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1.  Differing identities, but comparably high HIV and bacterial sexually transmitted disease burdens, among married and unmarried men who have sex with men in Mumbai, India 
Sexually transmitted diseases  2015;42(11):629-633.
Although HIV incidence has declined in India, men and transgender women who have sex with men (MSM) continue to have high rates of HIV and STD. Indian MSM face substantial pressures to marry and have families, but the HIV/STD burden among married Indian MSM is not well-characterized.
A diverse sample of Indian MSM was recruited through respondent driven sampling (RDS). Independent variables that produced a p-value of 0.10 or less were then added to a multivariable logistic regression model.
Most of the 307 MSM (95 married, and 212 unmarried) recruited into the study were less than 30, and less than 1/3 had more than a high school education. Almost two thirds of the married men had children, compared to 1.4% of the unmarried men (p<0.001). The numbers of condomless anal sex acts did not differ by marriage status. Although unmarried MSM more often identified themselves as “kothi” (receptive role), their rates of HIV or bacterial STD were similar to married MSM, with 14.3% being HIV-infected. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of any bacterial STD was 18.3% for married MSM and 20% for unmarried MSM (NS). Participants reported high levels of psychological distress, with 27.4% of married and 20.1% of unmarried MSM reporting depressive symptoms (NS).
MSM in Mumbai had high rates of HIV, STD and behavioral health concerns. Clinicians need to become more comfortable in eliciting sexual histories so that they can identify MSM who need HIV/STD treatment and/or prevention services.
PMCID: PMC4610131  PMID: 26462187
men who have sex with men; sexually transmitted infections; HIV; India
2.  Sexual Relationships, Behaviors, and Experiences among Bisexual Men in Mumbai, India 
This exploratory study aimed to assess a range of sexual behaviors, relationships and related factors among a sample of bisexual men in Mumbai, India. Data collection occurred in two separate phases: 1. focus group discussions were facilitated with local community members in order to finalize an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and 2. structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 50 bisexual men using this questionnaire. Participants self-reported a wide range of sexual behaviors and relationships. Findings have implications for future research and practice focusing on bisexual men in India, as well as their partners of all genders.
PMCID: PMC4826728  PMID: 27073588
Bisexual; India; Sexual Behavior; Mumbai; Men Who Have Sex with Both Men and Women (MSMW)
Neuro-Oncology  2014;16(Suppl 5):v189-v190.
BACKGROUND: We have seen a paradigm shift in terms of use of radiation technology for the treatment of patients with medulloblastoma, from conventional 2-D shifting fields to 3-D CRT, IMRT and proton therapy. Similarly from prone to supine position and reduced dose to the cranio-spinal axis with an intent to have equivalent outcomes with reduced probability of late sequelae including second malignancies. METHODS: We have analysed data of 21 consecutive patients in May 2014, registered and treated in our hospital between 2002 and 2011. The cohort consisted of 14 male and 7 female patients with a median age of 8 (Range 3-30) Years. With no known co-morbidities and median KPS of 70 they all had tumors mostly in the IV ventricle(43%) and cerebellum(38%), for which they underwent surgery including decompression(72%) subtotal excision(9%), near total or total excision(19%). All patients were histologically grade IV medulloblastoma who underwent adjuvant radiation alone (40%) or followed by chemotherapy (60%) based on the risk stratification. 57% received 3D CRT in supine position while rest are treated with conventional techniques, median dose given to cranio-spinal axis was 23.4 Gy, posterior fossa was 36 Gy and to the tumor bed was 55.8 Gy at 1.8Gy per fraction. Chemotherapy was usually procarbazine/cisplatin/vincristine based regimen. Regular IQ, endocrine, ophthalmic and auditory evaluation was done in all the patients on follow-up. RESULT: Overall survival at 5 year was documented at 45% and 10 year survival at 35% for the entire cohort taking worst case scenario.3/13 patients developed IQ problems, 7/13 developed endocrine dysfunction, 3/12 developed auditory abnormality. CONCLUSION: Outcome of this cohort is comparable to the literature on risk group stratification. More importantly, risk adapted strategy for the treatment was found to be technically and logistically feasible and effective for a comparatively rare tumor in our setup.
PMCID: PMC4218552
4.  The other side of the bridge: exploring the sexual relationships of men who have sex with men and their female partners in Mumbai, India 
Culture, health & sexuality  2014;16(7):780-791.
Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a ‘bridge’ population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk reduction counselling that attend to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics.
PMCID: PMC4090273  PMID: 24815724
India; HIV/AIDS; bisexual men; women
5.  Psychosocial risk factors for HIV sexual risk among Indian men who have sex with men 
AIDS care  2013;25(9):1109-1113.
Indian men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HIV compared to the general Indian population. Psychosocial factors may be uniquely associated with HIV risk among Indian MSM and may moderate the beneficial impact of standard HIV prevention approaches. Psychiatric diagnostic interviews and psychosocial and sexual risk assessments were conducted among 150 MSM in Mumbai, India. Logistic regression was employed to examine the association of psychiatric disorders and psychosocial problems to recent sexual risk behavior. Twenty-five percent of participants reported engaging in unprotected anal sex (UAS) during their last sexual contact with a man. Men who were married to a woman were more likely to have engaged in UAS during their last sexual contact with a man (35% vs. 17%, p = 0.018). In multivariable models, significant predictors of engaging in UAS were current major depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07, 6.39) and number of stressful life events (AOR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.83, 0.99). Alcohol dependence, anxiety, and self-esteem were not associated with engaging in UAS. Indian MSM with depression are at higher odds of engaging in UAS compared to MSM without depression. HIV prevention programs for Indian MSM may benefit from incorporating treatment or triage for mental health problems.
PMCID: PMC3708996  PMID: 23339580
men who have sex with men (MSM); Mumbai; India; mental health; depression; minority stress; HIV
6.  Suicidality, clinical depression, and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in men who have sex with men in Mumbai, India: Findings from a community-recruited sample 
Psychology, health & medicine  2011;16(4):450-462.
In India men who have sex with men (MSM) are a stigmatized and hidden population, vulnerable to a variety of psychosocial and societal stressors. This population is also much more likely to be HIV-infected compared to the general population. However, little research exists about how psychosocial and societal stressors result in mental health problems. A confidential, quantitative mental-health interview was conducted among 150 MSM in Mumbai, India at The Humsafar Trust, the largest non-governmental organization serving MSM in India. The interview collected information on sociodemographics and assessed self-esteem, social support and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Participants' mean age was 25.1 years (SD=5.1); 21% were married to women. Forty-five percent reported current suicidal ideation, with 66% low risk, 19% moderate risk, and 15% high risk for suicide per MINI guidelines. Twenty-nine percent screened in for current major depression and 24% for any anxiety disorder. None of the respondents reported current treatment for any psychiatric disorder. In multivariable models controlling for age, education, income and sexual identity, participants reporting higher levels of self-esteem and greater levels of satisfaction with the social support they receive from family and friends were at lower risk of suicidality (self-esteem AOR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.78-0.93; social support AOR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.62-0.93) and major depression (self-esteem AOR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.71-0.89; social support AOR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.54-0.85). Those who reported greater social support satisfaction were also at lower risk of a clinical diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (AOR=0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.99). MSM in Mumbai have high rates of suicidal ideation, depression and anxiety. Programs to improve self-esteem and perceived social support may improve these mental health outcomes. Because they are also a high-risk group for HIV, MSM HIV prevention and treatment services may benefit from incorporating mental health services and referrals into their programs.
PMCID: PMC3136931  PMID: 21749242
Men who have sex with men (MSM); Mumbai; India; mental health; suicide; depression; anxiety
7.  Bisexuality, Sexual Risk Taking, and HIV Prevalence Among Men Who Have Sex With Men Accessing Voluntary Counseling and Testing Services in Mumbai, India 
To describe sociodemographics, sexual risk behavior, and estimate HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mumbai, India.
Eight hundred thirty-one MSM attending voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at the Humsafar Trust, answered a behavioral questionnaire and consented for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and HIV testing from January 2003 through December 2004. Multivariate logistic regression was performed for sociodemographics, sexual risk behavior, and STIs with HIV result as an outcome.
HIV prevalence among MSM was 12.5%. MSM who were illiterate [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 to 4.84], married (AOR 2.70; 95% CI: 1,56 to 4.76), preferred male partners (AOR 4.68; 95% CI: 1.90 to 11.51), had partners of both genders (AOR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.03 to 7.23), presented with an STI (AOR 3.31; 95% CI: 1.96 to 5.61); or presented with a reactive venereal disease research laboratory test (AOR 4.92; 95% CI: 2.55 to 9.53) at their VCT visit were more likely to be HIV infected.
