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1.  Mechanistic Studies of Gold and Palladium Cooperative Dual-Catalytic Cross-Coupling Systems 
ACS catalysis  2014;4(2):622-629.
Double-label crossover, modified-substrate, and catalyst comparison experiments in the gold and palladium dual-catalytic rearrangement/cross-coupling of allenoates were performed in order to probe the mechanism of this reaction. The results are consistent with a cooperative catalysis mechanism whereby 1) gold activates the substrate prior to oxidative addition by palladium, 2) gold acts as a carbophilic rather than oxophilic Lewis acid, 3) competing olefin isomerization is avoided, 4) gold participates beyond the first turnover and therefore does not serve simply to generate the active palladium catalyst, and 5) single-electron transfer is not involved. These experiments further demonstrate that the cooperativity of both gold and palladium in the reaction is essential because significantly lower to zero conversion is achieved with either metal alone in comparison studies that examined multiple potential gold, palladium, and silver catalysts and precatalysts. Notably, employment of the optimized cocatalysts, PPh3AuOTf and Pd2dba3, separately (i.e., only Au or only Pd) results in zero conversion to product at all monitored time points compared to quantitative conversion to product when both are present in cocatalytic reactions.
doi:10.1021/cs400641k
PMCID: PMC3991925  PMID: 24757581
Gold and Palladium; Cooperative catalysis; Dual catalysis; Cross-coupling; Crossover; Mechanism; Intermediates
2.  Performance evaluation of a scoria-compost biofilter treating xylene vapors 
The removal of xylene vapors was studied in a biofilter packed with a new hybrid (scoria/compost) packing material at various inlet loads (IL) and empty bed residence times (EBRT) of 90, 60, and 40s. The best performance was observed for EBRT of 90s, where a removal efficiency of 98% was obtained under steady state condition for inlet xylene concentration of 1.34 g m−3, while a maximum elimination capacity of 97.5 g m−3 h−1 was observed for IL of 199.5 g m−3 h−1. Carbon dioxide production rates and the microbial counts for xylene-degraders followed xylene elimination capacities. Overall look to the results of this study indicates that the scoria/compost mixture could be considered as a potential biofilter carrier, with low pressure drop (here <4 mm H2O), to treat air streams containing VOCs.
doi:10.1186/s40201-014-0140-4
PMCID: PMC4276096  PMID: 25587393
Xylene; Biofilter; Scoria; Compost; Elimination capacity
3.  First report on the association of drinking water hardness and endothelial function in children and adolescents 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2014;10(4):746-751.
Introduction
This study aims to investigate the relationship of water hardness and its calcium and magnesium content with endothelial function in a population-based sample of healthy children and adolescents.
Material and methods
This case-control study was conducted in 2012 among 90 individuals living in two areas with moderate and high water hardness in Isfahan County, Iran. The flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and the serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) were measured as surrogate markers of endothelial function, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as a marker of inflammation.
Results
Data of 89 participants (51% boys, mean age 14.75 (2.9) years) were complete. Those participants living in the area with high water hardness had higher FMD, hs-CRP, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1) than their counterparts living in the area with moderate water hardness. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that after adjustment for confounding factors of age, gender, body mass index, healthy eating index and physical activity level, total water hardness, as well as water content of calcium and magnesium, had a significant positive relationship with FMD. The corresponding associations were inverse and significant with soluble adhesion molecules (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
This study, which to the best of our knowledge is the first of its kind in the pediatric age group, suggests that water hardness, as well as its calcium and magnesium content, may have a protective role against early stages of atherosclerosis in children and adolescents.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2014.44866
PMCID: PMC4175776  PMID: 25276160
water hardness; endothelial function; calcium; magnesium; children and adolescents
4.  An in silico approach to design potential siRNA molecules for ICP22 (US1) gene silencing of different strains of human herpes simplex 1 
Background
The herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is a virus that manifests itself in viral infection with painful, watery blisters in the skin or on the genitals as well as mucous membrane such as the mouth or lips. During an outbreak, the disease is contagious particularly and is irredeemable with present technology. Genetic studies of HSV-1 have shown that ICP22 (US1) gene is an immediate early gene and is responsible for genome replication and also has contribution in viral infection.
