The host response to biomaterials has been studied for decades. Largely, the interaction of host immune cells, macrophages in particular, with implanted materials has been considered to be a precursor to granulation tissue formation, the classic foreign body reaction, and eventual encapsulation with associated negative impacts upon device functionality. However, more recently, it has been shown that macrophages, depending upon context dependent polarization profiles, are capable of affecting both detrimental and beneficial outcomes in a number of disease processes and in tissue remodeling following injury. Herein, the diverse roles played by macrophages in these processes are discussed in addition to the potential manipulation of macrophage effector mechanisms as a strategy for promoting site-appropriate and constructive tissue remodeling as opposed to deleterious persistent inflammation and scar tissue formation.
Foreign body response; Leukocyte; Macrophage; Biocompatibility
Obesity is a chronic inflammatory disease that weakens macrophage innate immune response to infections. Since M1 polarization is crucial during acute infectious diseases, we hypothesized that diet-induced obesity inhibits M1 polarization of macrophages in the response to bacterial infections. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMΦ) from lean and obese mice were exposed to live Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) for three incubation times (1 h, 4 h and 24 h). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the M1 polarization was inhibited after P. gingivalis exposure in BMMΦ from obese mice when compared with BMMΦ from lean counterparts. Using a computational approach in conjunction with microarray data, we identified switching genes that may differentially control the behavior of response pathways in macrophages from lean and obese mice. The two most prominent switching genes were thrombospondin 1 and arginase 1. Protein expression levels of both genes were higher in obese BMMΦ than in lean BMMΦ after exposure to P. gingivalis. Inhibition of either thrombospondin 1 or arginase 1 by specific inhibitors recovered the M1 polarization of BMMΦ from obese mice after P. gingivalis exposure. These data indicate that thrombospondin 1 and arginase 1 are important bacterial response genes, whose regulation is altered in macrophages from obese mice.
LPS-induced TNFα factor (LITAF) is a multiple functional molecule whose sequence is identical to small integral membrane protein of the lysosome/late endosome (SIMPLE). LITAF was initially identified as a transcription factor that activates transcription of proinflammatory cytokine in macrophages in response to LPS. Mutations of the LITAF gene are associated with a genetic disease, called Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome. Recently we have reported that mRNA levels of LITAF and tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15) are upregulated by AMPK. The present study further assesses their biological functions. Thus, we show that AICAR, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, increases the abundance of LITAF and TNFSF15 in the LNCaP and C4-2 prostate cancer cells, which is abrogated by shRNA or dominant negative mutant of AMPK α1 subunit. Our data further demonstrate that AMPK activation upregulates the transcription of LITAF. Intriguingly, silencing LITAF by shRNA enhances proliferation, anchorage-independent growth of these cancer cells, and tumor growth in xenograft model. In addition, our study reveals that LITAF mediates the effect of AMPK by binding to a specific sequence in the promoter region. Furthermore, we show that TNFSF15 remarkably inhibits the growth of prostate cancer cells and bovine aortic endothelial cells in vitro with a more potent effect toward the latter. In conjuncture, intratumor injection of TNFSF15 significantly reduces the size of tumors and number of blood vessels and induces changes characteristic of tumor cell differentiation. Therefore, our studies for the first time establish the regulatory axis of AMPK-LITAF-TNFSF15. They also suggest that LITAF may function as a tumor suppressor.
AMPK; LITAF; TNFSF15; p53; tumor suppressor; tumorigenesis
The oral microbiome, the complex ecosystem of microbes inhabiting the human mouth, harbors several thousands of bacterial types. The proliferation of pathogenic bacteria within the mouth gives rise to periodontitis, an inflammatory disease known to also constitute a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. While much is known about individual species associated with pathogenesis, the system-level mechanisms underlying the transition from health to disease are still poorly understood. Through the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and of whole community DNA we provide a glimpse at the global genetic, metabolic, and ecological changes associated with periodontitis in 15 subgingival plaque samples, four from each of two periodontitis patients, and the remaining samples from three healthy individuals. We also demonstrate the power of whole-metagenome sequencing approaches in characterizing the genomes of key players in the oral microbiome, including an unculturable TM7 organism. We reveal the disease microbiome to be enriched in virulence factors, and adapted to a parasitic lifestyle that takes advantage of the disrupted host homeostasis. Furthermore, diseased samples share a common structure that was not found in completely healthy samples, suggesting that the disease state may occupy a narrow region within the space of possible configurations of the oral microbiome. Our pilot study demonstrates the power of high-throughput sequencing as a tool for understanding the role of the oral microbiome in periodontal disease. Despite a modest level of sequencing (∼2 lanes Illumina 76 bp PE) and high human DNA contamination (up to ∼90%) we were able to partially reconstruct several oral microbes and to preliminarily characterize some systems-level differences between the healthy and diseased oral microbiomes.
The Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are proteins involved in the immune system that increase cytokine levels when triggered. While cytokines coordinate the response to infection, they appear to be detrimental to the host when reaching too high levels. Several studies have shown that the deletion of specific TLRs was beneficial for the host, as cytokine levels were decreased consequently. It is not clear, however, how targeting other components of the TLR pathways can improve the responses to infections. We applied the concept of Minimal Cut Sets (MCS) to the ihsTLR v1.0 model of the TLR pathways to determine sets of reactions whose knockouts disrupt these pathways. We decomposed the TLR network into 34 modules and determined signatures for each MCS, i.e. the list of targeted modules. We uncovered 2,669 MCS organized in 68 signatures. Very few MCS targeted directly the TLRs, indicating that they may not be efficient targets for controlling these pathways. We mapped the species of the TLR network to genes in human and mouse, and determined more than 10,000 Essential Gene Sets (EGS). Each EGS provides genes whose deletion suppresses the network's outputs.
Dysregulation of TNF-α in lamina propria macrophages (LPM) is a feature of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). LPS-Induced-TNF-Alpha-Factor (LITAF) is a transcription factor that mediates TNF-α expression. To determine whether LITAF participates in the mediation of TNF-α expression in acutely inflamed colonic tissues, we first established the TNBS-induced colonic inflammation model in C57BL/6 mice. LPM were harvested from non-inflamed and inflamed colonic tissue and inflammatory parameters TNF-α and LITAF mRNA and protein levels were measured ex-vivo. LPM from TNBS-treated mice secreted significantly more TNF-α at basal state and in response to LPS than LPM from untreated mice (p<0.05). LITAF mRNA and protein levels were elevated in LPM from TNBS compared with untreated animals and LPS further increased LITAF protein levels in LPM from inflamed tissue (P<0.05). To further confirm the role of LITAF in acutely inflamed colonic tissues, TNBS-induced colonic inflammation was produced in LITAF macrophage specific knockout mice (LITAF mac -/- mice) and compared to wild type (WT) C57BL/6. Twenty four hours following TNBS administration, colonic tissue from LITAF mac -/- mice had less MPO activity and reduced colonic TNF-α mRNA then WT C57BL/6 mice (p<0.05). LPM harvested from LITAF mac -/- secreted significantly less TNF-α in response to LPS than wild type (WT) C57BL/6 (p<0.05). This study provides evidence that LITAF contributes to the regulation of TNF-α in LPM harvested following acute inflammation or LPS treatment paving the way for future work focusing on LITAF inhibitors in the treatment of TNF-α-mediated inflammatory conditions.
Inflammation is a multifaceted process: beneficial as a defense mechanism but also detrimental depending on its severity and duration. At the site of injury, inflammatory cells are activated by a cascade of mediators, one of which is LITAF, a transcription regulator known to upregulate TNF-α. We previously showed that human LITAF forms a complex with human STAT6B, which translocates into the nucleus to upregulate cytokine transcription. To dissect the molecular implications of this complex, a murine model was developed and interactions between mouse STAT6B (mSTAT6B) and mouse LITAF (mLITAF) were analyzed. Both mLITAF and mSTAT6B expression were MyD88- and TLR ligand-dependent. Furthermore, mLITAF was found to mediate LPS-induced CCL2 gene transcription with the cooperation of mSTAT6B leading to CCL2 protein expression. In LITAF-deficient mice, mLITAF-mediated CCL2 production in macrophages was significantly reduced compared to the wild-type control animals. Mice knockdown for mSTAT6B by 6BsiRNA1 tail vein injection resulted in a decrease in serum TNF-α and CCL2 production. mLITAF/mSTAT6B complex is proposed to play a role in LPS-induced CCL2 expression and possibly other cytokines.
