Elevated cortisol levels due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response have been associated with cognitive impairment. The causal relationship between stress and subsequent cognitive impairment remains, however, unclear notably due to small number of gender stratified prospective studies.
Salivary cortisol secretion was evaluated in 197 non-depressed community-dwelling elderly at three time points on the day of hospital attendance for a clinical examination and again on the following day at home, in distinct environment context. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and 2- and 4-year follow-up.
Cross-sectional logistic analyses adjusted for age and education indicated that men with high morning cortisol at the hospital had higher risk of low cognitive performance in verbal fluency (OR=3.0, p=0.05) and visuo-spatial performance (OR=5.1, p=0.03). Impairment in verbal fluency was observed in women with moderate high morning cortisol (OR=3.6, p=0.05) or moderate slow diurnal rhythm (OR=3.7, p=0.04). In longitudinal analyses, slow diurnal rhythm (flatter slope) was associated with decline over 4 years in visuo-spatial performance (OR=7.7, p=0.03) and visual memory (OR=4.1, p=0.03) in men, and in verbal fluency (OR=6.0, p=0.01) in women. High morning cortisol was associated with decline in visual memory in women (OR=5.1, p=0.06).
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation appears associated with low cognitive performance in the elderly. Slower cortisol elimination rates could predict cognitive decline affecting principally non-verbal functioning in men and verbal functioning in women. The effects appeared independent of environmental context, apolipoprotein E genotype or psychopathology. Interventions blocking this pathway may provide new therapeutic options to prevent cognitive decline.
Cognition; cortisol; elderly; HPA axis; stress
A plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies have supported the neuroprotective role of estrogens and their impact on the neurotransmitter systems implicated in cognition. Recent hormonal replacement therapy trials in non-demented post-menopausal women suggest a temporary positive effect (notably on verbal memory), and four meta-analyses converge to suggest a possible protective effect in relation to Alzheimer’s disease (reducing risk by 29 to 44%). However, data from the only large randomized controlled trial published to date, the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study, did not confirm these observations and have even suggested an increase in dementia risk for women using hormonal replacement therapy compared to controls. Apart from methodological differences, one key short-coming of this trial has probably been the focus on late-onset (postmenopausal) hormonal changes, i.e. at a time when the neurodegenerative process has already begun and without taking into account individual lifetime exposure to hormone variability. Multifactorial models based on an exhaustive view of all hormonal events throughout the reproductive life (rather than on a specific exposure to a given steroid) together with other risk factors (notably genetic risk factors related to estrogen receptor polymorphisms) should be explored to clarify the role of hormonal risk factors, or protective factors for cognitive dysfunction and dementia.
Administration, Cutaneous; Aged; Alzheimer Disease; diagnosis; drug therapy; prevention & control; Cognition Disorders; diagnosis; drug therapy; prevention & control; Estradiol; administration & dosage; therapeutic use; Estrogen Replacement Therapy; methods; Estrogens; administration & dosage; therapeutic use; Estrogens, Conjugated (USP); therapeutic use; Female; Humans; Memory Disorders; diagnosis; drug therapy; prevention & control; Middle Aged; Neuroprotective Agents; administration & dosage; therapeutic use; Progestins; therapeutic use; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; statistics & numerical data; Receptors, Estrogen; genetics; Research Design; standards; trends; Severity of Illness Index; Treatment Outcome; Cognition; equine estrogens; transdermal estradiol; estrogen receptor; lifetime hormonal status; observation study; randomized controlled trial
The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the effects of lipid lowering agent (LLA) intake on cognitive function in 6830 community-dwelling elderly persons. Cognitive performance (global cognitive functioning, visual memory, verbal fluency, psychomotor speed and executive function), clinical diagnosis of dementia, and fibrate and statin use, were evaluated at baseline, and 2, 4, and 7 year follow-up. Multivariate Cox models were stratified by gender and adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, mental and physical health including vascular risk factors, and genetic vulnerability (apolipoprotein E and cholesteryl ester transfer protein). For women but not men, fibrate use was specifically associated with an increased risk over 7 years of decline in visual memory only (HR=1.29, 95%CI=1.09–1.54, p=0.004), and did not increase risk for incident dementia. This association was independent of genetic vulnerability related to ApoE and Cholesteryl Exchange Transfer Protein polymorphisms and occurred only in women with higher LDL-cholesterol levels and treated with fibrate (HR=1.39, 95%CI=1.08–1.79, p=0.01) and not in those with lower LDL-cholesterol levels irrespective of fibrate treatment. For both sexes, no significant associations were found between statins (irrespective of their lipophilicity) and either cognitive decline or dementia incidence. This prospective study, adjusting for multiple confounders, found no evidence that LLA given in late life reduced the risk of cognitive decline and dementia, but did raise the possibility that women with treatment-resistant high LDL-cholesterol may be at increased risk of decline in visual memory.