Method
For disease diagnosis, ICP22 (US1) gene may be suitable target. Viral activity can be controlled through RNA interference technology, a significant method for the post-transcriptional gene silencing. However, in different viral isolates there is a genetic variability; it is very challenging to design possible siRNA molecules which can silence the respective target genes. The work was done by using various computational tools as similarity search, target alignment, secondary structure prediction and RNA interaction evaluation.
Result
In our study two effective siRNA molecules for ICP22 (US1) gene silencing of seven different strains of HSV-1 were rationally designed and authenticated using computational methods, which might lead to knockdown the viral activity.
Conclusion
siRNA molecules were foreseen against ICP22 (US1) gene of different strains of HSV-1 as effective aspirant using computational methods. Thus, the approach may deliver a vision for the chemical synthesis of antiviral RNA molecule for treatment of HSV-1, at genomic level.
doi:10.1016/j.jyp.2013.05.001
PMCID: PMC3758079  PMID: 24023453
HSV-1; Antiviral; ICP22 (US1) gene; RNAi; siRNA
5.  Does Water Hardness Have Preventive Effect on Cardiovascular Disease? 
Background:
The aim of this study is to investigate the association of calcium and magnesium concentration of drinking water with cardiovascular disease (CVDs) in urban and rural areas of a city in Iran.
Methods:
This case-control study was conducted in 2012 in Khansar County in Isfahan province, Iran. We used the official data of the Provincial health center regarding the chemical analysis data of urban and rural areas including the hardness, calcium and magnesium content of drinking water. Data of patients hospitalized for CVD in the only specialty hospital of the city was gathered for the years of 2010 and 2011.
Results:
In 2010, water calcium content above 72 mg/L was associated with reduced number of CVDs in 1000 population; whereas in 2011 this decrease in CVDs was observed for calcium levels of more than 75 mg/L. In 2010, the level of water Mg content ranged from 23 to 57 mg/L. By increasing Mg hardness level above 31 mg/L in 2010 and above 26 mg/L in 2011 were associated with decreased number of CVDs in 1000 people. decrease.
Conclusions:
Our study suggests favorable protective effects of water hardness, mainly water magnesium content, on CVDs. Water hardness, as well as calcium and magnesium content of drinking water may have a protective role against CVDs. Further experimental studies are necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms and longitudinal studies are required to study the clinical impacts of the current findings.
PMCID: PMC3950737  PMID: 24627741
Calcium; cardiovascular disease; Iran; magnesium; water hardness
6.  Fucosyltransferase 1 mediates angiogenesis, cell adhesion and rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue fibroblast proliferation 
Introduction
We previously reported that sialyl Lewisy, synthesized by fucosyltransferases, is involved in angiogenesis. Fucosyltransferase 1 (fut1) is an α(1,2)-fucosyltransferase responsible for synthesis of the H blood group and Lewisy antigens. However, the angiogenic involvement of fut 1 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue (RA ST) has not been clearly defined.
Methods
Assay of α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in RA was performed by enzyme-linked lectin assay. Fut1 expression was determined in RA ST samples by immunohistological staining. We performed angiogenic Matrigel assays using a co-culture system of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) and fut1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfected RA synovial fibroblasts. To determine if fut1 played a role in leukocyte retention and cell proliferation in the RA synovium, myeloid THP-1 cell adhesion assays and fut1 siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblast proliferation assays were performed.
Results
Total α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins in RA ST were significantly higher compared to normal (NL) ST. Fut1 expression on RA ST lining cells positively correlated with ST inflammation. HMVECs from a co-culture system with fut1 siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblasts exhibited decreased endothelial cell tube formation compared to control siRNA transfected RA synovial fibroblasts. Fut1 siRNA also inhibited myeloid THP-1 adhesion to RA synovial fibroblasts and RA synovial fibroblast proliferation.