Periodontitis is the most common human infection affecting tooth-supporting structures. It was shown to play a role in aggravating atherosclerosis. To deepen our understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, we exposed human macrophages to an oral bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), either as live bacteria or its LPS or fimbria. Microarray data from treated macrophages or control cells were analyzed to define molecular signatures. Changes in genes identified in relevant pathways were validated by RT-PCR.
We focused our analysis on three important groups of genes. Group PG (genes differentially expressed by live bacteria only); Group LFG (genes differentially expressed in response to exposure to LPS and/or FimA); Group CG (core gene set jointly activated by all 3 stimulants). A total of 842 macrophage genes were differentially expressed in at least one of the three conditions compared to naïve cells. Using pathway analysis, we found that group CG activates the initial phagocytosis process and induces genes relevant to immune response, whereas group PG can de-activate the phagocytosis process associated with phagosome-lysosome fusion. LFG mostly affected RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway.
In light of the fact that acute infections involve live bacteria while chronic infections involve a combination of live bacteria and their byproducts, group PG could represent acute P. gingivalis infection while group LFG could represent chronic P. gingivalis infection. Group CG may be associated with core immune pathways, triggered irrespective of the specific stimulants and indispensable to mount an appropriate immune response. Implications in acute vs. chronic infection are discussed.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of macrophages initiates intracellular signaling pathways leading to activation of MAPK and its subsequent influence on cytokine production. We recently identified a LITAF-STAT6(B) complex regulated by p38 MAPK in response to LPS stimulation. However, the LPS-induced cascade in the p38/LITAF/TNF signaling pathway remains unclear. Here, we identified PTP4A3, a protein tyrosine phosphotase, as a novel negative regulator of LPS-induced LITAF/TNF-α production. PTP4A3 exerts its negative role by dephosphorylating p38α MAPK in response to LPS stimulation of primary macrophages. PTP4A3 expression is upregulated in primary macrophages. Further structure-function analysis revealed that a unique short peptide (PIMAP39) derived from PTP4A3 is capable of mimicking the functionality of full-length PTP4A3 to selectively dephosphorylate p38α and indirectly suppress LPS-induced LITAF-STAT6B complex when it is translocated from the cytoplasmic region to the nucleus of the cell. Treatment of mice with PIMAP39 significantly attenuates the severity of adverse host responses to LPS stimulation, and in some cases provides complete resistance to a lethal dose of LPS due to suppression of TNF-α production. All together, these results reveal a previously unrecognized role for the PTP4A3 pathway in response to LPS.
Immunology; In vitro assays; Inflammation; Kinases; Regulation of lethal toxin; MAP kinases; Phosphatases; Signal transduction; LITAF; Phosphorylation; Peptide; PIMAP39; TNF
To begin to understand the surprising survival of macrophage-specific lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor-deficient (macLITAF−/−) animals after a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as reported earlier, the present follow-up study focuses on the role of LITAF in the regulation of inflammatory cytokines secreted in response to lethal or sublethal doses of LPS administered to wild-type (WT) and macLITAF−/− mice. A time course study of kinase expression in peritoneal macrophages revealed increased phosphorylation of prosurvival kinases Akt, Erk1/2, and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in macLITAF−/− mice compared to that in WT mice (n = 8), confirming their role in LPS-mediated diseases. macLITAF−/− mice (n = 8) survived a lethal dose of LPS plus d-galactosamine (d-GalN), expressing lower serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines than the WT levels. To extend our knowledge on LPS-induced inflammatory events, an effective sublethal dose of LPS was administered to the animals (n = 14). WT animals exhibited an acute inflammatory response that decreased after 4 h. Interestingly, macLITAF−/− mice exhibited an initial delay in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines that peaked after 8 h and reached WT levels after 18 h. Anti-inflammatory cytokine secretions were initially delayed but increased after 4 h and remained elevated compared to WT levels, even after 18 h. Our results demonstrate that LITAF deficiency in vivo affects cytokines other than TNF-α and influences the balance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which protects the animals from the deleterious effects of an LPS-induced inflammatory response, resulting in a beneficial host regulation of inflammatory cytokines and in enhanced survival. Therapeutic intervention aimed at reducing LITAF via kinase modulators may prove useful in preventing LPS-induced mortality.