Fibrate; Statin; Cognitive aging; Alzheimer's disease; Elderly; Apolipoprotein E; Cholesteryl Exchange Transfer Protein; Prospective cohort.
Evidence suggests a role for estrogen in depression but the involvement of estrogen receptor (ER) polymorphisms remains unknown.
To determine the association between ER polymorphisms and late-life depression and the modifying effect of hormone treatment (HT).
Depression was assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, according to DSM-IV criteria and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. The association between ER-α and ER-β polymorphisms with severe depression was examined in 6017 community-dwelling elderly using multivariate logistic regression.
In women, the ER-α rs2234693 and rs9340799 polymorphisms were significantly associated with the risk of late-life depression. The A allele of ER-β rs1256049 increased the risk of depression, but only for non-current users of HT. In men, only the ER-β rs4986938 polymorphism showed a weak association with depression risk.
ER polymorphisms are associated with severe late-life depression risk in women only.
Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Alleles; Depressive Disorder, Major; epidemiology; genetics; Effect Modifier, Epidemiologic; Estrogen Replacement Therapy; Female; Gene Frequency; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; epidemiology; Genotype; Humans; Logistic Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Postmenopause; psychology; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Receptors, Estrogen; genetics
To examine 1) the associations between history of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) and insomnia complaints and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), and 2) the relationships between sleep complaints and future CVD in persons over 65.
CVD was assessed at baseline and during two, four, and six-year follow-up in 5494 non-demented subjects. Self-reported insomnia complaints (poor sleep quality, difficulty in initiating sleep, difficulty in maintening sleep, and early morning awakening), EDS and sleep medication use were evaluated at baseline. Logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazard models, with delayed entry and age of participants as the time scale, were adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical variables.
At baseline, 748 participants had a past-history of CVD. A past-history of CVD was associated with EDS (OR = 1.28 95%CI = [1.05–1.57]) and the number of insomnia complaints (OR = 1.26 95%CI = [1.03–1.55] for 1–2 insomnia complaints; OR = 1.32 95%CI = [1.03–1.71] for ≥3 complaints). In longitudinal analyses, neither the four components of insomnia nor the number of insomnia complaints were significantly associated with first or recurrent CVD events (n = 391 events). EDS was independently associated with future CVD events even after adjusting for prescribed sleep medication and past-history of CVD (HR = 1.35 95%CI = [1.06–1.71]).
Our results suggest that the relationships between sleep complaints and CVD could be complex. Insomnia complaints are more likely a consequence of CVD, whereas EDS appears to be a determinant of CVD independently of past-history of CVD. EDS screening may thus constitute a means of detecting persons at high risk of CVD.
Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt positively in the face of trauma. Little is known, however, about lifetime factors affecting resilience.
We assessed the effects of psychiatric disorder and lifetime trauma history on the resilience self-evaluation using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10) in a high-risk-women sample. Two hundred and thirty eight community-dwelling women, including 122 participants in a study of breast cancer survivors and 116 participants without previous history of cancer completed the CD-RISC-10. Lifetime psychiatric symptoms were assessed retrospectively using two standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Watson's Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Inventory).
Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, education, trauma history, cancer, current psychiatric diagnoses, and psychoactive treatment indicated a negative association between current psychiatric disorder and high resilience compared to low resilience level (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.21–0.93]). This was related to anxiety and not mood disorder. A positive and independent association with a trauma history was also observed (OR = 3.18, 95% CI [1.44–7.01]).
Self-evaluation of resilience is influenced by both current anxiety disorder and trauma history. The independent positive association between resilience and trauma exposure may indicate a “vaccination” effect. This finding need to be taken into account in future studies evaluating resilience in general or clinical populations.
