PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-21 (21)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Peg-Interferon Plus Ribavirin with or without Boceprevir or Telaprevir for HCV Genotype 1: A Meta-Analysis on the Role of Response Predictors 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94542.
Background & aim
To compare the efficacy of pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN) α-2a or α-2b and ribavirin given as dual therapy versus triple therapy (Peg-IFN and ribavirin plus boceprevir or telaprevir) in patients with HCV-1 chronic hepatitis naïve for anti-HCV therapy or relapsers to dual therapy in relation to the presence of constitutional, clinical and virological predictors of treatment response.
Methods
Included in the meta-analysis were studies meeting these criteria: original data from randomized trials on the efficacy of dual versus triple therapy in therapy-naïve patients or relapsers; at least one primary outcome clearly defined: sustained virological response in patients with or without rapid virological response (RVR), with genotype 1a or 1b, low or high HCV load, IL28-B CC or non-CC genotype, mild or severe fibrosis; odds ratio estimates of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals; English language; and published up to the end of June 2013.
Results
Seven original studies met the inclusion criteria, allowing a meta-analysis on 3,652 patients. Triple therapy was more effective than dual, regardless of IL-28B genotype, HCV sub-genotype, liver fibrosis, and baseline HCV load. In 1,045 patients who achieved RVR, SVR was more frequently achieved with dual therapy (RR = 1.11; p = 0.002) than triple. The same results were achieved when only the therapy-naïve patients were considered.
Conclusions
Triple therapy provides a significantly higher SVR rate than dual therapy, but dual therapy obtains a significantly higher SVR rate in patients with RVR. The data stress the clinical importance of a 4-week lead-in phase in direct-acting antiviral-based treatment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094542
PMCID: PMC3984165  PMID: 24728219
2.  Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Avian Influenza, Poultry Workers, Italy 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2006;12(11):1762-1765.
We asked Italian poultry workers about knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding avian influenza. It was perceived to be a low occupational hazard, and wearing protective equipment and handwashing were not routine practices. Knowledge of transmission and preventive measures should be improved. Employers and health professionals should provide more effective information.
doi:10.3201/eid1211.060671
PMCID: PMC3372355  PMID: 17283632
Avian influenza; attitude; behavior; Italy; knowledge; poultry workers; prevention; practices; dispatch
3.  Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experience Regarding the Use of Antibiotics in Italy 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e84177.
Background
The objectives of the study were to investigate the level of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding antibiotics of the general population in Italy, and to assess the correlates of these outcomes of interest.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 630 parents of students attending nine randomly selected public primary and secondary schools. A self-administered questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, knowledge about antibiotic use and resistance, attitudes and behaviors towards antibiotic use, and sources of information.
Results
A total of 419 parents participated. Only 9.8% knew the definition of antibiotic resistance and 21.2% knew when it was appropriate to use antibiotics. Respondents with higher education, employed, with a family member working in the health care sector, and with no need for additional information on antibiotics were more likely to know the definition of antibiotic resistance. One third (32.7%) self-classified them as users of self-medication with antibiotics and those with a lower self-rated health status, who did not use the physician as source of information on antibiotics, and who have attended a physician in the last year were more likely to use self-medication. One-fourth (22.7%) of those who had never been self-medicated would be willing to take an antibiotic without a prescription of a physician. Respondents were more likely to be willing to take antibiotics without a prescription if they were under 40 years of age, if they had a lower self-rated health status, if they did not know that antibiotics are not indicated for treating flu and sore throat, and if they knew that antibiotics are not indicated for treating colds.
Conclusions
The survey has generated information about knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding antibiotics in the general population and effective public education initiative should provide practical and appropriate means to change their behavior.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084177
PMCID: PMC3871686  PMID: 24376793
4.  Frequency of Inappropriate Medication Prescription in Hospitalized Elderly Patients in Italy 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82359.
Background
Older people often need comprehensive treatment, including many medications, and polypharmacy is common. The aims of this cross-sectional investigation were to examine the potentially inappropriate medication during the hospitalization and to identify the factors that may influence such inappropriateness among elderly in Italy.