There is a substantial unmet need for new classes of drugs that block TNF-α-mediated inflammation, and particularly for small molecule agents that can be taken orally. We have screened a library of natural products against an assay measuring TNF-α secretion in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 cells, seeking compounds capable of interfering with the TNF-α inducing transcription factor Lipopolysaccharide Induced TNF Alpha Factor (LITAF). Among the active compounds were several produced by the kava plant (Piper mysticum), extracts of which have previously been linked to a range of therapeutic effects. When tested in vivo, a representative of these compounds, kavain, was found to render mice immune to lethal doses of LPS. Kavain displays promising pharmaceutical properties, including good solubility and high cell permeability, but pharmacokinetic experiments in mice showed relatively rapid clearance. A small set of kavain analogs was synthesized, resulting in compounds of similar or greater potency in vitro compared to kavain. Interestingly, a ring-opened analog of kavain inhibited TNF-α secretion in the cell based assay and suppressed LITAF expression in the same cells, whereas the other compounds inhibited TNF-α secretion without affecting LITAF levels, indicating a potential divergence in mechanism of action.
TNF-α; inflammation; kava root extract; kavain; medicinal chemistry; optimization; LITAF
Directed gene transfer into specific cell lineages in vivo is an attractive approach for both modulating gene expression and correcting inherited mutations such as emphysema caused by human α1 antitrypsin (hAAT) deficiency. However, somatic tissues are mainly comprised of heterogeneous, differentiated cell lineages that can be short lived and difficult to specifically transfect. Here, we describe an intratracheally instilled lentiviral system able to deliver genes selectively to as many as 70% of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in the mouse lung. Following a single in vivo lentiviral transduction, genetically tagged AMs persisted in lung alveoli and expressed transferred genes for the lifetime of the adult mouse. A prolonged macrophage lifespan, rather than precursor cell proliferation, accounted for the surprisingly sustained presence of transduced AMs. We utilized this long-lived population to achieve localized secretion of therapeutic levels of hAAT protein in lung epithelial lining fluid. In an established mouse model of emphysema, lentivirally delivered hAAT ameliorated the progression of emphysema, as evidenced by attenuation of increased lung compliance and alveolar size. After 24 weeks of sustained gene expression, no humoral or cellular immune responses to hAAT protein were detected. Our results challenge the dogma that AMs are short lived and suggest that these differentiated cells may be a possible target cell population for in vivo gene therapy applications, including the sustained correction of hAAT deficiency.
The microbial community present in the human mouth is engaged in a complex network of diverse metabolic activities. In addition to serving as energy and building-block sources, metabolites are key players in interspecies and host-pathogen interactions. Metabolites are also implicated in triggering the local inflammatory response, which can affect systemic conditions such as atherosclerosis, obesity, and diabetes. While the genome of several oral pathogens has been sequenced, quantitative understanding of the metabolic functions of any oral pathogen at the system level has not been explored yet. Here we pursue the computational construction and analysis of the genome-scale metabolic network of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative anaerobe that is endemic in the human population and largely responsible for adult periodontitis. Integrating information from the genome, online databases, and literature screening, we built a stoichiometric model that encompasses 679 metabolic reactions. By using flux balance approaches and automated network visualization, we analyze the growth capacity under amino-acid-rich medium and provide evidence that amino acid preference and cytotoxic by-product secretion rates are suitably reproduced by the model. To provide further insight into the basic metabolic functions of P. gingivalis and suggest potential drug targets, we study systematically how the network responds to any reaction knockout. We focus specifically on the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathway and identify eight putative targets, one of which has been recently verified experimentally. The current model, which is amenable to further experimental testing and refinements, could prove useful in evaluating the oral microbiome dynamics and in the development of novel biomedical applications.
Pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory atherosclerosis. Given the pleiotropic role of Interleukin-6 in the regulation of cytokines, lipid homeostasis, vascular remodeling, and apoptosis we hypothesized that IL-6 plays an important role in development and progression to inflammatory atherosclerosis.
Methods and Results
To explore the role of IL-6 in inflammation- and infection-associated atherosclerosis, 10 week-old ApoE+/−-IL-6+/− and ApoE+/−-IL-6−/− mice fed either high fat diet or regular chow diet were inoculated intravenously, once per week for 14 or 24 consecutive weeks with 50µl live Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) (107CFU) or vehicle (normal saline). Animals were euthanized at 24 weeks of age (14 weeks injection) or 34 weeks of age (24 weeks injection). Histomorphometric analysis of atheromatous lesions, en face analysis over the aortic tree, immunohistochemistry for macrophages and smooth muscle cell, TUNEL staining for apoptotic cells, serum amyloid A (SAA) levels, serum lipids and glucose level, serum cytokines were obtained. ApoE+/−-IL-6−/− mice showed a significant increase in atheromatous lesions in proximal aorta and aortic tree compared to ApoE+/−-IL-6+/− mice for all conditions (chow diet and P.g-inoculated, high fat diet and P.g-inoculated, high fat diet and vehicle-inoculated) at 14 weeks and greater at 24 weeks. SAA levels from ApoE+/−-IL-6−/− mice were significantly higher than ApoE+/−-IL-6+/− mice. IL-6 deficiency led to profound changes in plaque composition evidenced by increased macrophage infiltration, apoptosis, lipid content and decreased smooth muscle cell mass reflecting an unstable plaque phenotype. Array analysis revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in ApoE+/−-IL-6−/− mice compared to ApoE+/−-IL-6+/− mice, irrespective of diet or inoculation.
The genetic deficiency of IL-6 was found to enhance the formation of diet- and/or pathogen associated atherosclerotic plaques and suggests that IL-6 may play an atheroprotective role.
Atherosclerosis; Cytokine; Infection; Inflammation; Porphyromonas gingivalis
Accumulating evidence implicates a fundamental link between the immune system and atherosclerosis. Toll-like receptors are principal sensors of the innate immune system. Here we report an assessment of the role of the TLR2 pathway in atherosclerosis associated with a high-fat diet and/or bacteria in ApoE+/− mice.
Methods and Results
To explore the role of TLR2 in inflammation- and infection-associated atherosclerosis, 10 week-old ApoE+/−-TLR2+/+, ApoE+/−-TLR2+/− and ApoE+/−-TLR2−/− mice were fed either a high fat diet or a regular chow diet. All mice were inoculated intravenously, once per week for 24 consecutive weeks, with 50 µl live Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g) (107 CFU) or vehicle (normal saline). Animals were euthanized 24 weeks after the first inoculation. ApoE+/−-TLR2+/+ mice showed a significant increase in atheromatous lesions in proximal aorta and aortic tree compared to ApoE+/−-TLR2+/− and ApoE+/−-TLR2−/− mice for all diet conditions. They also displayed profound changes in plaque composition, as evidenced by increased macrophage infiltration and apoptosis, increased lipid content, and decreased smooth muscle cell mass, all reflecting an unstable plaque phenotype. SAA levels from ApoE+/−-TLR2+/+ mice were significantly higher than from ApoE+/−-TLR2+/− and ApoE+/−-TLR2−/− mice. Serum cytokine analysis revealed increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in ApoE+/−-TLR2+/+ mice compared to ApoE+/−-TLR2+/− and TLR2−/− mice, irrespective of diet or bacterial challenge. ApoE+/−-TLR2+/+ mice injected weekly for 24 weeks with FSL-1 (a TLR2 agonist) also demonstrated significant increases in atherosclerotic lesions, SAA and serum cytokine levels compared to ApoE+/−-TLR2−/− mice under same treatment condition. Finally, mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) of aortic samples analyzed by 2-dimentional gel electrophoresis differential display, identified 6 proteins upregulated greater than 2-fold in ApoE+/−-TLR2+/+ mice fed the high fat diet and inoculated with P.g compared to any other group.
