Although apolipoprotein E (APOE) variants are associated with age-related diseases, the underlying mechanism is unknown and DNA methylation may be a potential one. With methylation data, measured by the Infinium Human Methylation 450 array, from 993 participants (age ranging from 18 to 87 years) in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study, and from Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) consortium, combined with published methylation datasets, we described the methylation pattern of 13 CpG sites within APOE locus, their correlations with gene expression across cell types, and their relationships with age, plasma lipids, and sequence variants. Based on methylation levels and the genetic regions, we categorized the 13 APOE CpG sites into three groups: Group 1 showed hypermethylation (> 50%) and were located in the promoter region, Group 2 exhibited hypomethylation (< 50%) and were located in the first two exons and introns, and Group 3 showed hypermethylation (> 50%) and were located in the exon 4. APOE methylation was negatively correlated with gene expression (minimum r = − 0.66, P = 0.004). APOE methylation was significantly associated with age (minimum P = 2.06E-08) and plasma total cholesterol (minimum P = 3.53E-03). Finally, APOE methylation patterns differed across APOE ε variants (minimum P = 3.51E-05) and the promoter variant rs405509 (minimum P = 0.01), which further showed a significant interaction with age (P = 0.03). These findings suggest that methylation may be a potential mechanistic explanation for APOE functions related to aging and call for further molecular mechanistic studies.
apolipoprotein E; age; DNA methylation; variants; epidemiology; interaction
Fenofibrate lowers triglycerides (TG) and raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) in dyslipidemic individuals. Several studies have shown genetic variability in lipid responses to fenofibrate treatment. It is, however, not known whether epigenetic patterns are also correlated with the changes in lipids due to fenofibrate treatment. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the changes in DNA methylation among the participants of Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study. A total of 443 individuals were studied for epigenome-wide changes in DNA methylation, assessed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 array, before and after a 3-week daily treatment with 160 mg of fenofibrate. The association between the change in DNA methylation and changes in TG, HDLc, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) were assessed using linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, baseline lipids, and study center as fixed effects and family as a random effect. Changes in DNA methylation were not significantly associated with changes in TG, HDLc, or LDLc after 3 weeks of fenofibrate for any CpG. CpG changes in genes known to be involved in fenofibrate response, e.g., PPAR-α, APOA1, LPL, APOA5, APOC3, CETP, and APOB, also did not show evidence of association. In conclusion, changes in lipids in response to 3-week treatment with fenofibrate were not associated with changes in DNA methylation. Studies of longer duration may be required to detect treatment-induced changes in methylation.
fenofibrate; lipid lowering drug; epigenetic changes; DNA methylation; dyslipidemia; cardiovascular disease
Although apolipoprotein E (APOE) variants are associated with age-related diseases, the underlying mechanism is unknown and DNA methylation may be a potential one. With methylation data, measured by the Infinium Human Methylation 450 array, from 993 participants (age ranging from 18 to 87 years) in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study, and from Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) consortium, combined with published methylation datasets, we described the methylation pattern of 13 CpG sites within APOE locus, their correlations with gene expression across cell types, and their relationships with age, plasma lipids, and sequence variants. Based on methylation levels and the genetic regions, we categorized the 13 APOE CpG sites into three groups: Group 1 showed hypermethylation (> 50%) and were located in the promoter region, Group 2 exhibited hypomethylation (< 50%) and were located in the first two exons and introns, and Group 3 showed hypermethylation (> 50%) and were located in the exon 4. APOE methylation was negatively correlated with gene expression (minimum r = −0.66, P = 0.004). APOE methylation was significantly associated with age (minimum P = 2.06E-08) and plasma total cholesterol (minimum P = 3.53E-03). Finally, APOE methylation patterns differed across APOE ε variants (minimum P = 3.51E-05) and the promoter variant rs405509 (minimum P = 0.01), which further showed a significant interaction with age (P = 0.03). These findings suggest that methylation may be a potential mechanistic explanation for APOE functions related to aging and call for further molecular mechanistic studies.
