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2.  The Multifunctional Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) Regulates Arteriogenesis in a Mouse Model of Flow-Mediated Remodeling 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e71550.
Sustained hemodynamic stress mediated by high blood flow promotes arteriogenesis, the outward remodeling of existing arteries. Here, we examined whether Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) regulates arteriogenesis.
Methods and Results
Ligation of the left common carotid led to an increase in vessel diameter and perimeter of internal and external elastic lamina in the contralateral, right common carotid. Deletion of CaMKIIδ (CaMKIIδ−/−) abolished this outward remodeling. Carotid ligation increased CaMKII expression and was associated with oxidative activation of CaMKII in the adventitia and endothelium. Remodeling was abrogated in a knock-in model in which oxidative activation of CaMKII is abolished. Early after ligation, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) was robustly expressed in the adventitia of right carotid arteries of WT but not CaMKIIδ−/− mice. MMP9 mainly colocalized with adventitial macrophages. In contrast, we did not observe an effect of CaMKIIδ deficiency on other proposed mediators of arteriogenesis such as expression of adhesion molecules or smooth muscle proliferation. Transplantation of WT bone marrow into CaMKIIδ−/− mice normalized flow-mediated remodeling.
CaMKIIδ is activated by oxidation under high blood flow conditions and is required for flow-mediated remodeling through a mechanism that includes increased MMP9 expression in bone marrow-derived cells invading the arterial wall.
PMCID: PMC3738514  PMID: 23951185
3.  Coronary angiographic significance of hyperacute ST-T changes associated with regadenoson stress 
An abnormal electrocardiographic stress test is typically characterized by ST segment depression. In rare cases, ST segment elevation is observed, which, in the absence of diagnostic Q waves, has anatomic specificity for localized myocardial ischemia. Most instances of ST elevation occurring during cardiac stress testing have been observed with exercise, with only six cases reported with pharmacologic stress. Despite different physiologic mechanisms for inducing myocardial ischemia, development of ST segment elevation during pharmacologic stress, as illustrated by the present case, may also be indicative of critical coronary stenoses, warranting urgent coronary arteriography.
PMCID: PMC3684297  PMID: 23814390
4.  Differential expression of major histocompatibility complex class I in developmental glioneuronal lesions 
The expression of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) in the brain has received considerable interest not only because of its fundamental role in the immune system, but also for its non-immune functions in the context of activity-dependent brain development and plasticity.
In the present study we evaluated the expression and cellular pattern of MHC-I in focal glioneuronal lesions associated with intractable epilepsy. MHC-I expression was studied in epilepsy surgery cases with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD I, n = 6; FCD IIa, n = 6 and FCD IIb, n = 15), tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC, cortical tubers; n = 6) or ganglioglioma (GG; n = 15) using immunocytochemistry. Evaluation of T lymphocytes with granzyme-B+ granules and albumin immunoreactivity was also performed.
All lesions were characterized by MHC-I expression in blood vessels. Expression in both endothelial and microglial cells as well as in neurons (dysmorphic/dysplastic neurons) was observed in FCD II, TSC and GG cases. We observed perivascular and parenchymal T lymphocytes (CD8+, T-cytotoxic) with granzyme-B+ granules in FCD IIb and TSC specimens. Albumin extravasation, with uptake in astrocytes, was observed in FCD IIb and GG cases.
Our findings indicate a prominent upregulation of MHC-I as part of the immune response occurring in epileptogenic glioneuronal lesions. In particular, the induction of MHC-I in neuronal cells appears to be a feature of type II FCD, TSC and GG and may represent an important accompanying event of the immune response, associated with blood–brain barrier dysfunction, in these developmental lesions.
PMCID: PMC3565983  PMID: 23347564
Focal cortical dysplasia; Ganglioglioma; Cortical tubers; Neurons; Microglia; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I
5.  Primary Streptococcus pneumoniae pericarditis 
Although commonly fatal, bacterial pericarditis is often not diagnosed antemortem due to its infrequent occurrence and fulminant course. Historically, Streptococcus pneumoniae has been the most common cause of bacterial pericarditis. Over the past 70 years, however, it has become largely eliminated and now occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised individuals with a preceding primary site of infection. Herein, we present a case of primary S. pneumoniae pericarditis that developed over the course of 3 to 4 weeks in an immunocompetent 45-year-old man. The patient, who developed cardiac tamponade shortly after admission, experienced a rapid resolution of symptoms following pericardial drainage and initiation of antibiotics.
PMCID: PMC3523765  PMID: 23382609
6.  Hypercalcemia Associated with a Malignant Brenner Tumor Arising from a Mature Cystic Teratoma 
Case Reports in Oncology  2012;5(3):592-600.