Conclusions
These data show that α(1,2)-linked fucosylated proteins are upregulated in RA ST compared to NL ST. We also show that fut1 in RA synovial fibroblasts is important in angiogenesis, leukocyte-synovial fibroblast adhesion, and synovial fibroblast proliferation, all key processes in the pathogenesis of RA.
doi:10.1186/ar4456
PMCID: PMC3978694  PMID: 24467809
7.  Toluene Removal from Sandy Soils via In Situ Technologies with an Emphasis on Factors Influencing Soil Vapor Extraction 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:416752.
The integration of bioventing (BV) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC) and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE) including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5%) of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing) after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater.
doi:10.1155/2014/416752
PMCID: PMC3920725  PMID: 24587723
8.  In Silico Molecular Characterization of Cysteine Protease YopT from Yersinia pestis by Homology Modeling and Binding Site Identification 
Drug Target Insights  2014;8:1-9.
Plague is a major health concern and Yersinia pestis plays the central causal role in this disease. Yersinia pestis has developed resistance against the commonly available drugs. So, it is now a key concern to find a new drug target. Cysteine protease YopT enzyme is an important factor used by Yersinia pestis for pathogenesis in its host and it has the anti-phagocytic function of removal of C-termini lipid modification. The 3D structure of cysteine protease YopT of Yersinia pestis was determined by means of homology modeling through multiple alignments followed by intensive optimization and validation. The modeling was done by Phyre 2 and refined by ModRefiner. The obtained model was verified with structure validation programs such as PROCHECK, verify 3D and ERRAT for reliability. Interacting partners and active sites were also determined. PROCHECK analysis showed that 93% of the residues are in the most favored region, 5.9% are in the additional allowed region and 1.1% are in the generously allowed region of the Ramachandran plot. The verify 3D value of 0.78 indicates that the environmental profile of the model is good. SOPMA is employed for calculation of the secondary structural features of cysteine protease YopT. Active site determination through CASTp proposes that this protein can be utilized as a potential drug target. However, these findings should further be confirmed by wet lab studies for a targeted therapeutic agent design against Yersinia pestis.
doi:10.4137/DTI.S13529
PMCID: PMC3921076  PMID: 24526834
plague; Yersinia pestis; homology modeling; active site; potential drug
9.  Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens 
Pharmacognosy Research  2014;6(1):36-41.
Background:
Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens.
Materials and Methods:
The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).
Results:
Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 ± 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and C. frutescens (26.66667 ± 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent) respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard.
Conclusion:
Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.122915
PMCID: PMC3897006  PMID: 24497740
Antioxidant; G. sylvestre; ethanolic extract; free radical; oxidative stress
11.  Factors Associated with the Outcome of Open Tibial Fractures 
Background:
Although open tibial fractures are common in Malaysia, the outcomes for these patients have not been evaluated in the literature. This retrospective study was conducted to examine the factors associated with infection and non-union in open tibial fractures managed at Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA), Kuantan, in 2009.
Methods:
From 1 January until 31 December 2009, the Department of Orthopaedics of HTAA managed 58 patients with open tibial fracture who had a minimum of a one year follow-up period. The median age was 24.5 years (range: 4 to 72 years). The open tibial fractures were graded using the Gustilo open fracture classification as follows: 4 grade I, 21 grade II, 24 grade IIIA and 9 grade IIIB. All open fractures were subjected to a standard treatment protocol at HTAA, which includes the use of prophylactic antibiotics, emergency debridement, fracture stabilisation, wound coverage, and bone reconstruction when required. The mean time from injury to the initial debridement was 29.7 hours (range: 13 to 216 hours).
Results:
Seventeen (29%) cases were complicated by infection, and 10 patients (17%) developed non-union. The grade of the open fracture was significantly associated with infection, and age and the time interval between the injury and the initial wound debridement were significantly associated with non-union.
Conclusion:
The high rates of infection and non-union, particularly in severe open fractures, indicate that there is a need to improve the management of open tibial fractures treated at HTAA. The time to initial debridement is an important factor that can be readily amended to improve the outcome. Further studies with larger sample sizes are likely needed to replicate and confirm our findings.