apolipoprotein E; age; DNA methylation; variants; epidemiology; interaction
Previous studies have reported that risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality substantially increases in hypertensive patients, especially among those with inadequate blood pressure control. Two common antihypertensive drug classes including thiazide diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors affect different enzymes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In the RAAS, angiotensinogen is converted into angiotensin II which increases blood pressure through vasoconstriction. Using a case-only design with 3448 high-risk hypertensive individuals from the Genetics of Hypertension Associated Treatment (GenHAT) study, we examined whether seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) interact with three classes of antihypertensive drugs including chlorthalidone (a thiazide diuretic), lisinopril (an ACE inhibitor), and amlodipine (a calcium channel blocker) to modify the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure (HF) among Caucasian and African American participants, separately. We found no gene by treatment interactions to be statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. However, some suggestive results were found. African American participants with the minor allele of rs11122576 had over two-fold higher risk of CHD when using chlorthalidone compared to using amlodipine, or lisinopril compared to amlodipine (p = 0.006 and p = 0.01, respectively). Other marginal associations are also reported among both race groups. The findings reported here suggest that rs11122576 could contribute to future personalization of antihypertensive treatment among African Americans though more studies are needed.
AGT gene; antihypertensive drugs; hypertension; coronary heart disease; heart failure
The scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) gene is a key component in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway and thus plays an important role in lipid metabolism. Studies suggested that the SCARB1 gene may contribute to variation in plasma lipid levels at the fasting; however, the results have been inconsistent and it is unclear if SCARB1 may also influence lipid response to dietary and pharmacologic interventions. In this study, we examined genetic variation in the SCARB1 gene in participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study for associations with basal lipid levels, changes in lipid measures after dietary fat intake and fenofibrate treatment. We found that the exon 1 variant SCARB1_G2S was significantly associated with post-fenofibrate change for triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.004). Subjects bearing SCARB1_G2S minor allele A tend to have higher responsiveness to fenofibrate in lowering TG. In summary, our study suggested that the SCARB1 gene may serve as a useful marker that predicts variation in baseline lipid levels, postprandial lipid response as well as response to fenofibrate intervention.
Scavenger receptor class B type 1; lipid; genetics; fenofibrate; postprandial
editorials; disparities; health status; heart; regional variation
Left ventricular (LV) mass and related phenotypes are heritable, important predictors of cardiovascular disease, particularly in hypertensive individuals.
Identify genetic predictors of echocardiographic phenotypes in hypertensive families.
Methods & Results
A multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted in hypertensive-ascertained African American families (HyperGEN, Stage I; GENOA, Stage II); findings were replicated in HyperGEN Caucasian families (Stage III). Echocardiograms were collected using a common protocol, and participants were genotyped with the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP 6.0 Array. In Stages I and II, 1258 and 989 African Americans, and Stage III 1316 Caucasians, were analyzed using mixed models adjusted for ancestry. Phenotypes included LV mass, LV internal dimension (LVID), wall thicknesses (posterior (PWT) and intraventricular septum (IVST)), and relative wall thickness (RWT). In Stage I, 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) had P≤10−6. In Stage II, one SNP (rs1436109; NCAM1 intron 1) replicated with the same phenotype (PWT, P=0.025) in addition to RWT (P=0.032). In Stage III, rs1436109 was associated with RWT (P=5.47×10−4) and LVID (P=1.86×10−4). Fisher’s combined P-value for all stages was RWT=3.80×10−9, PWT=3.12×10−7, IVST=8.69×10−7, LV mass=2.52×10−3, and LVID=4.80×10−4.
This GWAS conducted in hypertensive families identified a variant in NCAM1 associated with LV wall thickness and RWT. NCAM is upregulated during the remodeling period of hypertrophy to heart failure in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Our initial screening in hypertensive African-Americans may have provided the context for this novel locus.
GWAS; NCAM1; hypertrophy; genomics
Biomarkers of inflammation and hemostasis have been associated with left ventricular (LV) mass. We studied relationships of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL6), D-dimer, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), soluble tumor necrosis factor type 1 receptor (sTNFR1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), factor VIII, fibrinogen, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) with LV mass in an asymptomatic population. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to characterize LV mass; biomarkers were measured using standardized protocols (N = 763 to 4979). Adjusted models were used to associate each biomarker with LV mass while correcting for potential confounding.
