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1.  Factors Affecting the Use of Impedance Spectroscopy in the Characterisation of the Freezing Stage of the Lyophilisation Process: the Impact of Liquid Fill Height in Relation to Electrode Geometry 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2013;15(2):261-269.
This study aims to investigate the application of impedance spectroscopy using fixed electrode geometries on a standard glass vial in the characterisation of the freezing process of solutions at different fill liquid volumes. Impedance spectra (between 10 and 106 Hz) were recorded every 3 min, during the freezing cycle on a solution of 30 mg/mL sucrose contained within 10 mL glass vials having an electrode system (two thin copper foils: w, 18 mm; h, 5 mm) affixed to the external surface of the vial. A fill factor (Φ) was defined in terms of the relative height of the solution volume to the height of the electrodes from the base of the vial. Solution volumes of 1.5 to 5 mL (corresponding to Φ= 0.5–1.6) were investigated to establish the applicability of having a fixed electrode geometry for a range of solution volumes. A linear relationship between the time duration of the ice formation/solidification phase and the fill factor suggests that fixed electrode geometries may be used to investigate a range of fill volumes. The benefit of this approach is that it does not invade the solution and hence records the freezing process without providing additional nucleation sites and in a manner which is representative of the entire fill volume.
PMCID: PMC3969478  PMID: 24306675
fill height; freezing; impedance spectroscopy; sucrose
2.  Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Revolutionizing Agriculture: Synthesis and Applications 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:925494.
Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles.
PMCID: PMC4243478  PMID: 25436235
3.  Increasing Burn Severity in Mice is Associated with Delayed Mobilization of Circulating Angiogenic Cells 
Angiogenesis is an important component of wound healing. Mobilization of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) has been observed in patients with cutaneous burn wounds, but a systematic exploration of the phenomenon in an animal model has not been carried out. Using a murine model, in which burn depth can be varied precisely, and a validated culture method for quantifying circulating CACs, we found that increasing burn depth resulted in a progressive delay in the time to mobilization of circulating CACs. This delay in CAC mobilization was associated with a delay in perfusion and vascularization of the burn wound tissue. Analysis of CACs in the peripheral blood of human burn patients, using the same culture assay, confirmed results previously obtained by flow cytometry, that CAC levels peak early after the burn wound, and point to the clinical relevance of findings from the murine model.
PMCID: PMC4209728  PMID: 20231626
4.  Crystal structure of 1-benzoyl-3-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)thio­urea 
The title compound, C14H11FN2OS, contains two mol­ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit, with different conformations. In mol­ecule A, the dihedral angles between the central thio­urea grouping and the phenyl and fluoro­benzene rings are 28.77 (8) and 41.82 (8)°, respectively, and the dihedral angle between the ring planes is 70.02 (9)°. Equivalent data for mol­ecule B are 8.46 (8), 47.78 (8) and 52.99 (9)°, respectively. Both mol­ecules feature an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which closes an S(6) ring. In the crystal, A+B dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(8) loops.
PMCID: PMC4186107  PMID: 25309204
crystal structure; thio­urea; amide; hydrogen-bonded dimers
5.  Quantitative ethnomedicinal study of plants used in the skardu valley at high altitude of Karakoram-Himalayan range, Pakistan 
The tribal inhabitants of the Skardu valley (Pakistan) live in an area of great endemic botanic diversity. This paper presents the first quantitative ethnomedicinal spectrum of the valley and information on the uses of medicinal plant. This paper aims to analyze and catalogue such knowledge based on Relative Frequency Citation (RFC) and Use Value (UV) of medicinal plants in addition to the configuration of the Pearson correlation coefficient.
The field study was carried out over a period of approximately 2 years (2011–2013) using semi-structured interviews with 71 informants (most of the informants belonged to an age between 50 and 70 years) in six remote locations in the valley. Ethnomedicinal data was analyzed using frequency citation (FC), relative frequency of citation (RFC) and use value (UV) along with a Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC). Demographic characteristics of participants, ethnobotanical inventory of plants and data on medicinal application and administration were recorded.