Methods
A sample of 605 individuals aged 65 years and older admitted in non-academic public acute care hospitals was randomly selected. Prescription of inappropriate medications were evaluated during the period from the day of admission to a randomly preselected day (index day). Beers Criteria were used to evaluate appropriateness.
Results
At least one potentially inappropriate medication prescription from the day of hospital admission to the index day has been observed in 188 patients (31.1%), and respectively 84.1% and 15.9% of them had received one or two inappropriate medications. A total of 15 medications was prescribed inappropriately to these 188 patients, for 215 times with a total of 1143 doses. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant predictors for having at least one potentially inappropriate medication prescription during the hospitalization were: patients having an elementary education level, a lower pre-admission performance-based measure of basic activities of daily living, having received an inappropriate drug before the hospitalization, a hospital stay in the general and in the specialties surgical wards, a longer length of hospital stay from the admission to the index day, and having received a higher number of drugs from the day of the hospital admission to the index day. The most prevalent inappropriate medications administered were ketorolac (27.4%), amiodarone (19.1%), and clonidine (11.2%).
Conclusions
This study supports the need for clinical guidelines implementation to assist physicians in choosing the most appropriate drugs for the elderly and for effective education of all physicians.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082359
PMCID: PMC3861441  PMID: 24349262
5.  Evaluation of the Appropriate Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Italy 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e79532.
Background
The appropriate use of antibiotics prophylaxis in the prevention and reduction in the incidence of surgical site infection is widespread. This study evaluates the appropriateness of the prescription of antibiotics prophylaxis prior to surgery amongst hospitalized patients in the geographic area of Avellino, Caserta, and Naples (Italy) and the factors associated with a poor adherence.
Methods
A sample of 382 patients admitted to 23 surgical wards and undergoing surgery in five hospitals were randomly selected.
Results
Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was appropriate in 18.1% of cases. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patients with hypoalbuminemia, with a clinical infection, with a wound clean were more likely to receive an appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. Compared with patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥4, those with a score of 2 were correlated with a 64% reduction in the odds of having an appropriate prophylaxis. The appropriateness of the timing of prophylactic antibiotic administration was observed in 53.4% of the procedures. Multivariate logistic regression model showed that such appropriateness was more frequent in older patients, in those admitted in general surgery wards, in those not having been underwent an endoscopic surgery, in those with a higher length of surgery, and in patients with ASA score 1 when a score ≥4 was chosen as the reference category. The most common antibiotics used inappropriately were ceftazidime, sultamicillin, levofloxacin, and teicoplanin.
Conclusions
Educational interventions are needed to improve perioperative appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079532
PMCID: PMC3827374  PMID: 24236142
6.  Frequency of Discrimination, Harassment, and Violence in Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexual in Italy 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e74446.
Background
This cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of discrimination, harassment, and violence and the associated factors among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men recruited from randomly selected public venues in Italy.
Methods
A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographics, frequency of discrimination, verbal harassment, and physical and sexual violence because of their sexual orientation, and their fear of suffering each types of victimization.
Results
In the whole sample, 28.3% and 11.9% self-reported at least one episode of victimization because of the sexual orientation in their lifetime and in the last year. Those unmarried, compared to the others, and with a college degree or higher, compared to less educated respondents, were more likely to have experienced an episode of victimization in their lifetime. Lesbians, compared to bisexual, had almost twice the odds of experiencing an episode of victimization. The most commonly reported experiences across the lifetime were verbal harassment, discrimination, and physical or sexual violence. Among those who had experienced one episode of victimization in their lifetime, 42.1% self-reported one episode in the last year. Perceived fear of suffering violence because of their sexual orientation, measured on a 10-point Likert scale with a higher score indicative of greater fear, ranges from 5.7 for verbal harassment to 6.4 for discrimination. Participants were more likely to have fear of suffering victimization because of their sexual orientation if they were female (compared to male), lesbian and gay men (compared to bisexual women and men), unmarried (compared to the others), and if they have already suffered an episode of victimization (compared to those who have not suffered an episode).
Conclusions
The study provides important insights into the violence experiences of lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men and the results may serve for improving policy initiatives to reduce such episodes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074446
PMCID: PMC3749994  PMID: 23991220
7.  Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HIV among first time attenders of voluntary counseling and testing services in Italy 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:277.