Genetic deficiency of TLR2 reduces diet- and/or pathogen-associated atherosclerosis in ApoE+/− mice, along with differences in plaque composition suggesting greater structural stability while TLR-2 ligand-specific activation triggers atherosclerosis. The present data offers new insights into the pathophysiological pathways involved in atherosclerosis and paves the way for new pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing atherosclerosis.
For decades, physicians and dentists have paid close attention to their own respective fields, specializing in medicine pertaining to the body and the oral cavity, respectively. However, recent findings have strongly suggested that oral health may be indicative of systemic health. Currently, this gap between allopathic medicine and dental medicine is quickly closing, due to significant findings supporting the association between periodontal disease and systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and osteoporosis. Significant effort has brought numerous advances in revealing the etiological and pathological links between this chronic inflammatory dental disease and these other conditions. Therefore, there is reason to hope that the strong evidence from these studies may guide researchers towards greatly improved treatment of periodontal infection that would also ameliorate these systemic illnesses. Hence, researchers must continue not only to uncover more information about the correlations between periodontal and systemic diseases but also to focus on positive associations that may result from treating periodontal disease as a means of ameliorating systemic diseases.
Periodontal diseases; Systemic diseases; Cardiovascular diseases; Diabetes; Adverse pregnancy outcomes; Osteoporosis
To characterize the roles of Porphyromonas gingivalis and its components in disease processes, we investigated the cytokine profiles induced by live P. gingivalis, its lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and its major fimbrial protein, fimbrillin (FimA). A cytokine antibody array revealed that human monocyte-derived macrophages were induced to produce chemokines (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β [MIP-1β], and MIP-3α) as early as 1 h after exposure to P. gingivalis, with production declining after 24 h of exposure. As expected, an extensive repertoire of inflammatory mediators increased subsequent to infection, most predominantly tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The induction of cytokines by P. gingivalis was not triggered simply by bacterial cell surface components, since purified P. gingivalis LPS and FimA induced similar patterns of cytokines, while the pattern of cytokines induced by live P. gingivalis was significantly different, indicating that the host defense system senses live bacteria differently than it does the cell surface components LPS and FimA. To further understand the mechanisms by which live P. gingivalis and its components exert their effects, we used a high-throughput immunoblot screening approach (Becton-Dickinson PowerBlot) to analyze intracellular proteins involved in P. gingivalis infection in human macrophages. Exposure of human macrophages to either live P. gingivalis, its LPS, or its FimA protein led to the up-regulation of 12, 8, and 10 proteins and the down-regulation of 15, 8, and 17 proteins, respectively. The expression of proteins involved in gene transcription (e.g., monocyte enhancer factor 2D [MEF2D], signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 [STAT1], STAT3, STAT6, and IL enhancer binding factors [ILF3]), of protein kinases (e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [MAPK3], MAP3K8, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase [PRKR], and MAP2K4), and of proteins involved in immune responses (e.g., TNF super family member 6 [TNFSF6] and interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeat 4 [IFIT4]), apoptosis (e.g., genes associated with retinoid interferon-induced mortality 19 [GRIM19]), and other fundamental cellular processes (e.g., clathrin heavy-chain polypeptide, culreticulin, and Ras-associated protein RAB27A) was found to be modulated differentially by P. gingivalis, LPS, and FimA. These differential changes are interpreted as preferential signal pathway activation in host immune/inflammatory responses to P. gingivalis infection.
It is well established that host-bacterium interactions play a critical role in the initiation and progression of periodontal diseases. By the use of inhibitors, it has been shown that mediators associated with the innate immune response significantly contribute to the disease process. Less is known regarding the role of the acquired immune response. To investigate mechanisms by which the acquired immune response to Porphyromonas gingivalis could affect connective tissue, we used a well-documented calvarial model to study host-bacterium interactions. Injection of P. gingivalis stimulated gamma interferon, interleukin 6, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression as determined by real-time PCR. Prior immunization against P. gingivalis significantly enhanced the mRNA levels of these cytokines and chemokines. Similarly, immunization significantly increased and prolonged the formation of a polymorphonuclear leukocyte and mononuclear cell infiltrate (P < 0.05). In addition, the area of connective tissue destruction, osteoclastogenesis, bone loss, mRNA expression of proapoptotic genes, and degree of fibroblast apoptosis were increased in immunized mice (P < 0.05). These results indicate that activation of the acquired immunity by P. gingivalis increases the inflammatory and destructive responses which occur in part through up-regulating the innate immune response and enhancing osteoclastogenesis and fibroblast apoptosis.