LV mass was associated with many biomarkers after adjustment for demographic characteristics and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Although the demographic and risk factor adjustments attenuated the association of CRP and IL6 with LV mass, further adjustment for weight changed regression coefficients from positive to negative for CRP and IL6 for LV mass. sTM, Factor VIII, and vWF were directly associated with LV mass in fully-adjusted models. For sTNFR1, sICAM-1, D-dimer, fibrinogen, and PAI-1, adjustment for risk factors and weight rendered associations with LV mass nonsignificant.
In this large cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease, several hemostasis and inflammation markers were associated with LV mass. The unusual finding of a negative relationship of CRP and IL6 with LV mass only after adjustment for weight suggests that the effects of inflammation on LV mass are strongly influenced by obesity.
Left ventricle; biomarker; hemostasis; inflammation
Epigenetic processes, defined as heritable changes in gene expression that occur without changes to the DNA sequence, have emerged as a promising area of cardiovascular disease research. Epigenetic information transcends that of the genotype alone, and provides for an integrated etiologic picture of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis because of the interaction of the epigenome with the environment. Epigenetic biomarkers, which include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-based mechanisms, are both modifiable and cell-type specific, which makes them not only responsive to the environment, but also an attractive target for drug development. However, the enthusiasm surrounding possible applications of cardiovascular epigenetics currently outpaces available evidence. In this review, we synthesize the evidence linking epigenetic changes with cardiovascular disease, emphasizing the gap between the translational potential and the clinical reality of cardiovascular epigenetics.
Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) represents a powerful approach for whole transcriptome gene expression analysis. However, RNA-seq carries a few limitations, e.g., the requirement of a significant amount of input RNA and complications led by non-specific mapping of short reads. The Ion AmpliSeq™ Transcriptome Human Gene Expression Kit (AmpliSeq) was recently introduced by Life Technologies as a whole-transcriptome, targeted gene quantification kit to overcome these limitations of RNA-seq. To assess the performance of this new methodology, we performed a comprehensive comparison of AmpliSeq with RNA-seq using two well-established next-generation sequencing platforms (Illumina HiSeq and Ion Torrent Proton). We analyzed standard reference RNA samples and RNA samples obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs).
Using published data from two standard RNA reference samples, we observed a strong concordance of log2 fold change for all genes when comparing AmpliSeq to Illumina HiSeq (Pearson’s r = 0.92) and Ion Torrent Proton (Pearson’s r = 0.92). We used ROC, Matthew’s correlation coefficient and RMSD to determine the overall performance characteristics. All three statistical methods demonstrate AmpliSeq as a highly accurate method for differential gene expression analysis. Additionally, for genes with high abundance, AmpliSeq outperforms the two RNA-seq methods. When analyzing four closely related hiPSC-CM lines, we show that both AmpliSeq and RNA-seq capture similar global gene expression patterns consistent with known sources of variations.
Our study indicates that AmpliSeq excels in the limiting areas of RNA-seq for gene expression quantification analysis. Thus, AmpliSeq stands as a very sensitive and cost-effective approach for very large scale gene expression analysis and mRNA marker screening with high accuracy.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-015-2270-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Targeted gene quantification; Differential gene expression; hiPSC-CMs
Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher predisposition to obesity. Our objective was to analyze the association between an obesity GRS and BMI in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) population, focusing on gene-diet interactions with total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and to replicate findings in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) population. Cross-sectional analyses included 783 US Caucasian participants from GOLDN and 2035 from MESA. Dietary intakes were estimated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. A weighted GRS was calculated on the basis of 63 obesity-associated variants. Multiple linear regression models adjusted by potential confounders were used to examine gene-diet interactions between dietary intake (total fat and SFA) and the obesity GRS in determining BMI. Significant interactions were found between total fat intake and the obesity GRS using these variables as continuous for BMI (P for interaction=0.010, 0.046, and 0.002 in GOLDN, MESA and meta-analysis, respectively). These association terms were stronger when assessing interactions between SFA intake and GRS for BMI (P for interaction=0.005, 0.018, and <0.001 in GOLDN, MESA and meta-analysis, respectively). SFA intake interacts with an obesity GRS in modulating BMI in two US populations. Although to determine the causal direction requires further investigation, these findings suggest that potential dietary recommendations to reduce BMI effectively in populations with high obesity GRS would be to reduce total fat intake mainly by limiting SFAs.
body mass index; genetic risk score; saturated fat; saturated fatty acids; obesity
To identify genes contributing to variation in echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) mass and related traits using linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis in sibships ascertained on hypertension.