Background
This study assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing and counseling services and the predictor characteristics of these outcomes among individuals who presented for the first time to Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) public services.
Methods
A sample of 244 subjects in the geographic area of Naples (Italy) received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes relating to HIV infection, and practices relating to access to VCT service.
Results
Only 25% correctly identified the main modes of transmission and the main preventative measures of HIV and this knowledge was significantly higher in who had had more than one sexual partner and have not always used a condom during the intercourse in the last year, in those who have received information about HIV/AIDS through physician, and in those who have received middle school or lower educational level. The perceived risk of contracting HIV/AIDS was significantly higher in respondents of lower age, in those who perceived a better personal health status, and in those unmarried. Only 20.9% reported that they had received the HIV test and males and those who visited a physician or participated in preventive activities about HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to have had an HIV test.
Conclusions
This study supports the need to disseminate information and interventions to this population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-277
PMCID: PMC3729531  PMID: 23783146
Attitudes; Behavior; Human Immunodeficiency Virus; Knowledge; Voluntary counseling and testing
8.  Efficacy of pegylated interferon α-2a and α-2b in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C: a meta-analysis 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:357.
Background
Two formulations of Pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) are on the market for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of Peg-IFN α-2a versus Peg-IFN α-2b in combination with ribavirin in anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients with genotype 1 chronic HCV infection.
Methods
The following criteria were to be met for inclusion in the meta-analysis: (a) original data from randomized and non-randomized clinical trials; (b) study on the efficacy of conventional doses of Peg-IFN α-2a (180 μg/week) versus Peg-IFN α-2b (1.5 μg/kg of body weight/week), both in combination with ribavirin, in antiviral therapy-naïve HCV-genotype 1 subjects; (c) at least one of these primary outcomes: Rapid Virological Response (RVR); Early Complete Virological Response (EVR); End of Treatment Response (ETR); Sustained Virological Response (SVR); (d) odds ratio estimates of relative risk (RR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) or at least data enabling them to be computed; (e) English language; and (f) published as a full paper up to December 2011.
Results
Seven published studies met the inclusion criteria, allowing a meta-analysis on 3,026 patients. Peg-IFN α-2a and Peg-IFN α-2b showed similar rate of RVR (RR = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.87-1.27, p = 0.62) and SVR (RR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.99-1.18, p = 0.098). Peg-IFN α-2a more frequently than Peg-IFN α-2b achieved EVR (RR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.02-1.21, p = 0.013) and ETR (RR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.14-1.31, p < 0.0001).
Conclusion
The standard schedules of Peg-IFN α-2a and Peg-IFN α-2b, both in combination with ribavirin, can be used indifferently for patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 who are anti- to eliminate HIV-negative and antiviral treatment-naïve.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-357
PMCID: PMC3556138  PMID: 23245594
Antiviral therapy in HCV patients; Meta-analysis; Response to anti-HCV therapy; Tolerability of anti-HCV therapy
9.  Hospital Readmission Prevalence and Analysis of Those Potentially Avoidable in Southern Italy 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e48263.
Background
One quality indicator of hospital care, which can be used to judge the process of care, is the prevalence of hospital readmission because it reflects the impact of hospital care on the patient’s condition after discharge. The purposes of the study were to measure the prevalence of hospital readmissions, to identify possible factors that influence such readmission and to measure the prevalence of readmissions potentially avoidable in Italy.
Methods
A sample of 2289 medical records of patients aged 18 and over admitted for medical or surgical illness at one 502-bed community non-teaching hospital were randomly selected.
Results
A total of 2252 patients were included in the final analysis, equaling a response rate of 98.4%. The overall hospital readmission prevalence within 30 days of discharge was 10.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the proportion of patients readmitted within 30 days of discharge significantly increased regardless of Charlson et al. comorbidity score, among unemployed or retired patients, and in patients in general surgery. A total of 43.7% hospital readmissions were judged to be potentially avoidable. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that potentially avoidable readmissions were significantly higher in general surgery, in patients referred to hospital by an emergency department physician, and in those with a shortened time between discharge and readmission.