PMCID: PMC3957352  PMID: 24643115
assessment; case management; fractures; open; patient outcome; tibia
12.  Characterization of phytoconstituents and evaluation of total phenolic content, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial activities of Solanum violaceum Ortega  
Objective: The present study was conducted to detect possible chemicals (phytoconstituents), prove ethno-medicinal value of the plant, and investigate antimicrobial, anthelmintic, and total phenolic content of crude methanolic extract of the Solanum violaceum plant.
Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out using different chemical group test methods. In anthelmintic activity test (using Pheretima posthuma model), five concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 80 mg/ml in distilled water) of extracts and albendazole as standard were used which involved the vermifuge and vermicidal activity on the worms. For the evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity, disc diffusion method, and to determine the total phenolic content, Folin-Ceocalteu method (gallic acid as standard) were used.
Results: The phytoconstituent analysis revealed presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, glycoside, flavonoid, saponin, gum, diterpenes, phenol, protein, and tannin. The crude extract exhibited significant anthelmintic property comparing with the standard. The methanolic extract revealed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity at the concentration of 400 µg/disc. The results were compared with that of the standard ciprofloxacin. The extract exhibited moderate amount of total phenolic compound (54.67±1.18 mg/gm of gallic acid equivalent).
Conclusion: Since S. violaceum have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activities, more studies such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and other pharmacological activities should be carried out to justify its traditional use, as the plant is available and used broadly in the rural areas for folkloric remedies.
PMCID: PMC4075727  PMID: 25050288
Broad-spectrum; Phytoconstituents; Solanum violaceum; Total phenolic content; Vermicidal activity
13.  In vitro antioxidant, cytotoxic, thrombolytic activities and phytochemical evaluation of methanol extract of the A. philippense L. leaves 
Objective
To study the leaves of Adiantum philippense L. for their antioxidant, cytotoxicity and thrombolytic activities and to perform phytochemical evaluation.
Methods
In-vitro antioxidant activity of extract was studied using DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, total phenol and total flavonoid content determination assays. The cytotoxic activity was determined using brine shrimp lethality bioassay, thrombolytic activity by clot disruption and phytochemical potential by qualitative analysis.
Results
The antioxidant activity of the extracts was found promising. The reducing power of this crude extract increase with the increase of concentration; IC50 values of DPPH scavenging activity was (140.00±0.86) µg/mL as compared to ascorbic acid [IC50 (130.00±0.76) µg/mL]; Total phenol and total flavonoids content were (148.26±0.24) mg/mL and (163.06±0.56) mg/mL respectively. In cytotoxicity assay the LC50 values of the sample was (106.41±0.78) µg/mL where as for standard vincristin sulphate was (08.50±0.24) µg/mL as a positive control and the extract shows (12.86±1.02)% clot lytic whereas standard streptokinase shows (30.86±0.44% clot lytic activity in thrombolytic assay. The phytochemical evaluation indicates the presence of chemical constituents including carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids.
Conclusions
This study shows that the methanol extract of leaves of Adiantum philippense L. has bioactivity but further compound isolation is necessary to confirm the activities of individual compounds.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60097-0
PMCID: PMC3644574  PMID: 23730559
Adiantum philippense L.; Antioxidant; Cytotoxicity; Phytochemical evaluation
14.  Phenol Photocatalytic Degradation by Advanced Oxidation Process under Ultraviolet Radiation Using Titanium Dioxide 
Background. The main objective of this study was to examine the photocatalytic degradation of phenol from laboratory samples and petrochemical industries wastewater under UV radiation by using nanoparticles of titanium dioxide coated on the inner and outer quartz glass tubes. Method. The first stage of this study was conducted to stabilize the titanium dioxide nanoparticles in anatase crystal phase, using dip-coating sol-gel method on the inner and outer surfaces of quartz glass tubes. The effect of important parameters including initial phenol concentration, TiO2 catalyst dose, duration of UV radiation, pH of solution, and contact time was investigated. Results. In the dip-coat lining stage, the produced nanoparticles with anatase crystalline structure have the average particle size of 30 nm and are uniformly distributed over the tube surface. The removal efficiency of phenol was increased with the descending of the solution pH and initial phenol concentration and rising of the contact time. Conclusion. Results showed that the light easily passes through four layers of coating (about 105 nm). The highest removal efficiency of phenol with photocatalytic UV/TiO2 process was 50% at initial phenol concentration of 30 mg/L, solution pH of 3, and 300 min contact time. The comparison of synthetic solution and petrochemical wastewater showed that at same conditions the phenol removal efficiency was equal.