A 60-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and weight loss and was found to have serum calcium of 15.0 mg/dl. Serum parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) returned elevated. Imaging suggested bilateral mature cystic teratomas. Her hypercalcemia was treated initially with intravenous saline, as well as intramuscular and subcutaneous calcitonin. She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and final pathology revealed malignant Brenner tumor in association with a mature cystic teratoma. Her postoperative PTHrP returned less than assay, and her total and ionized calcium fell below normal, requiring supplemental calcium and vitamin D. At follow-up one month after discharge, her calcium had normalized. We present the first reported case of hypercalcemia occurring in association with a malignant Brenner tumor. Malignancy-associated hypercalcemia occurs via four principal mechanisms: (1) tumor production of PTHrP; (2) osteolytic bone involvement by primary tumor or metastasis; (3) ectopic activation of vitamin D to 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D, and (4) ectopic production of parathyroid hormone. PTHrP-mediated hypercalcemia is the most common mechanism and was responsible in this case. In patients with paraneoplastic hypercalcemia who undergo surgical treatment, close monitoring and management of serum calcium is necessary both pre- and postoperatively.
PMCID: PMC3506083  PMID: 23185165
Hypercalcemia; Parathyroid hormone-related peptide; Mature cystic teratoma; Malignant Brenner tumor
7.  Aberrant expression and biological significance of Sox2, an embryonic stem cell transcriptional factor, in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma 
Blood Cancer Journal  2012;2(8):e82-.
Sox2 (sex-determining region Y-Box) is one of the master transcriptional factors that are important in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In line with this function, Sox2 expression is largely restricted to ESCs and somatic stem cells. We report that Sox2 is expressed in cell lines and tumor samples derived from ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ALCL), for which the normal cellular counterpart is believed to be mature T-cells. The expression of Sox2 in ALK+ALCL can be attributed to nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), the oncogenic fusion protein carrying a central pathogenetic role in these tumors. By confocal microscopy, Sox2 protein was detectable in virtually all cells in ALK+ALCL cell lines. However, the transcriptional activity of Sox2, as assessed using a Sox2-responsive reporter construct, was detectable only in a small proportion of cells. Importantly, downregulation of Sox2 using short interfering RNA in isolated Sox2active cells, but not Sox2inactive cells, resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth, invasiveness and tumorigenicity. To conclude, ALK+ALCL represents the first example of a hematologic malignancy that aberrantly expresses Sox2, which represents a novel mechanism by which NPM-ALK mediates tumorigenesis. We also found that the transcriptional activity and oncogenic effects of Sox2 can be heterogeneous in cancer cells.
PMCID: PMC3432482  PMID: 22885405
Sox2; transcriptional activity; NPM-ALK; STAT3; tumorigenicity
9.  [2-({3-[(3-Amino­prop­yl)amino]­prop­yl}imino­meth­yl)phenolato-κ4 O,N,N′′,N′′′]bromidocopper(II) 
In the title compound, [Cu(C13H20N3O)Br], the Cu(II) atom is coordinated by three N atoms and one O atom from the deprotonated ligand derived from the Schiff base condensation of 3,3-imino­bis­(propyl­amine) and salicyl­aldehyde. The three N and the O atoms occupy equatorial positions, while the Br atom occupies an axial position. The amine H atoms form inter­molecular hydrogen bonds with the Br and O atoms of adjoining mol­ecules
PMCID: PMC3009097  PMID: 21588891
10.  N 1,N 2-Bis[(2-chloro-6-methyl­quinolin-3-yl)methyl­idene]ethane-1,2-diamine 
The title mol­ecule, C24H20Cl2N4, lies on an inversion center in an extended trans conformation. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯Cl inter­actions connect the mol­ecules into chains along [010].
PMCID: PMC3009292  PMID: 21589051
11.  catena-Poly[[[{5,5′-dimeth­oxy-2,2′-[ethane-1,2-diylbis(nitrilo­methyl­idyne)]diphenolato}manganese(III)]-μ-acetato] methanol monosolvate] 
The title MnIII compound, {[Mn(C18H18N2O4)(CH3COO)]·CH3OH}n, was synthesized by a reaction between mangan­ese(II) acetate and ethyl­enebis(4-meth­oxy­salicylaldimine). The structure is made up of bis­(4-meth­oxy­salicyldene)ethyl­enediaminatomanganese(III) units bridged by acetate groups, with Mn—N = 1.9786 (9), Mn—O = 1.8784 (10) and Mn—Oacetate = 2.056 (9) and 2.2571 (9) Å, forming a one dimensional polymer (–Mn–acetate–Mn–acetate–) along [100]. The MnIII atom is in a Jahn–Teller-distorted octa­hedral environment with cis angles ranging from 81.87 (4) to 96.53 (4)° and trans angles ranging from 166.11 (3) to 173.93 (3)°. The methanol solvent mol­ecule is hydrogen bonded to the phenolate O atom. In addition to this classical hydrogen bond, there are weak C—H⋯O inter­actions. The structure was determined from a crystal twinned by pseudo-merohedry.