Conclusion
Additional research on intervention or bundle of interventions applicable to acute inpatient populations that aim to reduce potentially avoidable readmissions is strongly needed, and health care providers are urged to implement evidence-based programs for more cost-effective delivery of health care.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048263
PMCID: PMC3487865  PMID: 23133624
10.  Human Papillomavirus Infection: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexual in Italy 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e42856.
Background
This cross-sectional study assess knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards the human papillomavirus (HPV) and the vaccination among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men.
Methods
A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about HPV infection, perception of risk towards HPV infection and/or cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, perception of the benefits of a vaccination to prevent cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, sexual behaviors, health-promoting behaviors, and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine.
Results
Only 60.6% had heard about the HPV infection and this knowledge was significantly higher in female, in those being a member of a homosexual association, in those having had the first sexual experience at a younger age, in those having received information about the HPV infection from physicians, and in those having no need of information about HPV infection. A higher perceived risk of contracting HPV infection has been observed in those younger, lesbian and gay men, who have heard of HPV infection and knew the risk factors and its related diseases, who have received information about HPV infection from physicians, and who need information about HPV infection. Only 1.7% have undergone HPV immunization and 73.3% professed intent to obtain it in the future. The significant predictors of the willingness to receive this vaccine were belief that the vaccination is useful, perception to be at higher risk of contracting HPV infection, and perception to be at higher risk of developing cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers.
Conclusions
Information and interventions are strongly needed in order to overcome the lack of knowledge about HPV infection and its vaccination. Inclusion of boys in the national vaccination program and initiate a catch-up program for men who have sex with men up to 26 years may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042856
PMCID: PMC3414511  PMID: 22905178
11.  Self-reported health status and access to health services in a sample of prisoners in Italy 
BMC Public Health  2011;11:529.
Background
Self-reported health status in underserved population of prisoners has not been extensively explored. The purposes of this cross-sectional study were to assess self-reported health, quality of life, and access to health services in a sample of male prisoners of Italy.
Methods
A total of 908 prisoners received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire pertaining on demographic and detention characteristics, self-reported health status and quality of life, access to health services, lifestyles, and participation to preventive, social, and rehabilitation programs. A total of 650 prisoners agreed to participate in the study and returned the questionnaire.
Results
Respectively, 31.6% and 43.5% of prisoners reported a poor perceived health status and a poor quality of life, and 60% admitted that their health was worsened or greatly worsened during the prison stay. Older age, lower education, psychiatric disorders, self-reported health problems on prison entry, and suicide attempts within prison were significantly associated with a perceived worse health status. At the time of the questionnaire delivery, 30% of the prisoners self-reported a health problem present on prison entry and 82% present at the time of the survey. Most frequently reported health problems included dental health problems, arthritis or joint pain, eye problems, gastrointestinal diseases, emotional problems, and high blood pressure. On average, prisoners encountered general practitioners six times during the previous year, and the frequency of medical encounters was significantly associated with older age, sentenced prisoners, psychiatric disorders, and self-reported health problems on prison entry.
Conclusions
The findings suggest that prisoners have a perceived poor health status, specific care needs and health promotion programs are seldom offered. Programs for correction of risk behaviour and prevention of long-term effects of incarceration on prisoners' health are strongly needed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-529
PMCID: PMC3151234  PMID: 21726446
12.  An Investigation of Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Disinfection Procedures in Italy 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:148.
Background
This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding disinfection procedures among nurses in Italian hospitals.
Methods
A face-to-face interview gathered the following information: demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge about the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and the disinfection practices; attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols and perception of the risks of acquiring/transmitting HAIs; compliance with antisepsis/disinfection procedures; and sources of information.
Results
Only 29% acknowledged that urinary and respiratory tract infections were the two most common HAIs and this knowledge was significantly higher in those with a higher level of education. Attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols for disinfection procedures showed a mean score of 9.1. The results of the linear regression model indicated a more positive attitude in female nurses, in those with a lower number of years of activity, and in those needing additional information about disinfection procedures. Nurses with higher educational level and with a higher perception of risk of transmitting an infectious disease while working were more likely to perform appropriate antisepsis of the surgical wound and handwashing before and after medication.
