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1.  Evaluation of horizontal ridge augmentation using beta tricalcium phosphate and demineralized bone matrix: A comparative study 
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) alone compared to β-TCP and Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM) in regenerating localized horizontal maxillary alveolar ridge deficiencies prior to implant placement. Study Design: The study included 20 patients with horizontal maxillary ridge deficiencies limited to one or more neighbouring teeth and initial ridge width of ≤ 5mmm. Patients were divided equally into two equal groups. Ridge augmentation was performed using Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) principals. In group I GBR was performed using β-TCP only, while in group II both β-TCP and DBM were used. Following a 6 months healing period, bone cores from both groups were retrieved and implants were inserted. Specimens were examined histologically to calculate percentage of mineralized bone. Apical and crestal changes in ridge dimensions were calculated by digital subtraction using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) immediately after graft placement and six months later. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the mean area percentage of mineralized bone between both groups where it was 40.1 % (range: 27.76-% 66.29 %) for group I and 68.96 % (range: 60.07 % - 87.33 %) for group II. Radiograpically, the mean ridge width in group I increased crestally to 4.66 mm (range:3.5-5mm) and apically to 6.12 mm (range: 4.1-6.7 mm). In group II the mean ridge width increased crestally to 5.2 mm (range 4.9-5.4mm) and apically to 6.9 mm (range 6.0-7.8 mm). Group II showed more bone gain with a mean of 1.37 mm crestally and 2.44 mm apically. This difference however was not statistically significant Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study the combination of DBM and β-TCP can be used effectively in cases exhibiting minimal alveolar ridge defects.
Key words:Guided bone regeneration, equine bone, alloplast, bone graft.
doi:10.4317/jced.51244
PMCID: PMC3892264  PMID: 24455091
2.  The utilization of Arabic online drug information among adults in Saudi Arabia 
In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of the world wide web has become increasingly popular. However, the exact figure of such use is unknown. This study aimed to determine the percentage of, and experience with, online Arabic drug information by Arabic-speaking adults in Saudi Arabia. A web based questionnaire was used. The questionnaire language was Arabic. Public were invited to participate in the survey through e-mails, Twitter, WhatsApp and Facebook in March 2012. The survey included 17 items examining the types of accessed Arabic drug information, the respondent’s demographics, their ability to easily find and understand Arabic drug-related information, and their trustfulness and dependency on such information websites. Of the 422 Arabic speaking adults who answered the questionnaire, 88% stated that they used Arabic websites to answer drug-related questions. Of the respondents, 50% had a bachelor’s degree, 44% were young adults, over half were female (60%), and 72% of them have a chronic disease. The ease of retrieving online information was the most common reason (69%) for consulting such websites. Google as a search engine was the most frequently (86%) accessible website. Although respondents reported different drug-related topics in their online searching, the search for adverse effects was the most common (68%). Respondents claimed that they could easily find (65%) and understand (49%) the drug-related information. Although a good number of respondents qualified this type of information as good, double-checking of information on other websites was highly recommended. Trustfulness was one of the important parameters to measure and 205 respondents (55%) claimed that they only trusted half of the information cited. Moreover, around 48% of respondents considered that finding the same information on more than one website increased its trustfulness. Surprisingly, 54% of respondents did not depend on Arabic information websites when making decisions on drug use. There are a high proportion of Arabic speaking people in Saudi Arabia using and consulting Arabic drug information websites. This information is easily found and understood. However, the quality and trustfulness of such websites are not high enough to depend on them. A qualified Arabic drug information website is important to meet this need.
doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2012.07.001
PMCID: PMC3744981  PMID: 23960806
Arabic; Drug information; Internet; Online; Patient education
3.  Chemical and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen leaves (Sapotaceae) cultivated in Egypt 
Pharmacognosy Research  2012;4(2):85-91.
Background:
Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen is an evergreen tree, native to the tropical Americas and introduced to Egypt as a fruiting tree in 2002. No previous study was reported on the plant cultivated in Egypt.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, the leaves of the plant cultivated in Egypt were subjected to phytochemical and biological investigations. The lipoidal matter was analyzed by GLC. Five compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions of the alcoholic extract of the leaves by chromatographic fractionation on silica gel and sephadex, the structures of these compounds were identified using IR, UV, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The LD50 of the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the leaves was determined and their antihyperglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities were tested by enzymatic colorimetric methods using specific kits.
Results:
Unsaturated fatty acids represent 32.32 % of the total fatty acids, oleic acid (13.95%), linoleidic acid (10.18 %) and linoleic acid (5.96 %) were the major ones. The isolated compounds were identified as lupeol acetate, oleanolic acid, apigenin-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside and caffeic acid. This is the first report about isolation of these compounds from Manilkara zapota except myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, which was previously isolated from the plant growing abroad. The LD50 recorded 80 g/Kg b. wt. for both the tested extracts, so they could be considered to be safe. They exhibited antihyperglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities.
Conclusion:
The observed biological activities were attributed to the different chemical constituents present in the plant mainly its phenolic constituents.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.94723
PMCID: PMC3326762  PMID: 22518080
Antihyperglycemic; hypocholesterolemic; antioxidant; flavonoids; Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen; triterpenes
4.  HsCRP in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 
Background
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. As there is systemic as well as local inflammation in COPD patients and evaluating the stage of the disease is not possible by spirometery alone, we evaluated High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein (HS-CRP) in a group of COPD patients as an available and cost effective auxiliary marker in determining COPD stages.
Methods
In a cross-sectional study in 160 COPD patients who were admitted for exacerbations in Razi Hospital in Rasht, Data on patients' demographic characteristics, pulmonary function test (PFT) and laboratory results consist of arterial blood gases and HSCRP levels were analyzed.
Results
A significant positive correlation was seen between serum HSCRP level and stages of the disease (as GOLD criteria). There was a significant relationship between HSCRP level and patients' sex, BMI, and smoking history in a way that men and smokers showed higher and patients with normal BMI showed lower HSCRP levels. The patients with higher PCO2 also showed a higher level of serum HSCRP.
Conclusions
This survey supports the role of HSCRP as a simple auxiliary marker in staging and determining the prognosis of COPD for early management.
PMCID: PMC3371875  PMID: 22737409
C-reactive protein; Diagnosis; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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