Given the increasing prevalence of both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depressive symptoms during old age, we aimed to examine prospectively the association between MetS and the onset of depressive symptoms according to different age-groups in a large, general elderly population.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This was a prospective cohort study of 4,446 men and women aged 65–91 years who were free of depression or depressive symptoms at baseline (the Three-City Study, France). MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. New onset of depressive symptoms (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score ≥16 and use of antidepressant treatment) was assessed at 2- and 4-year follow-ups.
After adjusting for a large range of potential confounders, we observed MetS to be associated with 1.73-fold (95% CI 1.02–2.95) odds for new-onset depressive symptoms in the youngest age-group (65–70 years at baseline), independently of cardiovascular diseases. No such association was seen in older age-groups.
Our findings suggest that the link between MetS and depressive symptoms evidenced until now in middle-aged people can be extended to older adults but not to the oldest ones. Additional research is needed to examine if a better management of MetS prevents depressive symptoms in people aged 65–70 years.
The aim of this study was to examine the factors associated with insomnia in community-dwelling elderly as a function of the nature and number of insomnia symptoms (IS) e.g. difficulty with initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty with maintaining sleep (DMS) and early morning awakening (EMA).
IS were assessed in a sample of 2673 men and 3213 women aged 65 years and over. The participants were administered standardized questionnaires regarding the frequency of IS and other sleep characteristics (snoring, nightmares, sleeping medication, sleepiness) as well as various socio-demographic, behavioral and clinical variables, and measures of physical and mental health.
More than 70% of men and women reported at least one IS, DMS being the most prevalent symptom in both men and women. Women reported more frequently two or three IS whereas men reported more often only one IS. Multivariate regression analyses stratified by gender showed that men and women shared numerous factors associated with IS, sleeping medication, nightmares, sleepiness, chronic diseases, and depression being independently associated with two or three IS. For both sexes, age was associated with only one IS in all age categories. Loud snoring was strongly associated with increased DMS in men only. High body mass index increased the risk for DIS in men but tended to decrease it in women. In women, hormonal replacement therapy, Mediterranean diet, caffeine and alcohol intake had a protective effect.
Our data suggest that women may have specific predisposition factors of multiple IS which may involve both behavioral and hormonal factors. Identification and treatment of these risk factors may form the basis of an intervention program for reduction of insomnia symptoms in the elderly..
Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Female; France; epidemiology; Humans; Male; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Self Report; Sex Characteristics; Sex Factors; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; diagnosis; epidemiology
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) case-finding criteria have low specificity in general population studies. The present study retrospectively identifies cases of MCI and determines baseline criteria giving the highest discriminability. The ability of these criteria to increase current case-detection specificity is estimated.
A population-based cohort was recruited from electoral rolls from three French cities. Clinical and environmental characteristics were evaluated at baseline and 2 and 4 year follow-up. The clinical characterisitics of incident cases of dementia were examined retrospectively.
8919 persons over 65 without dementia (60.8% women). The mean age (SD) of the participants was 74.2 (5.6) for men and 74.4 (5.6) for women.
320 persons (3.6%) were retrospectively classified as MCI at baseline. This MCI group had poorer performance on all cognitive tests compared to the rest of the cohort and a sub-sample undergoing MRI were found to have more white matter hyperintensities. The group were also characterized by the presence of an ApoE 4 genotype (OR=2.17 CI 1.44–3.29 for men; OR=2.27 CI 1.59–3.24 for women), and IADL loss (OR=1.72 CI 1.01–3.0 for men and OR=1.49 CI 0.97–2.3 for women). Women with MCI also had high depressive symptomatology (OR=1.96; CI 1.34–2.87), anticholinergic drug use (OR=1.59; CI 1.05–2.28) and low BMI (OR=1.54; CI 1.05–2.28) and men a history of stroke (OR=2.17 CI 1.16–4.05) and glycemia (OR=1.72 CI 1.13–2.71). Addition of these characteristics to conventional MCI definitions increases their specificity.
This general population study employing a retrospective method for classifying persons with MCI identified gender-specific non-cognitive clinical variables which may increase specificity.