Conclusions
Plan of successful prevention activities about HAIs and provide pointers to help optimize disinfection procedures and infection prophylaxis and management are needed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-148
PMCID: PMC3123570  PMID: 21612613
13.  Healthcare workers and health care-associated infections: knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in emergency departments in Italy 
Background
This survey assessed knowledge, attitudes, and compliance regarding standard precautions about health care-associated infections (HAIs) and the associated determinants among healthcare workers (HCWs) in emergency departments in Italy.
Methods
An anonymous questionnaire, self-administered by all HCWs in eight randomly selected non-academic acute general public hospitals, comprised questions on demographic and occupational characteristics; knowledge about the risks of acquiring and/or transmitting HAIs from/to a patient and standard precautions; attitudes toward guidelines and risk perceived of acquiring a HAI; practice of standard precautions; and sources of information.
Results
HCWs who know the risk of acquiring Hepatitis C (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) from a patient were in practice from less years, worked fewer hours per week, knew that a HCW can transmit HCV and HIV to a patient, knew that HCV and HIV infections can be serious, and have received information from educational courses and scientific journals. Those who know that gloves, mask, protective eyewear, and hands hygiene after removing gloves are control measures were nurses, provided care to fewer patients, knew that HCWs' hands are vehicle for transmission of nosocomial pathogens, did not know that a HCW can transmit HCV and HIV to a patient, and have received information from educational courses and scientific journals. Being a nurse, knowing that HCWs' hands are vehicle for transmission of nosocomial pathogens, obtaining information from educational courses and scientific journals, and needing information were associated with a higher perceived risk of acquiring a HAI. HCWs who often or always used gloves and performed hands hygiene measures after removing gloves were nurses, provided care to fewer patients, and knew that hands hygiene after removing gloves was a control measure.
Conclusions
HCWs have high knowledge, positive attitudes, but low compliance concerning standard precautions. Nurses had higher knowledge, perceived risk, and appropriate HAIs' control measures than physicians and HCWs answered correctly and used appropriately control measures if have received information from educational courses and scientific journals.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-35
PMCID: PMC2848042  PMID: 20178573
14.  Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in Italy 
BMC Microbiology  2010;10:19.
Background
Water coolers are popular in office buildings and commercial stores and the quality of this source of drinking water has the potential to cause waterborne outbreaks, especially in sensitive and immunocompromised subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of water plumbed in coolers from commercial stores in comparison with tap water in Italy.
Methods
For each sample, microbial parameters and chemical indicators of contamination were evaluated and information about the date of installation, time since last ordinary and extraordinary maintenance of water coolers was collected.
Results
In all samples the chemical parameters (nitrite, ammonium, free active chlorine residual) did not exceed the reference values of the drinking water regulation; the pH value in 86.8% samples of the carbonated waters was lower than the reference limit. The microbiological results indicated that the bacteria count at 22°C and 37°C was higher than the required values in 71% and 81% for the non-carbonated water and in 86% and 88% for the carbonated one, respectively. Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli were not detected in any of the water samples. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in only one sample of the tap water and in 28.9% and 23.7% of the non-carbonated and carbonated water samples, respectively. No statistically significant differences in bacterial counts at 22°C and 37°C have been found between the non-carbonated and carbonated water from the sampled coolers in relation with the time since the last filter was substituted. The bacteriological quality of tap water was superior to that of non-carbonated and carbonated water from coolers.
Conclusion
The results emphasize the importance of adopting appropriate routinely monitoring system in order to prevent or to diminish the chances of contamination of this water source.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-10-19
PMCID: PMC2824693  PMID: 20102613
15.  Paediatricians knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding immunizations for infants in Italy 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:463.
Background
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paediatricians have appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants in Italy.
Methods
A random sample of 500 paediatricians received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire covering demographic and professional characteristics; knowledge about the mandatory, recommended, and not indicated vaccinations for infants; attitudes about vaccinations for infants; behaviour regarding current administration or willingness to administer mandatory or recommended vaccinations for infants and immunization education programs of the parents.