The HyperGEN Study of LV hypertrophy characterized LV mass, relative wall thickness (RWT), and aortic root diameter (ARD) with echocardiograms collected using a standardized protocol at four HyperGEN field centers. A high-throughput scanning fluorescence detector system genotyped 387 polymorphisms distributed throughout the genome. Linkage analyses were conducted once genotyping results became available for 885 siblings from 382 sibships.
Although single LOD score peaks ≥ 1.2 were found on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, we observed a broad band of peaks in both ethnic groups (white and black) on chromosome 4 and selected candidate genes (NPY1R, NPY2R, NPY5R, SFPR2, CPE, IL15, EDNRA) from this region. Using cases and controls from extremes of the LV mass index, RWT, and ARD distributions, we assessed associations with these phenotypes and haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the candidates. Among blacks, SNPs in IL15, NPY2R, and NPY5R showed strong evidence for association (p < 0.005); all candidates except EDNRA showed suggestive association (p < 0.05). In whites, NPY2R, NPY5R, and SFRP2 SNPs offered suggestive evidence of association with one or more traits (p < 0.05).
Genetic variation in NPY1R, NPY2R, NPY5R, CPE, IL15, and SFRP2, detected using linkage analysis in hypertensive siblings, was associated with LV phenotypes in blacks and/or whites.
left ventricular hypertrophy; genetics; echocardiography
Normal left ventricular (LV) mass and geometry is required for optimal LV functioning. Abnormalities in either result in increased morbidity and mortality. The adducing 1 (alpha) gene (ADD1) Gly460Trp polymorphism has been associated with high blood pressure and increased plasma volume, both predictors of LV mass and function. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluate the association between this polymorphism and LV mass and geometry. LV mass, relative wall thickness (RWT), and systolic and diastolic parameters were measured using echocardiography in 3483 African American and Caucasian subjects from the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN). Analysis of covariance was used to estimate the polymorphism's association with echocardiograph parameters, stratified by race. The model was adjusted for age, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, smoking, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, urinary sodium, and body mass index. In Caucasians, the Trp allele was associated with higher ejection fraction (EF) (P = .02), fractional shortening (FS) (P = .02), and RWT (P = .03). In African Americans, the Trp allele was negatively associated with RWT (P = .02), but no association was found with EF (P= .08) or FS (P= .09). The polymorphism was not associated with diastolic function parameters in either racial group. We found no association of ADD1 Gly460Trp with LV mass in Caucasians or African Americans; however, it was associated with unfavorable LV geometry (higher RWT) in Caucasians and favorable LV geometry (lower RWT) in African Americans after controlling for factors that would affect plasma volume.
Adducin; genetic polymorphism; left ventricular mass; left ventricular geometry; hypertrophy
The apolipoproteins (APOA1/C3/A4/A5) are key components in modulating lipoprotein metabolism. It is unknown whether variants at the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster are associated with lipid response to pharmacologic intervention.
Methods and results
Plasma triglycerides (TGs) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were measured in 861 Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study participants who underwent a 3-week fenofibrate trial. We examined 18 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genes to investigate the effects of variants at the gene cluster on lipid response to fenofibrate treatment. We found that the minor alleles of the SNPs rs3135506 (APOA5_S19W), rs5104 (APOA4_N147S), rs4520 (APOC3_G34G), and rs5128 (APOC3_3U386) were associated with enhanced TG response to fenofibrate treatment (P = 0.0004–0.018). The minor allele of SNP rs2854117 (APOC3_M482) was associated with reduced rather than enhanced TG response (P = 0.026). The SNP rs3135506 (APOA5_S19W) was associated with HDL response, with minor allele related to reduced HDL response to fenofibrate (P = 0.002). Association analyses on haplotype provided corroborative evidence to single SNP association analyses. The common haplotypes H2, H3, and H5 were significantly associated with reduced TG response to fenofibrate.