A total of 50 medicinal plants belonging to 25 families were reported to be used against 33 different ailments in the valley. The maximum reported medicinal plant families were Asteraceae (7 report species), Lamiaceae (6) , Polygonaceae (4) and Rosaceae (4), the most dominant life form of the species includes herbs (38) followed by shrubs and subshrubs (12), the most frequent used part was leaves (41%) followed by root (26%), flower (14%), fruit (9%), seeds (8%), bulb (1%) and bark (1%), the most common preparation and administration methods were infusion (32%), decoction (26%), paste (18%), herbal juice (17%) and powder drug (7%). The Pearson correlation coefficient between RFC and UV was 0.732 showing highly positive significant association.
In this study, we have documented considerable indigenous knowledge about the native medicinal plants in Skardu valley for treating common ailments which are ready to be further investigated phytochemically and pharmacologically which leads to natural drug discovery development. The study has various socioeconomic dimensions which are associated with the local communities.
PMCID: PMC4039317  PMID: 24885937
Quantitative ethnobotany; Medicinal plants; Skardu valley; Northern Pakistan
6.  Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2014;44(4):1341-1348.
Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m−1 under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean.
PMCID: PMC3958208  PMID: 24688532
ACC-deaminase; Pseudomonas; Rhizobium; osmotic stress; salt tolerance index
7.  An ethnobiological study in Kala Chitta hills of Pothwar region, Pakistan: multinomial logit specification 
This paper constitutes an important ethnobiological survey in the context of utilizing biological resources by residents of Kala Chitta hills of Pothwar region, Pakistan. The fundamental aim of this research endeavour was to catalogue and analyse the indigenous knowledge of native community about plants and animals. The study is distinctive in the sense to explore both ethnobotanical and ethnozoological aspects of indigenous culture, and exhibits novelty, being based on empirical approach of Multinomial Logit Specifications (MLS) for examining ethnobotanical and ethnozoological uses of specific plants and animals.
To document the ethnobiological knowledge, the survey was conducted during 2011–12 by employing a semi-structured questionnaire and thus 54 informants were interviewed. Plant and animal specimens were collected, photographed and properly identified. Distribution of plants and animals were explored by descriptive and graphical examination. MLS were further incorporated to identify the probability of occurrence of diversified utilization of plants and animals in multipurpose domains.
Traditional uses of 91 plant and 65 animal species were reported. Data analysis revealed more medicinal use of plants and animals than all other use categories. MLS findings are also in line with these proportional configurations. They reveal that medicinal and food consumption of underground and perennial plants was more as compared to aerial and annual categories of plants. Likewise, medicinal utilization of wild animals and domestic animals were more commonly observed as food items. However, invertebrates are more in the domain of medicinal and food utilization. Also carnivores are fairly common in the use of medicine while herbivores are in the category of food consumption.
This study empirically scans a good chunk of ethnobiological knowledge and depicts its strong connection with indigenous traditions. It is important to make local residents beware of conservation status of species and authentication of this knowledge needs to be done in near future. Moreover, Statistically significant findings impart novelty in the existing literature in the field of ethnobiology. Future conservation, phytochemical and pharmacological studies are recommended on these identified plants and animals in order to use them in a more sustainable and effective way.
PMCID: PMC3914733  PMID: 24467739
Ethnobotany; Ethnozoology; Multinomial logit; Kala Chitta hills; Pothwar region; Pakistan
8.  Wheat germ oil enrichment in broiler feed with α-lipoic acid to enhance the antioxidant potential and lipid stability of meat 
Lipid peroxidation is the cause of declining the meat quality. Natural antioxidants plays a vital role in enhancing the stability and quality of meat. The supplementation of natural antioxidants in feed decreases lipid peroxidation and improves the stability of meat.
The present research was conducted to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid, α-tocopherol and wheat germ oil on the status of antioxidants, quality and lipid stability of broiler meat. One day old male broilers were fed with different feeds containing antioxidants i.e. natural (wheat germ oil) and synthetic α-tocopherol and α-lipoic acid during the two experimental years.