Activities of Daily Living; Aged; Apolipoprotein E4; genetics; Cognition Disorders; diagnosis; Dementia; diagnosis; Disease Progression; Female; Genotype; Geriatric Assessment; methods; Humans; Male; Nerve Fibers, Myelinated; pathology; Neuropsychological Tests; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; MCI; diagnosis; cohort studies; gender; dementia; ApoE; cardiovascular disorder
Given the increasing prevalence of both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depressive symptoms during old age, we aimed to examine prospectively the association between MetS and onset of depressive symptoms according to different age-groups in a large general elderly population.
Research Design and Methods
Prospective cohort study of 4446 men and women aged 65 to 91 and free of depression or depressive symptoms at baseline (the Three-City study, France). MetS was defined using the NCEP-ATP III criteria. New onset of depressive symptoms (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score≥16 and use of antidepressant treatment) was assessed at 2- and 4-year follow-ups.
After adjusting for a large range of potential confounders, we observed MetS to be associated with a 1.73-fold (95% CI: 1.02–2.95) odds for new-onset depressive symptoms in the youngest age group (65 to 70 at baseline), independently of cardiovascular diseases. No such association was seen in older age groups.
Our findings suggest that the link between MetS and depressive symptoms evidenced until now in middle-aged can be extended to older adults but not to the oldest ones. Further research is needed to examine if a better management of MetS prevents depressive symptoms in people aged 65 to 70.
Depressive symptoms; metabolic syndrome; elderly; prospective study
Neurobiological and clinical studies suggest that childhood maltreatment may result in functional and structural nervous system changes which predispose the individual to depression. This vulnerability appears to be modulated by a polymorphism in the serotonin linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR). Little is known however, about the persistence of this vulnerability across the life-span although clinical studies of adult populations suggest that gene-environment interaction may diminish with ageing.
Depressive symptomatology and adverse and protective childhood events were examined in a population of 942 persons aged 65 years and over, taking into account socio-demographic characteristics and proximal competing causes of depression (widowhood, recent life-events, vascular and neurological disorder, and disability). Subjects were diagnosed as depressed if they met one of three criteria: a diagnosis of major depression on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), over 16 on the CES-D or anti-depressant treatment
Exposure to traumatic events in childhood doubled the risk of late-life depression and increased the risk of repeated episodes. Not all events were found to be pathogenic; significant risk being associated with excessive sharing of parental problems, poverty, mental disorder in parents, excessive punishment, verbal abuse, humiliation and mistreatment by an adult outside the family. Interactions were observed between the 5-HTTLPR ‘L’ allele, poverty and excessive sharing of parental problems.
Certain types of childhood trauma continue to constitute risk factors for depression in old age, outweighing more proximal causes. Gene-environment vulnerability interaction is linked in older age to the L-carrying genotype, modulating the effects of general environmental conditions rather than aggressive acts on the individual, perhaps due to increased cardiac reactivity.
Adult; Adult Survivors of Child Abuse; psychology; statistics & numerical data; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Child; Child of Impaired Parents; psychology; statistics & numerical data; Depressive Disorder, Major; epidemiology; genetics; Female; France; epidemiology; Genotype; Humans; Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Polymorphism, Genetic; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; statistics & numerical data; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins; genetics; Social Environment; Stress, Psychological; depression; elderly; child abuse; 5-HTTLPR; gene-environment interaction
Cognitive dysfunction in the elderly commonly observed following anesthesia has been attributed to age-related neuronal changes exacerbated by pharmacotoxic effects. However, the extent to which these changes may persist following recovery from surgery is still largely unknown. This study investigates the long-term effects of anesthesia on cognitive functioning after orthopedic surgery in 270 elderly patients over the age of 65 who completed a computerized cognitive battery before and 8 days, 4 and 13 months after surgery. Their performance was compared to that of 310 elderly controls who completed the same neuro-psychiatric evaluation at baseline and one-year interval. Multivariate analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, depressive symptomatology, vascular pathology as well as baseline cognitive performance. We found early and transient post-operative decline in reaction time and constructional praxis. With regard to long-term changes we observed improvement compared to controls in most verbal tasks (probably due to learning effects). On the other hand, a clear dissociation effect was observed for several areas of visuospatial functioning which persisted up to the 13-month follow-up. This specific pattern of visuospatial deficit was found to be independent of apolipoprotein E genotype and closely resembles what has recently been termed vascular mild cognitive impairment, in turn associated with subtle sub-cortical vascular changes. The observation of only minor differences between persons operated by general and regional anesthesia makes it difficult to attribute these changes directly to the anesthetic agents themselves, suggesting that cognitive dysfunction may be attributable at least in part to peri-operative conditions, notably stress and glucocorticoid exposure.
Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anesthesia; adverse effects; Anesthesia, Conduction; adverse effects; Anesthesia, General; adverse effects; Apolipoproteins E; genetics; Arthroplasty, Replacement; Attention; physiology; Choice Behavior; physiology; Cognition; physiology; Cognition Disorders; etiology; genetics; psychology; Female; Humans; Language; Male; Memory; physiology; Mental Processes; physiology; Neuropsychological Tests; Postoperative Complications; genetics; psychology; Questionnaires; Socioeconomic Factors; Space Perception; physiology; Visual Perception; physiology; Anesthesia; Apolipoprotein E; Mild cognitive impairment; Post-operative cognitive decline
The potential benefits of hormone therapy in treating depressed postmenopausal women are controversial and data on depression (re)emergence in the context of HT discontinuation are lacking.
To determine whether hormone therapy is associated with a modified risk of new onset of depressive symptoms in elderly women.
Current depressive symptomatology was evaluated in 4069 community-dwelling postmenopausal women aged 65 years and over, randomly recruited from three French cities. Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale at baseline and as part of the 2- and 4-year follow-up.
Over the follow-up period, multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, measures of physical health and cognitive impairment, failed to find a significant association between HT at baseline and the incidence of depressive symptoms. However further analysis indicated an increased risk of incident depressive symptoms for women using specifically transdermal estradiol treatment combined with synthetic progestin (OR=1.59, 95%CI 1.01–2.50, p=0.046). In addition, while women taking hormone therapy continuously over the 4-year follow-up did not show an increased risk of depressive symptoms, women who stopped their treatment early after inclusion, had a significantly higher risk (OR= 2.63 95%CI 1.52–4.55, p=0.0005).
Hormone therapy was not associated with a protective effect against the emergence of depressive symptoms in elderly postmenopausal women however discontinuing treatment could increase the risk of depressive symptoms. Data on the appropriate management of depression in the context of hormone therapy discontinuation among postmenopausal women requires further investigation.
Administration, Cutaneous; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Depression; chemically induced; diagnosis; epidemiology; etiology; Drug Therapy, Combination; Estradiol; administration & dosage; adverse effects; Estrogen Replacement Therapy; adverse effects; methods; Estrogens; administration & dosage; adverse effects; Female; Follow-Up Studies; France; epidemiology; Humans; Incidence; Logistic Models; Medication Adherence; psychology; statistics & numerical data; Multivariate Analysis; Odds Ratio; Postmenopause; Progesterone Congeners; administration & dosage; adverse effects; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Depression, estradiol, postmenopausal, progestogen, transdermal
To examine the association between hormone therapy (HT) and cognitive performance or dementia, focusing on the duration and type of treatment used, as well as the timing of initiation of HT in relation to the menopause.
Women 65 years and older were recruited in France as part of the Three City Study. At baseline and 2 and 4 year follow-up, women were administered a short cognitive test battery and a clinical diagnosis of dementia was made. Detailed information was also gathered relating to current and past HT use. Analysis was adjusted for a number of socio-demographic, behavioural, physical and mental health variables, as well as Apolipoprotein ε4 (Apoe-ε4).
Among 3130 naturally postmenopausal women, current HT users performed significantly better than never users on verbal fluency, working memory and psychomotor speed. These associations varied according to the type of treatment and a longer duration of HT appeared to be more beneficial. However, initiation of HT close to the menopause was not associated with better cognition. HT did not significantly reduce dementia risk over 4 years but current treatment diminished the negative effect associated with Apoe-ε4.
Current HT was associated with better performance in certain cognitive domains but these associations are dependent on the duration and type of treatment used. We found no evidence that HT needs to be initiated close to the menopause to have a beneficial effect on cognitive function in later life. Current HT may decrease the risk of dementia associated with the Apoe-ε4 allele.
Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Apolipoproteins E; genetics; Cognition Disorders; drug therapy; etiology; genetics; Cohort Studies; Dementia; complications; genetics; Estrogen Replacement Therapy; methods; Female; Humans; Logistic Models; Neuropsychological Tests; Retrospective Studies
Depression in the elderly is common and often resistant to treatment. It has been suggested that late-life depression may be related to underlying neurobiological changes, however these observations are derived from diverse clinical samples and as yet have not been confirmed in a more representative population study.