The genetic variants at APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster may be useful markers to predict response of lipid-lowering therapy with fenofibrate. Further studies to replicate/confirm our findings are warranted.
apolipoproteins gene cluster; fenofibrate; hypertriglyceridemia; pharmacogenetics
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker that contributes to the prediction of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the influences of CRP polymorphisms on baseline CRP levels and fenofibrate-induced CRP changes in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
Research Design and Methods
We examined the association of CRP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (m772A>G, m301G>A >T, i178T>A, 3u1273C>T, and 3u2131C>T) with baseline plasma CRP levels among 1,123 white U.S. participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study and the modulating effect of these SNPs on CRP response to a 3-week fenofibrate treatment among 290 participants with the metabolic syndrome.
There were strong associations of m301G>A>T (rs3091244; P = 0.003), i178T>A (rs1417938; P = 0.001), 3u1273C>T (rs1130864; P = 0.001), and 3u2131C>T (rs1205; P < 0.001) with baseline CRP levels. Moreover, among subjects with the metabolic syndrome, fenofibrate induced the greatest reduction in CRP levels for TT subjects of the i178T>A compared with TA and AA subjects (−30 for TT, −19 for TA, and −11% for AA; P = 0.004). Similarly, for the m301G>A>T, major allele carriers displayed maximal reduction of CRP over noncarriers (−20 for GG, −15 for GA and GT, and −0.3% for TA and AA; P = 0.020).
Our results demonstrate that common genetic variants within the CRP gene affect baseline CRP levels and further modulate CRP response in subjects with the metabolic syndrome treated with fenofibrate. This knowledge could contribute to a better prediction of therapeutic success.
Arterial stiffness is reported in numerous family studies to be heritable; linkage analysis has identified genomic regions that likely harbor genes contributing to its phenotypic expression. We sought to identify loci contributing to arterial stiffness in a large group of African American hypertensive families.
We performed a genome scan on 1251 African Americans in families participating in the HyperGEN (Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network) study. Children of the hypertensive proband generation were also included in the analysis. Arterial stiffness was estimated as pulse pressure (PP: systolic –diastolic blood pressure) divided by echocardiographically determined stroke volume (SV). PP/SV ratio was adjusted for several non-genetic sources of variation, including demographic and lifestyle factors; the residual phenotype was analyzed using multipoint variance components linkage implemented in SOLAR 2.0.3.
Arterial stiffness was 20% heritable in African Americans. Two regions were highly suggestive of linkage, one between markers D1S1665 and D1S1728 in the 215 cM region of chromosome 1 (LOD = 3.08), and another between D14S588 and D14S606 in the 85 cM region of chromosome 14 (LOD = 2.42). Two candidate genes (GPR-25, SMOC-1) are located in the linked regions. SMOC-1 is of physiological interest because it codes a secreted glycoprotein with five domains, each containing regions homologous to those on other proteins that mediate cell-matrix interactions. GPR-25 is homologous to receptors involved in blood pressure regulation.
At least two chromosomal regions in humans are likely to harbor genes contributing to interindividual variation in PP/SV ratio, an index of arterial stiffness, in African Americans.