The feed treatments have significant variation on the body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) while having no influence on the feed intake. The broilers fed on wheat germ oil (natural α-tocopherol) gained maximum body weight (2451.97 g & 2466.07 g) in the experimental years 2010–11 & 2011–12, respectively. The higher total phenolic contents were found in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast (162.73±4.8 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 162.18±4.5 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and leg (149.67±3.3 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g & 146.07±3.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent/100 g) meat during both experimental years. Similar trend was observed for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The production of malondialdehydes in the breast and leg meat increased with progressive increase in the time period. The deposition of α-tocopherol (AT) and α-lipoic acid (ALA) contents were found to be higher in the broilers fed on wheat germ oil plus α-lipoic acid in breast and leg meat during the both experimental years.
In conclusion, the combination of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid has more beneficial for stability and the quality of the broiler meat and more work should be needed in future for the bio-evaluation of this kind of functional meat in humans.
PMCID: PMC3826520  PMID: 24499336
α-Lipoic acid; α-Tocopherol; Wheat germ oil; Total phenolic contents; DPPH; Frap
9.  Pathogenic Mouse Hepatitis Virus or Poly(I:C) Induce IL-33 in Hepatocytes in Murine Models of Hepatitis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74278.
The IL-33/ST2 axis is known to be involved in liver pathologies. Although, the IL-33 levels increased in sera of viral hepatitis patients in human, the cellular sources of IL-33 in viral hepatitis remained obscure. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the expression of IL-33 in murine fulminant hepatitis induced by a Toll like receptor (TLR3) viral mimetic, poly(I:C) or by pathogenic mouse hepatitis virus (L2-MHV3). The administration of poly(I:C) plus D-galactosamine (D-GalN) in mice led to acute liver injury associated with the induction of IL-33 expression in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and vascular endothelial cells (VEC), while the administration of poly(I:C) alone led to hepatocyte specific IL-33 expression in addition to vascular IL-33 expression. The hepatocyte-specific IL-33 expression was down-regulated in NK-depleted poly(I:C) treated mice suggesting a partial regulation of IL-33 by NK cells. The CD1d KO (NKT deficient) mice showed hepatoprotection against poly(I:C)-induced hepatitis in association with increased number of IL-33 expressing hepatocytes in CD1d KO mice than WT controls. These results suggest that hepatocyte-specific IL-33 expression in poly(I:C) induced liver injury was partially dependent of NK cells and with limited role of NKT cells. In parallel, the L2-MHV3 infection in mice induced fulminant hepatitis associated with up-regulated IL-33 expression as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine microenvironment in liver. The LSEC and VEC expressed inducible expression of IL-33 following L2-MHV3 infection but the hepatocyte-specific IL-33 expression was only evident between 24 to 32h of post infection. In conclusion, the alarmin cytokine IL-33 was over-expressed during fulminant hepatitis in mice with LSEC, VEC and hepatocytes as potential sources of IL-33.
PMCID: PMC3772926  PMID: 24058536
10.  Fixed Point Results of Locally Contractive Mappings in Ordered Quasi-Partial Metric Spaces 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:194897.
Fixed point results for a self-map satisfying locally contractive conditions on a closed ball in an ordered 0-complete quasi-partial metric space have been established. Instead of monotone mapping, the notion of dominated mappings is applied. We have used weaker metric, weaker contractive conditions, and weaker restrictions to obtain unique fixed points. An example is given which shows that how this result can be used when the corresponding results cannot. Our results generalize, extend, and improve several well-known conventional results.
PMCID: PMC3767078  PMID: 24062629
11.  On Multivalued Contractions in Cone Metric Spaces without Normality 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:481601.