To characterize the roles of Porphyromonas gingivalis and its components in the disease processes, we investigated the cytokine profile induced by live P. gingivalis, its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and its major fimbrial protein, fimbrillin (FimA). Using cytokine antibody arrays, we found that P. gingivalis LPS and FimA induced a similar profile of cytokine expression when exposed to mouse peritoneal macrophages but that this profile differed significantly in response to live P. gingivalis. In vitro, mouse peritoneal macrophages were stimulated to produce interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and lymphotactin by live P. gingivalis, but not by P. gingivalis LPS or FimA, while RANTES, gamma interferon, IL-17, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor were induced by P. gingivalis LPS or FimA, but not by live P. gingivalis. In vivo, IL-6 mRNA was strongly induced only by live P. gingivalis while monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA was strongly induced only by P. gingivalis LPS and FimA in mouse calvarial scalp, further confirming the differences of cytokine profile induced in vitro. Cytokine antibody arrays using toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and TLR4-deficient macrophages revealed that most of the cytokines induced by P. gingivalis LPS or FimA signal through TLR2, while most of cytokines induced by live P. gingivalis signal through both TLR2 and TLR4. Interestingly, the activation of TLR2 by live P. gingivalis inhibited the release of RANTES, VCAM-1, and IL-1α from mouse peritoneal macrophages. A tumor necrosis factor alpha enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay further confirmed that P. gingivalis LPS and FimA activate mouse peritoneal macrophages via TLR2. These results indicate that host immune cells sense live P. gingivalis and its components differently, which translates into the expression of different inflammatory cytokine profiles.
Moesin is a 78-kDa protein with diverse functions in linking the cytoskeleton to the membrane while controlling cell shape, adhesion, locomotion, and signaling. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression and localization of moesin in mononuclear phagocytes by using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting and to analyze the function of moesin as a lipopolysaccharide receptor, utilizing an antisense oligonucleotide approach to knock down the moesin gene. Results revealed that moesin is expressed on the surface of monocytes/macrophages and surface expression is increased after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The total protein mass of moesin is increased in monocytes after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Immunoprecipitation showed that moesin coprecipitates with TLR4, a well-known lipopolysaccharide receptor, suggesting an early role of moesin in the formation of the initiation complex for lipopolysaccharide signaling. Two antisense and two control sense oligonucleotides were synthesized and introduced every 4 h for 48 h in adherent macrophage-like cells. Cells were then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide for 4 h, and the supernatants were assayed for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production. Cell lysates were assayed for moesin expression by Western blotting immediately after the 48-h treatment period and also after 116 h of recovery to assess the return of moesin expression and function. Moesin gene expression was completely suppressed after 48 h of incubation with antisense oligonucleotides. The antisense elimination of moesin gene expression led to a significant reduction of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α secretion. Restoration of moesin gene expression led to restoration of TNF-α production. These data suggest an important role for moesin in lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α production, highlighting its importance in lipopolysaccharide-mediated signal transduction.