Blood Pressure; Pulse Pressure; Arterial Stiffness; Genetic Linkage
Sunlight exposure has been shown to alter DNA methylation patterns across several human cell-types, including T-lymphocytes. Since epigenetic changes establish gene expression profiles, changes in DNA methylation induced by sunlight exposure warrant investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sunlight exposure on CD4+ T-cell methylation patterns on an epigenome-wide scale in a North American population of European origin (n = 991). In addition, we investigated the genetic contribution to epigenetic variation (methylQTL). We used linear regression to test the associations between methylation scores at 461 281 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and sunlight exposure, followed by a genome-wide association analysis (methylQTL) to test for associations between methylation at the top CpG locus and common genetic variants, assuming an additive genetic model. We observed an epigenome-wide significant association between sunlight exposure and methylation status at cg26930596 (p = 9.2 × 10−8), a CpG site located in protein kinase C zeta (PRKCZ), a gene previously shown to be entrained by light. MethylQTL analysis resulted in significant associations between cg26930596 and two intergenic single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 3, rs4574216 (p = 1.5 × 10−10) and rs4405858 (p = 1.9 × 10−9). These common genetic variants reside downstream of WWTR1, a transcriptional co-activator of PRKCZ. Associations observed in the North American population, however, did not replicate in an independent Mediterranean cohort. Our preliminary results support the role of sunlight exposure in epigenetic processes, and lay the groundwork for future studies of the molecular link between sunlight and physiologic processes such as tumorigenesis and metabolism.
Epigenetics; methylation; protein kinase C; sunlight
Genetic research regarding blood lipids has largely focused on DNA sequence variation; few studies have explored epigenetic effects. Genome-wide surveys of DNA methylation may uncover epigenetic factors influencing lipid metabolism.
Methods and Results
To identify whether differential methylation of cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) correlated with lipid phenotypes, we isolated DNA from CD4+ T-cells and quantified proportion of sample methylation at over 450,000 CpGs using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip in 991 participants of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network. We modeled percent methylation at individual CpGs as a function of fasting very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) using mixed linear regression adjusted for age, gender, study site, cell purity, and family structure. Four CpGs (cg00574958, cg17058475, cg01082498, cg09737197) in intron 1 of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) were strongly associated with VLDL-C (P=1.8*10-21 to 1.6*10-8) and TG (P=1.6*10-26 to 1.5*10-9). Array findings were validated by bisulfite sequencing. We performed qPCR experiments demonstrating that methylation of the top CpG (cg00574958) was correlated with CPT1A expression. The association of cg00574958 with TG and CPT1A expression were replicated in the Framingham Heart Study (P=4.1*10-14 and 3.1*10-13, respectively). DNA methylation at CPT1A cg00574958 explained 11.6% and 5.5% of the variation in TG in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively.
This genome-wide epigenomic study identified CPT1A methylation as strongly and robustly associated with fasting VLDL-C and TG. Identifying novel epigenetic contributions to lipid traits may inform future efforts to identify new treatment targets and/or biomarkers of disease risk.
lipids; lipoproteins; cholesterol; fatty acids; genetics
Background and Aims
Eggs are a ubiquitous and important source of dietary cholesterol and nutrients, yet their relationship to coronary heart disease (CHD) remains unclear. While some data have suggested a positive association between egg consumption and CHD, especially among diabetic subjects, limited data exist on the influence of egg consumption on subclinical disease. Thus, we sought to examine whether egg consumption is associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries.
In a cross-sectional design, we studied 1848 participants of the NHLBI Family Heart Study without known CHD. Egg consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and coronary-artery calcium (CAC) was measured by cardiac CT. We defined prevalent CAC using an Agatston score of at least 100 and fitted generalized estimating equations to calculate prevalence odds ratios of CAC.
Mean age was 56.5 years and 41% were male. Median consumption of eggs was 1/week. There was no association between frequency of egg consumption and prevalent CAC. Odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC were 1.0 (reference), 0.95 (0.66-1.38), 0.94 (0.63-1.40), and 0.90 (0.57-1.42) for egg consumption of almost never, 1-3 times per month, once per week, and 2+ times per week, respectively (p for trend 0.66), adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, income, field center, total calories, and bacon.
Additional control for hypertension and diabetes mellitus, or restricting the analysis to subjects with diabetes mellitus or fasting glucose >126 mg/dL did not alter the findings.
These data do not provide evidence for an association between egg consumption and prevalent CAC in adult men and women.
egg; diet; epidemiology; subclinical disease; coronary calcium; atherosclerosis
To determine the influence of regular physical activity on stable warfarin dose and risk of major hemorrhage in patients on chronic anticoagulation therapy.