doi:10.1155/2013/815310
PMCID: PMC3655584  PMID: 23710198
15.  Association of Nitrate, Nitrite, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in Drinking Water and Gastrointestinal Disease 
Objective. We aimed to investigate the amounts of nitrate, nitrite, and total organic carbon (TOC) in two drinking water sources and their relationship with some gastrointestinal diseases. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Iran. Two wells located in residential areas were selected for sampling and measuring the TOC, nitrate (NO3−), and nitrite (NO2−). This water is used for drinking as well as for industrial and agricultural consumption. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations of water samples were analyzed using DR 5000 spectrophotometer. The information of patients was collected from the records of the main referral hospital of the region for gastrointestinal diseases. Results. In both areas under study, the mean water nitrate and nitrite concentrations were higher in July than in other months. The mean TOC concentrations in areas 1 and 2 were 2.29 ± 0.012 and 2.03 ± 0.309, respectively. Pollutant concentration and gastrointestinal disease did not show any significant relationship (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Although we did not document significant association of nitrite, nitrate, and TOC content of water with gastrointestinal diseases, it should be considered that such health hazards may develop over time, and the quality of water content should be controlled to prevent different diseases.
doi:10.1155/2013/603468
PMCID: PMC3649361  PMID: 23690803
16.  A Qualitative Survey of Five Antibiotics in a Water Treatment Plant in Central Plateau of Iran 
Introduction. This study aimed to survey a total of five common human and veterinary antibiotics based on SPE-LC-MS-MS technology in a water treatment plant at central plateau of Iran. Also two sampling techniques, passive and grab samplings, were compared in the detection of selected antibiotics. Materials and Methods. In January to March 2012, grab and passive samples were taken from the influent and effluent of a water treatment plant. The samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction (SPE), and extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Results. The results showed that enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, and tylosin were not detected in none of the samples. However, ampicillin was detected in the grab and passive samples taken from the influent (source water) of the plant, and ciprofloxacin was detected in passive samples taken from the influent and effluent (finished water) of the plant. Conclusion. The results imply that passive sampling is a better approach than grab sampling for the investigation of antibiotics in aquatic environments. The presence of ampicillin and ciprofloxacin in source water and finished water of the water treatment plant may lead to potential emergence of resistant bacteria that should be considered in future studies.
doi:10.1155/2013/351528
PMCID: PMC3649666  PMID: 23690801
17.  Decoherence induced deformation of the ground state in adiabatic quantum computation 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:1479.
Despite more than a decade of research on adiabatic quantum computation (AQC), its decoherence properties are still poorly understood. Many theoretical works have suggested that AQC is more robust against decoherence, but a quantitative relation between its performance and the qubits' coherence properties, such as decoherence time, is still lacking. While the thermal excitations are known to be important sources of errors, they are predominantly dependent on temperature but rather insensitive to the qubits' coherence. Less understood is the role of virtual excitations, which can also reduce the ground state probability even at zero temperature. Here, we introduce normalized ground state fidelity as a measure of the decoherence-induced deformation of the ground state due to virtual transitions. We calculate the normalized fidelity perturbatively at finite temperatures and discuss its relation to the qubits' relaxation and dephasing times, as well as its projected scaling properties.
doi:10.1038/srep01479
PMCID: PMC3608076  PMID: 23528821
18.  Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra Root as a Novel Adsorbent in the Removal of Toluene Vapors: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Study 
The aim of this paper is to investigate the removal of toluene from gaseous solution through Glycyrrhiza glabra root (GGR) as a waste material. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted at various conditions including contact time, adsorbate concentration, humidity, and temperature. The adsorption capacity was increased by raising the sorbent humidity up to 50 percent. The adsorption of toluene was also increased over contact time by 12 h when the sorbent was saturated. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich model fitted the adsorption data better than other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm also showed that the sorption by GGR was physical in nature. The results of the thermodynamic analysis illustrated that the adsorption process is exothermic. GGR as a novel adsorbent has not previously been used for the adsorption of pollutants.
doi:10.1155/2013/986083
PMCID: PMC3608104  PMID: 23554821
19.  Suppression of endothelial cell activity by inhibition of TNFα 
Introduction
TNFα is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the effects of certolizumab pegol, a TNFα blocker, on endothelial cell function and angiogenesis.