Results
Only 42.3% paediatricians knew all recommended vaccinations for infants and this knowledge was significantly higher in females, in those who worked a higher number of hours for week, and in those who use guidelines for immunization practice. Only 10.3% had a very favourable attitude towards the utility of the recommended vaccinations for infants and this was significantly higher in those who administered recommended vaccinations for infants. A large proportion (82.7%) of paediatricians routinely informed the parents about the recommended vaccinations for infants and this appropriate behaviour was significantly higher among younger, in those with a higher number of years in practice, and in those who administered the recommended vaccinations for infants.
Conclusion
Training and educational interventions are needed in order to improve knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants among paediatricians.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-463
PMCID: PMC2801680  PMID: 20003434
16.  Use of television, videogames, and computer among children and adolescents in Italy 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:139.
Background
This survey determined the practices about television (video inclusive), videogames, and computer use in children and adolescents in Italy.
Methods
A self-administered anonymous questionnaire covered socio-demographics; behaviour about television, videogames, computer, and sports; parental control over television, videogames, and computer.
Results
Overall, 54.1% and 61% always ate lunch or dinner in front of the television, 89.5% had a television in the bedroom while 52.5% of them always watched television there, and 49% indicated that parents controlled the content of what was watched on television. The overall mean length of time daily spent on television viewing (2.8 hours) and the frequency of watching for at least two hours per day (74.9%) were significantly associated with older age, always ate lunch or dinner while watching television, spent more time playing videogames and using computer. Those with parents from a lower socio-economic level were also more likely to spend more minutes viewing television. Two-thirds played videogames for 1.6 daily hours and more time was spent by those younger, males, with parents that do not control them, who watched more television, and who spent more time at the computer. The computer was used by 85% of the sample for 1.6 daily hours and those older, with a computer in the bedroom, with a higher number of computers in home, who view more television and play videogames were more likely to use the computer.
Conclusion
Immediate and comprehensive actions are needed in order to diminish time spent at the television, videogames, and computer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-139
PMCID: PMC2696431  PMID: 19439070
17.  Knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices about colorectal cancer among adults in an area of Southern Italy 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:171.
Background
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy.
Methods
A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information.
Results
Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat) and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC.
Conclusion
Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-171
PMCID: PMC2474634  PMID: 18547435
18.  Characteristics of patients returning to emergency departments in Naples, Italy 
Background
Crowding in hospital Emergency Departments (EDs) is a problem in several countries. We evaluated the number and characteristics of patients who make repeated visits to the EDs in Naples, Italy.
Methods
All patients (≥ 16 years) who presented to the EDs of three randomly selected non-academic acute care public hospitals, within randomly selected week periods, were studied. The two outcomes of interest were the re-utilization, within 72 hours, of the ED and the number of visits in the previous year.
Results
Of the 1430 sampled patients, 51.9% self-reported multiple visits in the previous year and 10.9% and 1.6% used the ED for 3 and ≥4 times, respectively. The number of visits in the previous year was significantly higher in those who live closer to hospital, with a more severe burden of overall comorbidity, and who were on pharmacological treatment. Overall, 72-hours return visits were found in 215 patients (15.8%). Patients were more likely to re-use within 72 hours the ED if younger, were not on pharmacological treatment, attended the ED more times in the previous year, were referred by a physician, arrived at the ED by car driven by other person, had problems of longer duration prior to arrival at the ED, had a surgical ED discharge diagnosis, and were admitted to the hospital.
Conclusion
The data may assist policymakers in the development and implementation of protocols to track changes in the re-utilization of the ED for the high financial impact and for the benefit of the patients.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-97
PMCID: PMC2409318  PMID: 18644100
19.  A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards avian influenza in an adult population of Italy 
Background
Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of avian influenza (AI) and it is necessary to create a communication plan to keep families adequately informed on how to avoid or reduce exposure. This investigation determined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to AI among an adult population in Italy.
Methods
From December 2005 to February 2006 a random sample of 1020 adults received a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of transmission and prevention about AI, attitudes towards AI, behaviors regarding use of preventive measures and food-handling practices, and sources of information about AI.