Wardowski (2011) in this paper for a normal cone metric space (X, d) and for the family 𝒜 of subsets of X established a new cone metric H : 𝒜 × 𝒜 → E and obtained fixed point of set-valued contraction of Nadler type. Further, it is noticed in the work of Janković et al., 2011 that the fixed-point problem in the setting of cone metric spaces is appropriate only in the case when the underlying cone is nonnormal. In the present paper we improve Wardowski's result by proving the same without the assumption of normality on cones.
PMCID: PMC3686173  PMID: 23844400
12.  2-Chloro-6-(2,3-di­chloro­benzene­sulfonamido)­benzoic acid 
In the title compound, C13H8Cl3NO4S, the aromatic rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 68.94 (1)° and the mol­ecule adopts a V-shape. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O inter­action generates a six-membered S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the carb­oxy group link the mol­ecules into inversion dimers with an R 2 2(8) motif. N—H⋯O and non-classical C—H⋯O inter­actions connect the mol­ecules, forming sheets propagating in (100).
PMCID: PMC3684920  PMID: 23795022
13.  5-Acetyl-3-(5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-1,3,4-thia­diazol-2(3H)-one monohydrate 
In the title hydrate, C13H10N4O2S·H2O, the dihedral angles between the central pyrazole ring and its pendant phenyl and thia­diazole rings are 9.93 (8) and 4.56 (7)°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating [100] chains incorporating R 4 4(10) loops. A weak C—H⋯O inter­action helps to consolidate the packing.
PMCID: PMC3648319  PMID: 23723939
14.  Selective deposition of dietary α-Lipoic acid in mitochondrial fraction and its synergistic effect with α-Tocoperhol acetate on broiler meat oxidative stability 
The use of bioactive antioxidants in feed of broiler to mitigate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems is one of promising nutritional strategies. The aim of present study was to alleviate ROS production in mitochondrial fraction (MF) of meat by supplemented dietary antioxidant in feed of broiler. For this purpose, mitochondria specific antioxidant: α-lipoic acid (25 mg, 75 mg and 150 mg) with or without combination of α-tocopherol acetate (200 mg) used in normal and palm olein oxidized oil (4%) supplemented feed. One hundred and eighty one day old broiler birds were randomly divided into six treatments and provided the mentioned feed from third week. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) remained statistically same in all groups while body weight decreased in supplemented groups accordingly at the end of study. The broiler meat MF antioxidant potential was significantly improved by feeding supplemented feed estimated as 1,1-di phenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis-(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS+) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The maximum antioxidant activity was depicted in group fed on 150 mg/kg α-lipoic acid (ALA) and 200 mg/kg α-tocopherol acetate (ATA) (T4) in both breast and leg MF. Moreover, TBARS were higher in leg as compared to breast MF. Although, oxidized oil containing feed reduced the growth, lipid stability and antioxidant potential of MF whilst these traits were improved by receiving feed containing ALA and ATA. ALA and ATA showed higher deposition in T4 group while least in group received oxidized oil containing feed (T5). Positive correlation exists between DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the ABTS + reducing activity. In conclusion, ALA and ATA supplementation in feed had positive effect on antioxidant status of MF that consequently diminished the oxidative stress in polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched meat.
PMCID: PMC3653726  PMID: 23617815
α-Lipoic acid; α-Tocopherol acetate; Broiler meat; Oxidative stability; TBARS; Antioxidant activity; Sub-cellular membrane (mitochondria)
15.  Ethnobotanical appraisal and medicinal use of plants in Patriata, New Murree, evidence from Pakistan 
This paper reflects the empirical findings of an ethnobotanical survey which was undertaken in Patriata (New Murree) of district Rawalpindi in Pakistan. The aims and objectives of the study were to document indigenous knowledge of plants particularly of medicinal, veterinary, fruit, vegetable, fodder, fuel etc.
For this purpose, the whole area was surveyed for documenting folk knowledge using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 93 plants species belonging to 80 genera and 56 families were found in a variety of uses by the local people for the accomplishment of their basic needs. The study further employs binary logit regression model of medicinal uses of these plants so as to identify the probability of occurrence of medicinal use of woody or non-woody plants keeping other plant characteristics in view.