PMCID: PMC3008984  PMID: 21588822
12.  Efficacy of clonidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2010;54(5):458-463.
Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is very popular in paediatric anaesthesia for providing intra- and postoperative analgesia. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the action of bupivacaine. We evaluated the efficacy of clonidine added to bupivacaine in prolonging the analgesia produced by caudal bupivacaine in children undergoing sub-umbilical surgery. One hundred children, age one to three years, undergoing sub-umbilical surgery, were prospectively randomized to one of two groups: caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine in normal saline (Group A) or caudal analgesia with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 µg/kg of clonidine in normal saline (Group B). Post-operative pain was assessed for 24 hours using the FLACC scale. The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (593.4 ± 423.3 min) than in Group A (288.7 ± 259.1 min); P < 0.05. The pain score assessed using FLACC scale was compared between the two groups, and children in Group B had lower pain scores, which was statistically significant. The requirement of rescue medicine was lesser in Group B. Clonidine in a dose of 1 µg/kg added to 0.25% bupivacaine for caudal analgesia, during sub-umbilical surgeries, prolongs the duration of analgesia of bupivacaine, without any side effects.
PMCID: PMC2991658  PMID: 21189886
Bupivacaine; caudal analgesia; clonidine; post-operative analgesia; sub-umbilical surgery
13.  Pictorial essay: Distal colostography 
Distal colostography (DC), also called distal colography or loopography, is an important step in the reparative management of anorectal malformations (ARMs) with imperforate anus, Hirschsprung's disease (occasionally) and colonic atresia (rarely) in children and obstructive disorders of the distal colon (colitis with stricture, carcinoma or complicated diverticulosis) in adults. It serves to identify/confirm the type of ARM, presence/absence of fistulae, leakage from anastomoses, or patency of the distal colon. We present a pictorial essay of DC in a variety of cases.
PMCID: PMC2890919  PMID: 20607024
Imperforate anus; imaging of anorectal malformations; pouch colon
14.  A Case of Papillary Growth from the Areola 
PMCID: PMC2956955  PMID: 21031075
15.  Images - Extra (too many) carpal bones in Larsen's syndrome 
Multiple carpal bones may be seen in different syndromes, especially Larsen's syndrome. A case of Larsen's syndrome with many typical features and “too many” carpal bones, is described.
PMCID: PMC2765189  PMID: 19881075
Larsen Syndrome; extra carpal bones
16.  Chest 
PMCID: PMC2747409  PMID: 19774149
17.  Pictorial essay: Coronary artery variants and anomalies 
CT coronary angiography has helped radiologists understand the variations and anomalies of the anatomy of the coronary arteries and, thus, to alert the cardiologist whenever such an anomaly is present. This can be of immense help to the clinician planning interventional procedures such as stenting, balloon dilatation, or graft surgery, particularly when there are secondary changes of calcification, plaque formation and stenosis.
PMCID: PMC2747404  PMID: 19774140
Coronary arteries
18.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Salmonella typhi PilS 
Crystals of the recombinant native and selenomethionine PilS protein belong to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 77.88, b = 114.53, c = 31.75 Å. The structure will be solved using the MAD method.
The structure determination of PilS, a type IV pilin, by X-ray crystallography is reported. The recombinant protein from Salmonella typhi was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 77.88, b = 114.53, c = 31.75 Å. The selenomethionine derivative of the PilS protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the same space group. Data sets have been collected to 2.1 Å resolution from the selenomethionine-derivative crystal using synchrotron radiation for multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing.
PMCID: PMC2225195  PMID: 17012803
PilS; Salmonella typhi; type IV pilin
19.  Chest 
PMCID: PMC2768640
21.  Searching for signatures of life on Mars: an Fe-isotope perspective 
Recent spacecraft and lander missions to Mars have reinforced previous interpretations that Mars was a wet and warm planet in the geological past. The role of liquid water in shaping many of the surface features on Mars has long been recognized. Since the presence of liquid water is essential for survival of life, conditions on early Mars might have been more favourable for the emergence and evolution of life. Until a sample return mission to Mars, one of the ways of studying the past environmental conditions on Mars is through chemical and isotopic studies of Martian meteorites. Over 35 individual meteorite samples, believed to have originated on Mars, are now available for lab-based studies. Fe is a key element that is present in both primary and secondary minerals in the Martian meteorites. Fe-isotope ratios can be fractionated by low-temperature processes which includes biological activity. Experimental investigations of Fe reduction and oxidation by bacteria have produced large fractionation in Fe-isotope ratios. Hence, it is considered likely that if there is/were any form of life present on Mars then it might be possible to detect its signature by Fe-isotope studies of Martian meteorites. In the present study, we have analysed a number of Martian meteorites for their bulk-Fe-isotope composition. In addition, a set of terrestrial analogue material has also been analysed to compare the results and draw inferences. So far, our studies have not found any measurable Fe-isotopic fractionation in bulk Martian meteorites that can be ascribed to any low-temperature process operative on Mars.