Methods
Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) were stimulated with TNFα with or without certolizumab pegol. TNFα-induced adhesion molecule expression and angiogenic chemokine secretion were measured by cell surface ELISA and angiogenic chemokine ELISA, respectively. We also examined the effect of certolizumab pegol on TNFα-induced myeloid human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell adhesion to HMVECs, as well as blood vessels in RA synovial tissue using the Stamper-Woodruff assay. Lastly, we performed HMVEC chemotaxis, and tube formation.
Results
Certolizumab pegol significantly blocked TNFα-induced HMVEC cell surface angiogenic E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and angiogenic chemokine secretion (P < 0.05). We found that certolizumab pegol significantly inhibited TNFα-induced HL-60 cell adhesion to HMVECs (P < 0.05), and blocked HL-60 cell adhesion to RA synovial tissue vasculature (P < 0.05). TNFα also enhanced HMVEC chemotaxis compared with the negative control group (P < 0.05) and this chemotactic response was significantly reduced by certolizumab pegol (P < 0.05). Certolizumab pegol inhibited TNFα-induced HMVEC tube formation on Matrigel (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
Our data support the hypothesis that certolizumab pegol inhibits TNFα-dependent leukocyte adhesion and angiogenesis, probably via inhibition of angiogenic adhesion molecule expression and angiogenic chemokine secretion.
doi:10.1186/ar3812
PMCID: PMC3446462  PMID: 22534470
20.  Environmental Impact Assessment of the Industrial Estate Development Plan with the Geographical Information System and Matrix Methods 
Background. The purpose of this study is environmental impact assessment of the industrial estate development planning. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in Isfahan province, Iran. GIS and matrix methods were applied. Data analysis was done to identify the current situation of the region, zoning vulnerable areas, and scoping the region. Quantitative evaluation was done by using matrix of Wooten and Rau. Results. The net score for impact of industrial units operation on air quality of the project area was (−3). According to the transition of industrial estate pollutants, residential places located in the radius of 2500 meters of the city were expected to be affected more. The net score for impact of construction of industrial units on plant species of the project area was (−2). Environmental protected areas were not affected by the air and soil pollutants because of their distance from industrial estate. Conclusion. Positive effects of project activities outweigh the drawbacks and the sum scores allocated to the project activities on environmental factor was (+37). Totally it does not have detrimental effects on the environment and residential neighborhood. EIA should be considered as an anticipatory, participatory environmental management tool before determining a plan application.
doi:10.1155/2012/407162
PMCID: PMC3261490  PMID: 22272210
21.  A Computational analysis on Lectin and Histone H1 protein of different pulse species as well as comparative study with rice for balanced diet 
Bioinformation  2012;8(4):196-200.
The issue of balanced nutrition is of great concern to human. Meat and fish are the best sources of protein. The affordability of these resources for people in developing countries is less. Thus, there is an increasing interest in pulses and its derivates as an alternative to fish and meat. Lectin and histone H1 are the most common proteins in various pulses and our interest is in identifying the dominant essential amino acids in them for use as supplements. However, actin and lectin are common among Oryza Sativa and cicer arietinum. We describe the amount of lectin and histone H1 in cicer arietinum, Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum in a comparative manner. cicer arietinum was found to contain more essential amino acids than Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum. The secondary structures of lectin and histone H1 protein were analyzed to gain functional inferences in these species. The comparative study shows the relatively poor presence of the amino acid methionine in most pulses. However, Oryza Sativa was found to contain sufficient methionine. The study shows that pulses (especially cicer arietinum) were a suitable alternative source to meat and fish for Lectin and Histone H1 balance. Hence, pulses could be suggested with rice for balanced protein diet.