MSM accessing VCT services in Mumbai have a high risk of STI and HIV acquisition. Culturally appropriate interventions that focus on sexual risk behavior and promote condom use among MSM, particularly the bridge population of bisexual men, are needed to slow the urban Indian AIDS epidemic.
PMCID: PMC2844633  PMID: 19934765
bisexual; homosexual; India; men who have sex with men; Mumbai; voluntary counseling and testing
8.  Intelligent Assistive Technology Applications to Dementia Care: Current Capabilities, Limitations, and Future Challenges 
The number of older Americans afflicted by Alzheimer disease and related dementias will triple to 13 million persons by 2050, thus greatly increasing healthcare needs. An approach to this emerging crisis is the development and deployment of intelligent assistive technologies that compensate for the specific physical and cognitive deficits of older adults with dementia, and thereby also reduce caregiver burden. The authors conducted an extensive search of the computer science, engineering, and medical databases to review intelligent cognitive devices, physiologic and environmental sensors, and advanced integrated sensor networks that may find future applications in dementia care. Review of the extant literature reveals an overwhelming focus on the physical disability of younger persons with typically nonprogressive anoxic and traumatic brain injuries, with few clinical studies specifically involving persons with dementia. A discussion of the specific capabilities, strengths, and limitations of each technology is followed by an overview of research methodological challenges that must be addressed to achieve measurable progress to meet the healthcare needs of an aging America.
PMCID: PMC2768007  PMID: 18849532
Assistive technology; biosensors; artificial intelligence
9.  Role of Modern Imaging Techniques for Diagnosis of Infection in the Era of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography 
Clinical Microbiology Reviews  2008;21(1):209-224.
During the past several years, it has become quite evident that positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging can play a major role in the management of patients with suspected infection. Particularly, several groups have demonstrated that this powerful imaging methodology is very effective in the evaluation of osteomyelitis, infected prostheses, fever of unknown origin, and AIDS. In view of its extraordinary sensitivity in detecting disease activity and the ability to quantitate the degree of FDG uptake, PET might prove to be an appropriate modality for monitoring disease activity and evaluating response to therapy. FDG-PET has many advantages over existing imaging techniques for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. These include feasibility of securing diagnostic results within 1.5 to 2 h, excellent spatial resolution, and accurate anatomical localization of sites of abnormality. The availability of PET/computed tomography as a practical tool has further enhanced the role of metabolic imaging in many settings. In the future, this modality is very likely to be employed on a routine basis for detecting, characterizing, and monitoring patients with suspected and proven infection.
PMCID: PMC2223836  PMID: 18202443
10.  Dosimetry and treatment planning of Occu-Prosta I-125 seeds for intraocular lesions 
Intraocular malignant lesions are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Plaque brachytherapy represents an effective means of treatment for intraocular lesions. Recently Radiopharmaceutical Division, BARC, Mumbai, has indigenously fabricated reasonable-cost I-125 sources. Here we are presenting the preliminary experience of dosimetry of sources, configuration of treatment planning system (TPS) and quality assurance (QA) for eye plaque therapy with Occu-Prosta I-125 seeds, treated in our hospital, for a patient with ocular lesions. I-125 seeds were calibrated using well-type chamber. BrachyVision TPS was configured with Monte Carlo computed radial dose functions and anisotropy functions for I-125 sources. Dose calculated by TPS at different points in central axis and off axis was compared with manually calculated dose. Eye plaque was fabricated of 17 karat pure gold, locally. The seeds were arranged in an outer ring near the edge of the plaque and in concentric rings throughout the plaque. The sources were manually digitized on the TPS, and dose distribution was calculated in three dimensions. Measured activity using cross-calibrated well-type chamber was within ±10% of the activity specified by the supplier. Difference in TPS-calculated dose and manually calculated dose was within 5%. Treatment time calculated by TPS was in concordance with published data for similar plaque arrangement.
PMCID: PMC2786092  PMID: 20041047
I-125; dosimetry and planning; eye plaque; intraocular lesions

Results 1-10 (10)