PMCID: PMC1664681  PMID: 17008212
Mars; Martian meteorites; SNC; terrestrial analogues; iron isotopes; life
22.  Cartilage in bone marrow biopsy and purple granular deposits in the biopsy touch 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2003;56(11):883.
PMCID: PMC1770110  PMID: 14600144
bone marrow biopsy; touch imprint; cartilage; artefact
23.  Spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Multiple-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients from Bombay, India 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(7):2677-2680.
Spoligotyping was undertaken in 65 multiple-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Bombay, India. The spoligotype patterns showed seven closely related clusters, a cluster with 2 Beijing-like isolates, and unique spoligotypes (43%). Of the clusters, one with 29% of all the isolates suggested transmission of a dominant resistant clone.
PMCID: PMC120599  PMID: 12089307
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1990;32(4):351-355.
Present study suggest that changes in response to the post dexamethasone plasma cortisol levels in the patients of major depression receiveing anti depressants (Imipramine and Amitryptyline) might represent a laboratory marker of clinical progress. We estimated post dexamethasone plasma cortisol levels weekly in thirty hospitalized patients during pro-treatment, post-treatment and drug free post-treatment wash out period. In most of the cases normalization of the post dexamethasone cortisol levels coincided with clinical improvement and failure to normalize was often associated with poorer clinical recovery. No significant difference was observed in the treatment response between imipramine and amitryptyline based on post dexamethasone plasma cortisol levels.
PMCID: PMC2990852  PMID: 21927490
25.  TRY – a global database of plant traits 
Kattge, J | Díaz, S | Lavorel, S | Prentice, I C | Leadley, P | Bönisch, G | Garnier, E | Westoby, M | Reich, P B | Wright, I J | Cornelissen, J H C | Violle, C | Harrison, S P | Van Bodegom, P M | Reichstein, M | Enquist, B J | Soudzilovskaia, N A | Ackerly, D D | Anand, M | Atkin, O | Bahn, M | Baker, T R | Baldocchi, D | Bekker, R | Blanco, C C | Blonder, B | Bond, W J | Bradstock, R | Bunker, D E | Casanoves, F | Cavender-Bares, J | Chambers, J Q | Chapin, F S | Chave, J | Coomes, D | Cornwell, W K | Craine, J M | Dobrin, B H | Duarte, L | Durka, W | Elser, J | Esser, G | Estiarte, M | Fagan, W F | Fang, J | Fernández-Méndez, F | Fidelis, A | Finegan, B | Flores, O | Ford, H | Frank, D | Freschet, G T | Fyllas, N M | Gallagher, R V | Green, W A | Gutierrez, A G | Hickler, T | Higgins, S I | Hodgson, J G | Jalili, A | Jansen, S | Joly, C A | Kerkhoff, A J | Kirkup, D | Kitajima, K | Kleyer, M | Klotz, S | Knops, J M H | Kramer, K | Kühn, I | Kurokawa, H | Laughlin, D | Lee, T D | Leishman, M | Lens, F | Lenz, T | Lewis, S L | Lloyd, J | Llusià, J | Louault, F | Ma, S | Mahecha, M D | Manning, P | Massad, T | Medlyn, B E | Messier, J | Moles, A T | Müller, S C | Nadrowski, K | Naeem, S | Niinemets, Ü | Nöllert, S | Nüske, A | Ogaya, R | Oleksyn, J | Onipchenko, V G | Onoda, Y | Ordoñez, J | Overbeck, G | Ozinga, W A | Patiño, S | Paula, S | Pausas, J G | Peñuelas, J | Phillips, O L | Pillar, V | Poorter, H | Poorter, L | Poschlod, P | Prinzing, A | Proulx, R | Rammig, A | Reinsch, S | Reu, B | Sack, L | Salgado-Negret, B | Sardans, J | Shiodera, S | Shipley, B | Siefert, A | Sosinski, E | Soussana, J-F | Swaine, E | Swenson, N | Thompson, K | Thornton, P | Waldram, M | Weiher, E | White, M | White, S | Wright, S J | Yguel, B | Zaehle, S | Zanne, A E | Wirth, C
Global Change Biology  2011;17(9):2905-2935.
Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.
PMCID: PMC3627314
comparative ecology; database; environmental gradient; functional diversity; global analysis; global change; interspecific variation; intraspecific variation; plant attribute; plant functional type; plant trait; vegetation model

Results 1-25 (27)