Ethnobotanical data shows that most plants are used for medicinal and fodder purposes (27.93% each), followed by fuel (16.90%), fruit (6.55%), vegetable (5.52%) and ethno-veterinary (3.79%). There is also an established association of medicinal use of plants to the fruits use. Non-woody plants have high tendency towards medicinal use of the plants as compared to woody plants. Annual plants are less likely to be directly associated with medicinal use of plants in the surveyed vegetation. Underground plant parts are more likely to be used for medicinal purposes as revealed from the Logit expressions.
The study revealed that most of the plants are used for medicinal and fodder purposes. The results of Logit Model showed that the probabilities of plant species for their medicinal use are associated to the woody or non-woody, aerial or underground, perennial or annual characteristics of plants. One should be careful in completely generalizing the results as the survey findings are sensitive to the plant species and the vegetation under consideration. But it can be specified that there exists either some positive or negative association of medicinal use of plants to the various characteristics of plant species.
PMCID: PMC3599915  PMID: 23445756
Ethnobotany; Medicinal use of plants; Probabilities; Logit expression; Patriata; Murree; Pakistan
16.  Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products 
This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.
PMCID: PMC3571933  PMID: 23391137
Broiler meat; Extrusion; Flaxseed; Nuggets; PUFA; Lipid stability
17.  2-[(2-Hy­droxy­naphthalen-1-yl)methyl­idene­amino]-5,6,7,8-tetra­hydro-4H-cyclo­hepta­[b]thio­phene-3-carbonitrile 
Two independent mol­ecules, A and B, comprise the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C21H18N2OS, with the difference in the angle of orientation between the naphthalene ring system and the mean plane of the cyclo­heptyl ring [16.13 (1) in A and 11.48 (5)° in B], being evident. The cyclo­heptyl ring adopts a distorted chair conformation in each mol­ecule with r.m.s. deviations of 0.2345 (4) (A) and 0.2302 (4) Å (B). Intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bonding generates planar six-membered S(6) loops with r.m.s. deviations of 0.0099 (1) (A) and 0.0286 (1) Å (B).
PMCID: PMC3569254  PMID: 23424477
18.  2-(Naphthalene-2-sulfonamido)-3-phenyl­propanoic acid 
In the title compound, C19H17NO4S, the phenyl ring and the naphthalene ring system are oriented at a dihedral angle of 4.12 (2)° and the mol­ecule adopts a U-shaped conformation. The Cc—C—N—S (c = carb­oxy) torsion angle is 90.98 (15)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, resulting in (100) chains incorporating centrosymmetric R 2 2(14) and R 2 2(10) loops. Weak aromatic π–π stacking is also observed [centroid–centroid separations = 3.963 (2) and 3.932 (2) Å].
PMCID: PMC3569255  PMID: 23424478
19.  1,3-Diethyl-2-sulfanyl­idene-5-(2,4,5-trimeth­oxy­benzyl­idene)-1,3-diazinane-4,6-dione 
The title compound, C18H22N2O5S, is largely planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0546 (1) Å of atoms from the mean plane through all non-H atoms except for the methyl groups. The benzene and pyrimidine­dione rings are inclined to one another at a dihedral angle of 1.41 (7)°. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O inter­actions connect the mol­ecules into chains propagating along the b-axis direction.
PMCID: PMC3588229  PMID: 23476432
20.  cis-Dichloridobis(N,N,N′,N′-tetra­methyl­ethane-1,2-diamine)­platinum(II) 
In the title complex, [PtCl2(C6H16N2)], the PtII atom adopts a distorted cis-PtN2Cl2 square-planar coordination geometry. The five-membered chelate ring adopts a twisted conformation. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into (001) sheets.
PMCID: PMC3588799  PMID: 23468764
21.  (Z)-Ethyl 2-chloro-2-[2-(4-methyl­phen­yl)hydrazinyl­idene]acetate 
The mol­ecule of the title compound, C11H13ClN2O2, is approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.099 Å for non-H atoms) and adopts a Z conformation about the C=N double bond. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the same O-atom acceptor, forming zigzag chains propagating along [010]. These inter­actions give rise to R 2 1(6) loops.
