodontium but also systemically. The systemic humoral antibody response against oral pathogens can conveniently be measured by an immunoassay. The aim of the study was to measure serum immunoglobulin G class antibodies against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in which mixtures of several serotypes of the pathogens were used as antigens to avoid biasing of the results in favor of a particular strain. For A. actinomycetemcomitans the antigen consisted of six strains representing serotypes a, b, c, d, and e and one nonserotypeable strain. In the P. gingivalis ELISA, antigens representing serotypes a, b, and c were used. Serum samples from 90 subjects, including 35 samples from patients with diagnosed periodontitis, 10 samples from periodontally healthy controls, and 45 samples from randomly selected apparently healthy volunteers (referred to as “healthy subjects”), were tested. For both pathogens the antibody levels (means ± standard deviations) of the patients—expressed as area under the dilution curve—were significantly higher than those for healthy controls or healthy subjects, with values for A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, respectively, as follows: patients, 22.60 ± 9.94 mm2 and 26.72 ± 11.13 mm2; healthy controls, 9.99 ± 3.92 mm2 and 6.90 ± 3.38 mm2; and healthy subjects, 16.85 ± 6.67 mm2 and 8.51 ± 4.23 mm2. The serotype mixture ELISA is suitable for measuring antibodies against periodontal pathogens in large epidemiological studies in order to evaluate the role of periodontitis as a risk factor for other diseases.
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral pathogen, only occasionally causes nonoral infections. In this study 52 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains from 51 subjects with nonoral infections were serotyped and genotyped by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) to determine whether a certain clone(s) is specifically associated with nonoral infections or particular in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The promoter structure of leukotoxin genes was additionally investigated to find the deletion characteristic of highly leukotoxic A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. The nonoral A. actinomycetemcomitans strains included all five known serotypes and nonserotypeable strains, the most common serotypes being b (40%) and c (31%). AP-PCR distinguished 10 different genotypes. A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype b strains were more frequently found in blood samples of patients with bacteremia or endocarditis than in patients with focal infections. One AP-PCR genotype was significantly more frequently found among strains originating in focal infections than in blood samples. Resistance to benzylpenicillin was significantly more frequent among A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype b strains than among strains of other serotypes. No differences in the leukotoxin gene promoter region or benzylpenicillin resistance between nonoral and oral A. actinomycetemcomitans strains were observed. Nonoral A. actinomycetemcomitans strains showed great similarity to the oral strains, confirming that the oral cavity is the likely source of nonoral A. actinomycetemcomitans infections. The predominance of serotype b strains in endocarditis and bacteremia supports the hypothesis of a relationship between certain A. actinomycetemcomitans clones and some nonoral infections. The mechanisms behind the exceptionally high rate of occurrence of benzylpenicillin resistance among A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype b strains are to be elucidated in further studies.
The present study investigated the β-lactamase production of 73 Prevotella intermedia, 84 Prevotella nigrescens, and 14 Prevotella pallens isolates and their in vitro susceptibilities to six antimicrobial agents. The P. intermedia and P. nigrescens isolates were recovered from oral and extraoral samples obtained from subjects in two geographic locations from 1985 to 1995. The clonality of the β-lactamase-positive and β-lactamase-negative isolates and the clustering of the genotypes were studied by arbitrarily primed-PCR fingerprinting. β-Lactamase production was detected in 29% of P. intermedia isolates, 29% of P. nigrescens isolates, and 57% of P. pallens isolates. No difference in the frequencies of β-lactamase production by P. intermedia and P. nigrescens between isolates from oral and extraoral sites, between isolates obtained at different time periods, or between P. intermedia isolates from different geographic locations was observed. However, the P. nigrescens isolates from the United States were significantly more frequently (P = 0.015) β-lactamase positive than those from Finland. No association between the genotypes and β-lactamase production or between the genotypes and the sources of the isolates was found. The penicillin G MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited were 8 μg/ml for P. intermedia, 8 μg/ml for P. nigrescens, and 16 μg/ml for P. pallens. For the β-lactamase-negative isolates, the corresponding values were 0.031, 0.031, and 0.125 μg/ml, and for the β-lactamase-positive isolates, the corresponding values were 16, 8, and 32 μg/ml. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, metronidazole, azithromycin, and trovafloxacin. The MICs of amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefoxitin were relatively higher for the β-lactamase-positive population than for the β-lactamase-negative population.