Design, setting and participants
Regular physical activity (maintained over >80% of visits) was ascertained by self-report at initiation of warfarin therapy (target INR = 2–3) in 1272 patients, with changes documented at monthly anticoagulation clinic visits in a population-based prospective cohort. Multi-variable linear regression and survival analysis, respectively, were used to assess influence on warfarin and risk of hemorrhage.
Warfarin dose (mg/day) and major hemorrhage.
There were 683 (53.7%) patients who were regularly physically active (≥30 minutes ≥3 times/week). Physically active patients required warfarin doses that were 6.9% higher (p=0.006) than in physically inactive patients after controlling for sociodemographic factors, vitamin K intake, clinical factors, and genetic variations.
The overall incidence of major hemorrhagic events was 7.6/100 person-years (p-yrs) (95% CI: 6.4 –8.9) in our population. The incidence was lower for physically active patients (5.6/100p-yrs; 95% CI: 4.2–7.2) than in inactive patients (10.3/100 p-yrs; 95% CI: 8.2–12.9; p=0.0004). Active patients had a 38% lower risk of hemorrhage (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42–0.98; p= 0.03) compared to inactive patients.
Regular physical activity is associated with higher warfarin dose requirements and lower risk of hemorrhage. The influence of physical activity on drug response needs to be further explored, and the mechanisms through which it exerts these effects need to be elucidated.
Physical activity; warfarin; dose; bleeding risk; major hemorrhage
For analysis of the main effects of SNPs, meta-analysis of summary results from individual studies has been shown to provide comparable results as “mega-analysis” that jointly analyzes the pooled participant data from the available studies. This fact revolutionized the genetic analysis of complex traits through large GWAS consortia. Investigations of gene-environment (G×E) interactions are on the rise since they can potentially explain a part of the missing heritability and identify individuals at high risk for disease. However, for analysis of gene-environment interactions, it is not known whether these methods yield comparable results. In this empirical study, we report that the results from both methods were largely consistent for all four tests; the standard 1 degree of freedom (df) test of main effect only, the 1 df test of the main effect (in the presence of interaction effect), the 1 df test of the interaction effect, and the joint 2 df test of main and interaction effects. They provided similar effect size and standard error estimates, leading to comparable p-values. The genomic inflation factors and the number of SNPs with various thresholds were also comparable between the two approaches. Mega-analysis is not always feasible especially in very large and diverse consortia since pooling of raw data may be limited by the terms of the informed consent. Our study illustrates that meta-analysis can be an effective approach also for identifying interactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report investigating meta- versus mega-analyses for interactions.
gene-environment interactions (GEI); meta-analysis; mega-analysis
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (encoded by PCSK9) plays a well-known role in the regulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and an inhibitor of this enzyme is a promising new therapeutic for hyperlipidemia. Recently, animal and human studies also implicate PCSK9 genetic variation in the regulation of blood pressure. The goal of this study was to examine if common and rare polymorphisms in PCSK9 are associated with blood pressure in an African-American population at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Using genomic data assayed on the Affymetrix 6.0 array (n = 1199) and the Illumina HumanExome Beadchip (n = 1966) from the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN), we tested the association of PCSK9 polymorphisms with blood pressure. We used linear mixed models and the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) to assess the association of 31 common and 19 rare variants with blood pressure. The models were adjusted for age, sex, center, smoking status, principal components for ancestry and diabetes as fixed effects and family as a random effect. The results showed a marginally significant effect of two genome-wide association study (GWAS) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs12048828: β = 1.8, P = 0.05 and rs9730100: β = 1.0, P = 0.05) with diastolic blood pressure (DBP); however these results were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Rare variants were cumulatively associated with DBP (P = 0.04), an effect that was strengthened by restriction to non-synonymous or stop-gain SNPs (P = 0.02). While gene-based results for DBP did not replicate (P = 0.36), we found an association with SBP (P = 0.04) in the Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study (REGARDS). The findings here suggest rare variants in PCSK9 may influence blood pressure among African Americans, laying the ground work for further validation studies.
PCSK9; blood pressure; hypertension; dyslipidemia; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Despite the solid connection between REV-ERB and obesity, the information about whether genetic variations at this locus may be associated with obesity traits is scarce. Therefore our objective was to study the association between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 and obesity in two independent populations.