PMCID: PMC3589004  PMID: 23476240
22.  1-[(Z)-1-Ferrocenyl­ethyl­idene]thio­carbonohydrazide 
In the title compound, [Fe(C5H5)(C8H11N4S)], the cyclo­penta­dienyl (Cp) rings of the ferrocene unit are close to being eclipsed. They are inclined to one another at an angle of 1.95 (2)° and lie 3.309 (2)Å away from each other. The ethyl­idene­thio­carbonohydrazide fragment is planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0347 (2) Å from the mean plane of its eight non-H atoms, and makes dihedral angles of 21.78 (1) and 19.97 (1)° with respect to the two Cp rings. The mol­ecule adopts a trans geometry about the C=N double bond. In the crystal, N—H⋯(N/S) and C—H⋯S inter­actions stack the mol­ecules in an inverse fashion along the b axis.
PMCID: PMC3588708  PMID: 23468673
23.  Ethyl (Z)-2-chloro-2-[2-(4-meth­oxy­phenyl)hydrazin-1-yl­idene]acetate 
The mol­ecule of the title compound, C11H13ClN2O3, is planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0587 Å for non-H atoms) and adopts a Z conformation about the C=N double bond. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via an N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, forming zigzag chains propagating along [010]. These chains are consolidated by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
PMCID: PMC3588822  PMID: 23468787
24.  Irrational use of antimalarial drugs in rural areas of eastern Pakistan: a random field study 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:941.
Prescription of antimalarial drugs in the absence of malarial disease is a common practice in countries where malaria is endemic. However, unwarranted use of such drugs can cause side effects in some people and is a financial drain on local economies. In this study, we surveyed the prevalence of malaria parasites in humans, and the prevalence of the malaria transmitting mosquito vectors in the study area. We also investigated the use of antimalarial drugs in the local people. We focused on randomly selected rural areas of eastern Pakistan where no malaria cases had been reported since May 2004.
Mass blood surveys, active case detection, passive case detection, and vector density surveys were carried out in selected areas of Sargodha district from September 2008 to August 2009. Data pertaining to the quantities and types of antimalarial drugs used in these areas were collected from health centers, pharmacies, and the district CDC program of the Health Department of the Government of the Punjab.
Seven hundred and forty four blood samples were examined, resulting in a Blood Examination Rate (BER) of 3.18; microscopic analysis of blood smears showed that none of the samples were positive for malaria parasites. Investigation of the mosquito vector density in 43 living rooms (bedrooms or rooms used for sleeping), 23 stores, and 32 animal sheds, revealed no vectors capable of transmitting malaria in these locations. In contrast, the density of Culex mosquitoes was high. Substantial consumption of a variety of antimalarial tablets, syrups, capsules and injections costing around 1000 US$, was documented for the region.
Use of antimalarial drugs in the absence of malarial infection or the vectors that transmit the disease was common in the study area. Continuous use of such drugs, not only in Pakistan, but in other parts of the world, may lead to drug-induced side effects amongst users. Better training of health care professionals is needed to ensure accurate diagnoses of malaria and appropriate prescription of antimalarial drugs delivered to communities.
PMCID: PMC3577451  PMID: 23116148
Malaria; Plasmodium; Eastern Pakistan; Antimalarial drugs; Mosquito vectors; Diagnosis; Blood Examination Rate (BER)
25.  1-(1H-1,2,3-Benzotriazol-1-yl)-2-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)ethanone 
In the title compound, C15H13N3O2, the dihedral angle between the benzotriazole ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0124 Å) and the benzene ring is 76.21 (3)°. The meth­oxy C atom deviates from its benzene ring plane by 0.063 (2)Å. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(12) loops.
PMCID: PMC3515306  PMID: 23284526

Results 1-25 (165)