Our aim was to investigate associations between neurological signs as markers of underlying brain dysfunction and caseness for depression in an elderly community sample, controlling for physical health and comorbid/past neurological disorders.
A cross-sectional analysis of 2102 older people without dementia from the ESPRIT project. Depressive symptomatology was ascertained using the CES-D and abnormal neurological signs/comorbidity from a full neurological examination according to ICD-10 criteria.
Pyramidal, extrapyramidal, cranial nerve and sensory deficit signs were significantly associated with case-level depressive symptoms, but were more likely to be present in participants with a previous history of neurological disorder.
We confirmed previous findings of an association between neurological signs and case-level depressive symptoms in late-life. However, this suggests that depression in late-life may reflect either the severity of comorbid neurological disorder or perhaps widespread neurodegeneration.
Neurological signs; Late-life Depression; Depressive symptoms; Old age; Neurodegenerative theory
To examine the association between use of medications with anticholinergic properties, cognitive decline and incident dementia in a large community-based sample of subjects aged 65 years and over.
Participants were 4128 women and 2784 men from a population-based cohort recruited from three French cities. Cognitive performance, clinical diagnosis of dementia and anticholinergic use were evaluated at base-line, 2 and 4 year later.
7.5% of subjects reported anticholinergic drug use at base-line. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression indicated that women reporting anticholinergic drugs at base-line showed greater decline over four years in verbal fluency scores (OR=1.41, CI=1.11–1.79) and in global cognitive functioning (OR=1.22, CI=0.96–1.55) than women not using anticholinergic drugs. In men, an association was found with decline in visual memory (OR=1.63, CI=1.08–2.47) and to a lesser extent in executive function (OR=1.47, CI=0.89–2.44). Significant interactions were observed in women between anticholinergic use and age, apolipoprotein E, or hormone replacement therapy. A significantly 1.4–2 fold higher risk of cognitive decline was observed for continuous anticholinergic users but not for those having discontinued. The risk of incident dementia over the four-year followup was also increased in continuous users (HR=1.65, CI=1.00–2.73) but not in those having discontinued anticholinergic drugs (HR=1.28, CI=0.59–2.76).
Elderly people taking anticholinergic drugs were at increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia. Discontinuing anticholinergic treatment was associated with a decreased risk. Physicians should carefully consider prescription of anticholinergic drugs in elderly people especially in the oldest old and persons at high genetic risk of cognitive disorder.
Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Cholinergic Antagonists; adverse effects; Cognition; drug effects; Dementia; chemically induced; genetics; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Sex Factors; Anticholinergics; apolipoprotein E; cognitive decline; dementia; elderly; gender.
The present study examines the epidemiological evidence for a causal relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive deterioration in the elderly.
A population study of 641 elderly persons examining cognitive functioning, caffeine consumption, magnetic resonance imaging volumetrics and other factors known to affect cognitive performance.
Our findings demonstrate that the association between caffeine consumption and lower cognitive change over time to be statistically significant for women only, taking into account multiple confounders, to be dose-dependent and temporarily related (caffeine consumption precedes cognitive change). Mean log transformed white matter lesion/cranial volume ratios were found to be significantly lower in women consuming more than 3 units of caffeine per day after adjustment for age (−1.23 SD=0.06) than women consuming 2–3 units (−1.04 SD=0.04) or one unit or less (−1.04 SD=0.07, −35% in cm3 compared to low drinkers). This observation is coherent with biological assumptions that caffeine through adenosine is linked to amyloid accumulation and subsequently white matter lesion formation.
The significant relationship observed between caffeine intake in women and lower cognitive decline is highly likely to be a true causal relationship and not a spurious association.
cognitive decline, white matter lesions, caffeine, cohort study
Across a woman’s lifetime, variations in hormone levels are known to influence mood and well-being. Whether absolute or changes in hormone levels over time are associated with depression among postmenopausal women remains unclear.
The Melbourne Women’s Midlife Health Project is a longitudinal population based study of women, who were followed through the menopause transition. This analysis is based on data collected from 138 postmenopausal women in years 11 and 13 of the study, who were assessed for the presence of depressive symptoms using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression models were developed to determine whether absolute or changes in hormone levels were associated with depression.