We previously demonstrated that interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activities only partially account for calvarial bone resorption induced by local application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. The present study was undertaken to determine the role and relative contribution of IL-11 and prostaglandin(s) (PG[s]) in LPS-induced bone resorption in vivo. A one-time dose of LPS was injected into the subcutaneous tissue overlying calvaria of mice lacking IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI−/−), mice lacking TNF receptor p55 and IL-1RI (TNFRp55−/−-IL-1RI−/−), and wild-type mice. Mice were then treated with injections of anti-IL-11 monoclonal antibody (MAb), indomethacin, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and sacrificed 5 days later. Histological sections stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were quantified by histomorphometric analysis. At low doses of LPS (100 μg/mouse), the percentages of bone surface covered by osteoclasts were found to be similar in three strains of mice. The increase was reduced by 37% with anti-IL-11 MAb and by 46% with indomethacin. At higher doses of LPS (500 μg/mouse), we found an eightfold increase in these percentages in wild-type mice and a fivefold increase in these percentages in IL-1RI−/− and TNFRp55−/−−IL-1RI−/− mice after normalizing with the value from the saline-PBS control group in the same strain of mice. The increase was reduced by 55 and 69% in wild-type mice and by 50 and 57% in IL-1RI−/− and TNFRp55−/−−IL-1RI−/− mice treated with anti-IL-11 MAb or indomethacin, respectively. Our findings suggest that in vivo, at low doses of LPS (100 μg/mouse), LPS-induced bone resorption is mediated by IL-11 and PGs, while at high doses of LPS (500 μg/mouse), it is mediated by IL-11, PGs, IL-1, and TNF signaling. IL-11 and PGs mediate LPS-induced bone resorption by enhancing osteoclastogenesis independently of the IL-1 or TNF signaling.
During infection, circulating blood monocytes migrate from the vasculature to the extravascular compartments where they mature into tissue macrophages. The maturation process prepares the cell to actively participate in the inflammatory and the immune responses, and many transcription factors have been found to be involved. Here we report on a novel role for nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in this process. Its accumulation in the cytoplasm of differentiated macrophages is responsible for the enhanced ability of the cell to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, as determined by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion. Differentiation of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 into macrophage-like cells was induced by exposure of the cells to phorbol myristate acetate. DNA-bindable NF-κB was not detected in the cytoplasm of undifferentiated THP-1 cells but accumulated in the cytoplasm of the cells following differentiation. No TNF-α was detected in the media of resting differentiated and nondifferentiated THP-1 cells. Stimulation with LPS of differentiated cells induced the production of higher levels of TNF-α than stimulation of nondifferentiated cells. This hyperresponsiveness to LPS was found in the mRNA and secreted TNF-α levels. Furthermore, stimulation with LPS induced the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. This translocation process was more rapid in the differentiated cells than in the nondifferentiated cells, and the resultant accumulated levels of NF-κB in the nucleus were higher. The DNA-bindable NF-κB was identified as a heterodimer of p65 and p50. The results suggest that NF-κB accumulation in the cytoplasm during maturation of monocytes to macrophages primes the cells for enhanced responsiveness to LPS and results in the rapid secretion of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, by mature macrophages following LPS challenge.
The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and/or interleukin-1 (IL-1) activity mediates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption in vivo. To test this hypothesis, Escherichia coli LPS or Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS was injected into the subcutaneous tissues overlying mouse calvariae. Histological sections, prepared from the center of the lesion, were stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to quantify the osteoclast number and the area of bone resorption. In time course experiments using normal mice, a peak of bone resorption occurred 5 days after endotoxin stimulation. In dose-response experiments, IL-1 receptor type 1 deletion (IL-1R−/−), TNF double-receptor p55/p75 deletion (TNF p55−/−/p75−/−), combined TNF p55 and IL-1 receptor type 1 deletion (TNF p55−/−/IL-1R−/−), and IL-1β-converting enzyme-deficient (ICE−/−) mice and the respective wild-type mice were injected with 500, 100, or 20 μg of P. gingivalis LPS and sacrificed 5 days after LPS injection. At the highest dose (500 μg), significant decreases in osteoclast number occurred in mutant mice compared to wild-type mice: (i) a 64% reduction for the TNF p55−/−/IL-1R−/− mice, (ii) a 57% reduction for the IL-1R−/− mice, (iii) a 41% reduction for the TNF p55−/−/p75−/− mice, and (iv) a 38% reduction for the ICE−/− mice. At the two lower doses, bone resorption was apparent but no significant differences between mutant and wild-type animals were observed. The present data indicate that at higher doses, LPS-induced bone resorption is substantially mediated by IL-1 and TNF receptor signaling. Furthermore, IL-1 receptor signaling appears to be slightly more important than TNF receptor signaling. At lower LPS doses, other pathways leading to osteoclast activity that are independent of TNF and IL-1 are involved.