The closely related species Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, and Haemophilus paraphrophilus are common findings in oral microbiota. The aims of this study were to evaluate the applicability of the Rapid NH and API ZYM kits and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) in the identification and differentiation of the three species from each other. The material included 62 clinical isolates and three reference strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans representing the 5 serotypes and 18 AP-PCR genotypes. Haemophilus species included 12 clinical isolates and 11 reference strains of H. aphrophilus, H. paraphrophilus, and 5 other species. For the PCR amplification, the oligonucleotide 5′-CAGCACCCAC-3′ was used as a primer. Contrary to the consistent performance of API ZYM, the Rapid NH system was able to identify only 10 of 65 (15%) A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates, whereas all Haemophilus species were correctly identified. The API ZYM test differentiated A. actinomycetemcomitans from H. aphrophilus and H. paraphrophilus by negative β-galactosidase and α-glucosidase reactions and a positive esterase lipase reaction. However, the API ZYM test was unable to differentiate H. aphrophilus from H. paraphrophilus, it also could not differentiate A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes from each other. Among the H. aphrophilus isolates three AP-PCR genotypes and among H. paraphrophilus isolates only one AP-PCR genotype, distinct from those of A. actinomycetemcomitans, were found. The Rapid NH test showed poor ability to identify clinical isolates of all A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. Moreover, AP-PCR genotyping proved to be a rapid method for the species differentiation of A. actinomycetemcomitans, H. aphrophilus, and H. paraphrophilus.
Our previous studies have shown that Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolates of a given arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) genotype belong to the same serotype (of serotypes a through e). In the present study we investigated whether the AP-PCR genotypes of nonserotypeable A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates match those of the serotypeable isolates. The isolates were additionally characterized by restriction analysis of the apaH PCR amplification products. The material included 75 nonserotypeable and 18 serotypeable A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates from 34 epidemiologically unrelated subjects. The serotypeable isolates were obtained from subjects who also harbored nonserotypeable isolates. Eight AP-PCR genotypes were distinguished among the isolates; six genotypes matched those detected in our previous studies, whereas two genotypes were new. Intraindividually, the A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates produced identical AP-PCR banding patterns, regardless of whether they were serotypeable or nonserotypeable, in 22 of 23 subjects participating with multiple isolates. AP-PCR genotype 3, corresponding to serotype c, was by far the most common among the nonserotypeable isolates (62% of subjects). Results obtained with the apaH restriction analysis confirmed the results obtained with AP-PCR for 31 of the 34 subjects. The results suggest that nonserotypeable A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates originate from serotypeable isolates, especially from serotype c isolates, and the likelihood of the existence of additional serotypes is small.
Simple sample-processing methods for PCR detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen causing adult periodontitis, from saliva were studied. The ability to detect P. gingivalis from 118 salivary samples by PCR after boiling and Chelex 100 processing was compared with bacterial culture. P. gingivalis was detected three times more often by PCR than by culture. Chelex 100 processing of saliva proved to be effective in preventing PCR inhibition and was applied to determine the occurrence of P. gingivalis in saliva samples from 263 Finnish subjects between 5 and 80 years of age. The occurrence of P. gingivalis increased with age, and it was detected by PCR in the saliva of 5.0% of subjects between 5 and 10 years of age, 13.8% of subjects between 11 and 20 years of age, 13.4% of subjects between 21 and 30 years of age, and 63.3% of subjects between 31 and 80 years of age. The results indicate that P. gingivalis is a rare finding in saliva from periodontally healthy children and young adults but a frequent one in saliva from adult periodontitis patients.