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1.  Leiomyoma in Retzius’ space: An unusual location 
Canadian Urological Association Journal  2013;7(9-10):E612-E613.
We report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with microscopic hematuria. An imaging study revealed a tumour in the Retzius’ space. The tumour was surgically removed by an abdominal approach. Pathological examination revealed a leiomyoma. This case demonstrates a leiomyoma in an unusual location.
doi:10.5489/cuaj.349
PMCID: PMC3776041  PMID: 24069108
2.  Possibility of molecular targeting therapy for the treatment of cancer of unknown primary origin by analysis of intracellular signaling molecules 
Recently, antibody-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blockade has become a major research focus, and a number of clinical studies on this new treatment have been started in the field of clinical oncology. This retrospective study investigated the role of KRAS gene mutations and clinical features for possibilities for new therapies in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP). We investigated the role of KRAS, PIK3CA and BRAF gene mutations and clinical features for possibilities for new therapies in patients with CUP. Nine patients with metastases from an unknown primary tumor were included in this retrospective study. The KRAS, BRAF and PI3KCA mutational analyses were carried out by means of PCR using genomic DNA for each PCR reaction. The mutation rate in CUP for codon 12 or 13 of the KRAS gene and for PIK3CA was lower than that in colorectal cancer, while the same mutation rate for BRAF was almost the same in the two; this means that the EGFR antibodies can possibly treat CUP.
doi:10.3892/etm.2011.417
PMCID: PMC3438562  PMID: 22969927
epidermal growth factor receptor; KRAS; cancer of unknown primary
3.  Enhanced antitumor effect of combination intravesical mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy in an orthotopic bladder cancer model 
Oncology Letters  2010;2(1):13-19.
Intravesical immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is currently the most successful adjuvant agent for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, NMIBCs recur in 60–70% of cases and 30% of these recurrent tumors present with a higher grade and more invasive properties. Patients that do not respond to intravesical BCG therapy are considered to be a challenge for urologists. Thus, novel conservative possibilities should be explored. To test the efficacy of a novel therapeutic approach, we examined the antitumor effect of combination therapy by intravesical administration of mitomycin C (MMC) plus BCG, infusing the two drugs simultaneously, in an orthotopic bladder cancer model. Intravesical BCG and MMC administration showed a dose-dependent survival (n=8 per group). The combination of MMC and BCG provided a significant survival advantage compared to the BCG-alone (p=0.035) and MMC-alone groups (p=0.040) (n=8 per group). The group with combined MMC/BCG exhibited a survival period similar to that achieved with an amount eight times higher that of BCG (n=10 per group). Ki-67 labeling index of cancer cells, showing tumor proliferation, was significantly lower in the combined group compared to the BCG-alone (p<0.05), MMC-alone (p<0.01) and control groups (p<0.01). No difference was detected between the combined group and the BCG-alone group with regard to CD3, T-cell infiltration and CD68 macrophage activity. The combined MMC/BCG treatment decreased the tumor appearance rate, improved the survival period and reduced the cellular proliferation rate in tumors compared to the BCG-alone treatment. The results suggest that the combined intravesical MMC/BCG treatment induced an enhanced antitumor effect against bladder tumors. The combined MMC/BCG treatment also showed a survival period similar to that achieved using a dose eight times higher of BCG-alone.
doi:10.3892/ol.2010.217
PMCID: PMC3412510  PMID: 22870122
urinary bladder; bladder neoplasms; mycobacterium bovis; mitomycin C; immunochemotherapy
4.  Preimplant factors affecting postimplant CT-determined prostate volume and the CT/TRUS volume ratio after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds 
Background
The aim was to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume and the increase in prostate volume after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds.
Methods
We reviewed the records of 180 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds for clinical T1/T2 prostate cancer. Eighty-one (45%) of the 180 patients underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. No patient received supplemental external beam radiotherapy. Postimplant computed tomography was undertaken, and postimplant dosimetric analysis was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation.
Results
Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, serum prostate-specific antigen, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography. The increase in prostate volume after implantation was significantly higher in patients with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy than in those without. Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy were significant independent factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation.
Conclusions
The results of the present study show that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy are significant preimplant factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-5-86
PMCID: PMC2954882  PMID: 20875137
5.  Leiomyoma of the bladder presenting as acute urinary retention in a female patient: urodynamic analysis of lower urinary tract symptom; a case report 
BMC Urology  2010;10:13.
Background
Most bladder tumors are derived from the urothelium. Benign mesenchymal tumors are rare. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most common benign neoplasm. We present a case of leiomyoma of the bladder presenting with acute urinary retention in a female patient and report on the post-operative change in urodynamic findings. To our knowledge, few cases of this kind have been reported.
Case Presentation
A 56-year-old woman presented with acute urinary retention. Evaluations including ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, cystoscopy, and urodynamics contributed to a diagnosis of leiomyoma of the bladder. Various medications were ineffective for solving her lower urinary tract symptoms; therefore, a transurethral resection was performed. The final pathological report was leiomyoma. After the operation, her symptoms resolved; this improvement was confirmed by an urodynamic analysis. The postoperative urodynamics demonstrated a lower frequency of detrusor overactivity during filling cystometry and an increase in the uroflow rate, with reduced detrusor pressure in a pressure flow study.
Conclusions
Leiomyoma of the bladder can cause female outlet obstruction. A review of the literature and disease management is discussed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-13
PMCID: PMC2924335  PMID: 20684762

Results 1-5 (5)