Results
A response rate of 67% was achieved. Those in higher socioeconomic classes were more likely to identify the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI. Those older, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who still need information, were more likely to know that washing hands soap before and after touching raw poultry meat and using gloves is recommended to avoid spreading of AI through food. The risk of being infected was significantly higher in those from lower socioeconomic classes, if they did not know the definition of AI, if they knew that AI could be transmitted by eating and touching raw eggs and poultry foods, and if they did not need information. Compliance with the hygienic practices during handling of raw poultry meat was more likely in those who perceived to be at higher risk, who knew the hygienic practices, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who received information from health professionals and scientific journals.
Conclusion
Respondents demonstrate no detailed understanding of AI, a greater perceived risk, and a lower compliance with precautions behaviors and health educational strategies are strongly needed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-8-36
PMCID: PMC2292195  PMID: 18366644
20.  Preventable hospitalization and access to primary health care in an area of Southern Italy 
Background
Ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSC), such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, are conditions that can be managed with timely and effective outpatient care reducing the need of hospitalization. Avoidable hospitalizations for ACSC have been used to assess access, quality and performance of the primary care delivery system. The aims of this study were to quantify the proportion of avoidable hospital admissions for ACSCs, to identify the related patient's socio-demographic profile and health conditions, to assess the relationship between the primary care access characteristics and preventable hospitalizations, and the usefulness of avoidable hospitalizations for ACSCs to monitor the effectiveness of primary health care.
Methods
A random sample of 520 medical records of patients admitted to medical wards (Cardiology, Internal Medicine, Pneumology, Geriatrics) of a non-teaching acute care 717-bed hospital located in Catanzaro (Italy) were reviewed.
Results
A total of 31.5% of the hospitalizations in the sample were judged to be preventable. Of these, 40% were for congestive heart failure, 23.2% for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 13.5% for angina without procedure, 8.4% for hypertension, and 7.1% for bacterial pneumonia. Preventable hospitalizations were significantly associated to age and sex since they were higher in older patients and in males. The proportion of patients who had a preventable hospitalization significantly increased with regard to the number of hospital admissions in the previous year and to the number of patients for each primary care physician (PCP), with lower number of PCP accesses and PCP medical visits in the previous year, with less satisfaction about PCP health services, and, finally, with worse self-reported health status and shorter length of hospital stay.
Conclusion
The findings from this study add to the evidence and the urgency of developing and implementing effective interventions to improve delivery of health care at the community level and provided support to the usefulness of avoidable hospitalizations for ACSCs to monitor this process.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-134
PMCID: PMC2045098  PMID: 17760976
21.  Knowledge, attitude and practices of pediatricians regarding the prevention of oral diseases in Italy 
BMC Public Health  2006;6:176.
Background
Pediatricians are in an ideal position to advise families about the prevention and management of oral diseases in children. The objective of the study was to determine knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding the prevention of oral diseases among pediatricians in Italy.
Methods
A systematic random sample of 1000 pediatricians received a questionnaire on socio-demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge on risk factors; attitude and practices towards the prevention of oral diseases.
Results
A total of 507 pediatricians participated. More than half knew the main risk factors for oral diseases and this knowledge was higher in primary care pediatricians (p = 0.007), in those with a higher number of hours worked per week (p = 0.012), and who believed that oral diseases may be prevented (p = 0.017). Pediatricians with higher knowledge about the main risk factors (p = 0.006) believe that they have an important role in preventing oral diseases and that they can perform an oral examination. Almost all (89%) prescribed fluoride supplements and those younger (p = 0.016), with a higher number of patients seen in workday (p = 0.001), with longer practice activity (p = 0.004), those who believe that fluoride is effective in preventing caries (p < 0.0001), and who learned about prevention from scientific sources (p = 0.002) were more likely to prescribe fluoride. One-fourth and 40.6% provides and recommends a dental visit once a year and primary care pediatricians (p = 0.014) and those who believed that routine visit is important in preventing oral diseases (p < 0.0001) were more likely to recommend a dental visit once a year.
Conclusion
The results showed a lack of knowledge among pediatricians although almost all believed that they had an important responsibility in preventing oral diseases and provided an oral examination.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-6-176
PMCID: PMC1543635  PMID: 16822318

Results 1-21 (21)