Methods and results
Participants were 2214 subjects from Spanish Mediterranean (n = 1404) and North American (n = 810) populations. Anthropometric, biochemical, dietary, and genotype analyses were performed. We found novel associations between the REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339 genotype and obesity in two independent populations: in Spanish Mediterranean and North American groups, the frequency of the minor-allele-carriers (AA+ AG) was significantly lower in the “abdominally obese” group than in those of the “nonabdominally obese” group (p < 0.05). Minor allele carriers had lower probability of abdominal obesity than noncarriers, and the effect was of similar magnitude for both populations (OR ≈ 1.50). There were consistent associations between REV-ERB-ALPHA1 genotype and obesity-related traits (p < 0.05). Energy intake was not significantly associated with REV-ERB-ALPHA1 rs2314339. However, physical activity significantly differed by genotype. A significant interaction between the REV-ERB-ALPHA1 variant and monounsaturated-fatty-acids (MUFA) intake for obesity was also detected in the Mediterranean population.
This new discovery highlights the importance of REV-ERB-ALPHA1 in obesity and provides evidence for the connection between our biological clock and obesity-related traits.
Circadian; Clock genes; Obesity; REV-ERB-ALPHA-1; Single nucleotide Polymorphism
Background and aims
The disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM17, also known as tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme, is expressed in adipocytes. Importantly, elevated levels of ADAM17 expression have been linked to obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of six ADAM17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (m1254A>G, i14121C>A, i33708A>G, i48827A>C, i53440C>T, and i62781G>T) with insulin-resistance phenotypes and obesity risk, and their potential interactions with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).
Methods and results
ADAM17 SNPs were genotyped in 936 subjects (448 men/488 women) who participated in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study. Anthropometrical and biochemical measurements were determined by standard procedures. PUFA intake was estimated using a validated questionnaire. G allele carriers at the ADAM17_m1254A>G polymorphism exhibited significantly higher risk of obesity (P=0.003), were shorter (P=0.017), had higher insulin (P=0.016), and lower HDL-C concentrations (P=0.027) than AA subjects. For the ADAM17_i33708A>G SNP, homozygotes for the A allele displayed higher risk of obesity (P=0.001), were heavier (P=0.011), had higher BMI (P=0.005), and higher waist measurements (P=0.023) than GG subjects. A significant gene-diet interaction was found (P=0.030), in which the deleterious association of the i33708A allele with obesity was observed in subjects with low intakes from (n-6) PUFA (P<0.001), whereas no differences in obesity risk were seen among subjects with high (n-6) PUFA intake (P>0.5)
These findings support that ADAM17 (m1254A>G and i33708A>G) SNPs may contribute to obesity risk. For the ADAM17_i33708A>G SNP, this risk may be further modulated by (n-6) PUFA intake.
gene-diet interaction; obesity; BMI; HDL-cholesterol; insulin concentrations
Time spent in sedentary activities (such as watching television) has previously been associated with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Little is known about associations with lipoprotein subfractions. Using television and computer screen time in hours per day as a measure of sedentary time, we examined the association of screen time with lipoprotein subfractions.
Data were used from men and women forming the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study population. Mixed linear models specified lipoprotein measures as the outcome, and screen time as the predictor for fourteen lipoprotein subfraction measures, and included age, smoking status, pedigree, and fat, carbohydrate daily alcohol and energy intake as covariates. Analyses were run separately for men (n = 623) and women (n = 671). A step-down Bonferroni correction was applied to results. The analysis was repeated for significant results (p < .05), additionally controlling for body mass index (BMI) and moderate and vigorous physical activity.
Linear models indicated that screen time was associated with five lipoprotein parameters in women: the concentration of large VLDL particles (p = .01), LDL particle number (p = .01), concentration of small LDL particles (p = .04), the concentration of large HDL particles (p = .04), and HDL diameter (p = .02). All associations remained after controlling for moderate or vigorous physical activity and BMI.
We show that sedentary time is associated with lipoprotein measures, markers of cardiometabolic disease, independently of physical activity and BMI, in women but not men.
sedentary time; diet; fat intake; lipoprotein size; BMI; exercise; television