No significant associations were found between depressive symptoms and the absolute levels of sex-hormone binding globulin, testosterone, free androgen index, estradiol, free estradiol or FSH. On the other hand, women with a decline in total serum estradiol over the 2-year period had a more than 3-fold increased risk of depressive symptoms (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.2–9.9). A large increase in FSH levels over this period was also associated with depressive symptoms (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.0–6.7). These associations remained even after adjustment for initial depression score, as well as a range of potential confounding factors.
Changes in estradiol and to a lesser extent follicle-stimulating hormone levels are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women. These results further support a role for fluctuating rather than absolute hormone levels in later life depression.
Aged; Depression; blood; Estradiol; blood; Female; Follicle Stimulating Hormone; blood; Humans; Logistic Models; Longitudinal Studies; Middle Aged; Odds Ratio; Postmenopause; blood; psychology
While previous research has consistently shown an association between depression and disability in the elderly, less is known about the mechanisms linking the two. Recent longitudinal population studies showed considerable inconsistency in the criteria used to establish causality and terms such as mediation and effect modification were frequently incorrectly applied in terms of the inferences drawn.
We underlines the necessity to adopt more stringent theoretical criteria for the establishment of intermediary effects in the relationship between depression and disability in order to better identify cross-validated potential intervention points for reducing the risk of disablement and depression.
Aged; Longitudinal studies; Disability evaluation; Depression
Fluctuating hormone levels are known to influence a woman’s mood and well-being. This study aimed to determine whether lifetime hormonal markers are associated with late-life depression symptoms among elderly community-dwelling women.
Detailed reproductive histories of 1013 women aged 65 years and over were obtained using questionnaires and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Multivariate logistic regression models were generated to determine whether any lifetime endogenous or exogenous hormonal factors were associated with late-life depression.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 17%. Age at menopause was associated with depressive symptoms, but only among women with a lower education level. For these women, an earlier age at menopause increased their risk of late-life depression (linear effect, OR=0.95, 95%CI: 0.91–0.99). The odds of late-life depression were also increased for women who were past (OR=1.6, 95%CI: 1.1–2.5), but not current hormonal replacement users. On the other hand, long-term oral contraceptive use (≥10 years) was protective against depression (OR=0.3, 95%CI: 0.1–0.9). These associations remained significant even after extensive adjustment for a range of potential confounding factors, including socio-demographic factors, mental and physical incapacities, antidepressant use and past depression. The other factors examined, including age at first menses, parity, age at childbirth and surgical menopause, were not associated with late-life depressive symptoms.
Lifetime hormonal factors that are significantly associated with depression symptoms in later life have been identified. Further work is needed to determine how potential hormonal interventions could be used in the treatment of late-life depression in certain sub-groups of women.
The association between hormone treatment (HT) and mortality remains controversial. This study aimed to determine whether the risk of mortality associated with HT use varies depending on the specific characteristics of treatment and genetic variability in terms of the estrogen receptor.
A prospective, population-based study of 5135 women aged 65 years and older who were recruited from three cities in France and followed over six years. Detailed information related to HT use was obtained and five estrogen receptor polymorphisms were genotyped. The total follow-up was 25,436 person-years and during this time 352 women died. Cancer (36.4%) and cardiovascular disease (19.3%) were the major causes of death. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, education, centre, living situation, comorbidity, depression, physical and mental incapacities, indicated no significant association between HT and mortality, regardless of the type or duration of treatment, or the age at initiation. However, the association between HT and all-cause or cancer-related mortality varied across women, with significant interactions identified with three estrogen receptor polymorphisms (p-values = 0.004 to 0.03) in adjusted analyses. Women carrying the C allele of ESR1 rs2234693 had a decreased risk of all-cause mortality with HT (HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.18–0.97), while in stark contrast, those homozygous for the T allele had a significantly increased risk of cancer-related mortality (HR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.23–8.20). The findings were similar for ESR1 rs9340799 and ESR2 rs1271572.
The risk of mortality was not associated with HT duration, type or age at initiation. It was however not equal across all women, with some women appearing genetically more vulnerable to the effects of HT in terms of their estrogen receptor genotype. These findings, if confirmed in another independent study, may help explain the differential susceptibility of women to the beneficial or adverse effects of HT.