doi:10.6026/97320630008196
PMCID: PMC3302001  PMID: 22419840
Lectin; actin; histone H1 protein; balance diet; human; sequence analysis
22.  Ethylbenzene Removal by Carbon Nanotubes from Aqueous Solution 
The removal of ethylbenzene (E) from aqueous solution by multiwalled, single-walled, and hybrid carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, SWCNTs, and HCNTs) was evaluated for a nanomaterial dose of 1 g/L, concentration of 10–100 mg/L, and pH 7. The equilibrium amount removed by SWCNTs (E: 9.98 mg/g) was higher than by MWCNTs and HCNTs. Ethylbenzene has a higher adsorption tendency on CNTs, so that more than 98% of it adsorbed in first 14 min, which is related to the low water solubility and the high molecular weight. The SWCNTs performed better for ethylbenzene sorption than the HCNTs and MWCNTs. Isotherms study indicates that the BET isotherm expression provides the best fit for ethylbenzene sorption by SWCNTs. Carbon nanotubes, specially SWCNTs, are efficient and rapid adsorbents for ethylbenzene which possess good potential applications to maintain high-quality water. Therefore, it could be used for cleaning up environmental pollution to prevent ethylbenzene borne diseases.
doi:10.1155/2012/817187
PMCID: PMC3236493  PMID: 22187576
24.  Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Promotes Tumor Growth in the Context of Lung Injury and Repair 
Rationale: Tissue injury and repair involve highly conserved processes governed by mechanisms that can be co-opted in tumors. We hypothesized that soluble factors released during the repair response to lung injury would promote orthotopic tumor growth.
Objectives: To determine whether lung injury promoted growth of orthotopic lung tumors and to study the molecular mechanisms.
Methods: We initiated lung injury in C57Bl6 mice using different stimuli, then injected Lewis lung carcinoma cells during the repair phase. We assessed tumor growth 14 days later. We measured tumor angiogenesis, cytokine expression, proliferation, and apoptosis.
Measurements and Main Results: Regardless of the mechanism, injured lungs contained more numerous and larger tumors than sham-injured lungs. Tumors from injured lungs were no more vascular, but had higher levels of proliferation and reduced rates of apoptosis. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was highly expressed in both models of tissue injury. We observed no increase in tumor growth after lung injury in MIF knockout mice. We induced lung-specific overexpression of MIF in a double-transgenic mouse, and observed that MIF overexpression by itself was sufficient to accelerate the growth of orthotopic Lewis lung carcinoma tumors.
Conclusions: Lung injury leads to increased expression of the cytokine MIF, which results in protection from apoptosis and increased proliferation in orthotopic tumors injected after the acute phase of injury.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201001-0120OC
PMCID: PMC2970845  PMID: 20581170
cytokines; angiogenesis; stroma
25.  Junctional adhesion molecule-C is a soluble mediator of angiogenesis 
Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) is an adhesion molecule expressed by endothelial cells that plays a role in tight junction formation, leukocyte adhesion, and trans-endothelial migration. In the present study, we investigated whether JAM-C is found in soluble form and if soluble JAM-C (sJAM-C) mediates angiogenesis. We found that JAM-C is present in soluble form in normal serum and elevated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) serum. The concentration of sJAM-C is also elevated locally in RA synovial fluid compared to RA serum or osteoarthritis synovial fluid. sJAM-C was also present in the culture supernatant of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) and immortalized human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1s), and its concentration was increased following cytokine stimulation. In addition, sJAM-C cleavage from the cell surface was mediated in part by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17. In functional assays, sJAM-C was both chemotatic and chemokinetic for HMVECs, and induced HMVEC tube formation on Matrigel in vitro. Neutralizing anti-JAM-C antibodies inhibited RA synovial fluid induced HMVEC chemotaxis and sJAM-C induced HMVEC tube formation on Matrigel. sJAM-C also induced angiogenesis in vivo in the Matrigel plug and sponge granuloma models. Moreover, sJAM-C mediated HMVEC chemotaxis was dependent on Src, p38, and PI3K. Our results show that JAM-C exists in soluble form, and suggest that modulation of sJAM-C may provide a novel route for controling pathological angiogenesis.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1000556
PMCID: PMC3003428  PMID: 20592283

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