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2.  Breastfeeding and Snoring: A Birth Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e84956.
Objective
To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood.
Methods
In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects.
Results
Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81) and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00). Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71). The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years.
Conclusions
Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084956
PMCID: PMC3885662  PMID: 24416321
3.  Maternal diabetes in pregnancy and offspring cognitive ability: sibling study with 723,775 men from 579,857 families 
Diabetologia  2013;57:102-109.
Aims/hypothesis
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal diabetes in pregnancy and offspring cognitive ability and also to assess whether the association was due to intrauterine mechanisms or shared familial characteristics.
Methods
We linked national registers and conducted a prospective cohort study of singleton Swedish-born men to explore associations between maternal pregnancy diabetes and educational achievement at age 16 years, the age of completing compulsory education in Sweden (n = 391,545 men from 337,174 families, graduating in 1988–1997 and n = 326,033 men from 282,079 families, graduating in 1998–2009), and intelligence quotient (IQ) at the mandatory conscription examination at 18 years of age (n = 664,871 from 543,203 families).
Results
Among non-siblings, maternal diabetes in pregnancy was associated with lower offspring cognitive ability even after adjustment for maternal age at birth, parity, education, early-pregnancy BMI, offspring birth year, gestational age and birthweight. For example, in non-siblings, the IQ of men whose mothers had diabetes in their pregnancy was on average 1.36 points lower (95% CI −2.12, −0.60) than men whose mothers did not have diabetes. In comparison, we found no such association within sibships (mean difference 1.70; 95% CI −1.80, 5.21).
Conclusions/interpretation
The association between maternal diabetes in pregnancy and offspring cognitive outcomes is likely explained by shared familial characteristics and not by an intrauterine mechanism.
doi:10.1007/s00125-013-3065-z
PMCID: PMC3857877  PMID: 24065154
Cognition; Diabetes; IQ; Pregnancy; Sibling comparison; Swedish registers
4.  The Observed Association between Maternal Anxiety and Adolescent Asthma: Children of Twin Design Suggest Familial Effects 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(6):e66040.
Background
Previous studies indicate that maternal anxiety is associated with asthma in the adolescent child, but mechanisms are unclear.
Objective
To investigate the association between maternal anxiety and maternal, self- and register-based report of asthma in the adolescent child, and whether the association remains after control of familial confounding (shared environmental and genetic factors).
Method
From the Twin and Offspring Study of Sweden, 1691 mothers (1058 twins) and their adolescent child were included. The association between maternal self-reported anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) somatic or psychic anxiety) and asthma based on subjective (maternal or child report) or objective (register-based diagnosis and medication) measures were analysed using logistic regression. The children-of-twins design was used to explore whether genes or environment contribute to the association.
Results
Maternal BAI anxiety (OR 2.02, CI 1.15–3.55) was significantly associated with adolescent asthma reported by the mother. Maternal KSP somatic anxiety (OR 1.74, CI 1.04–2.91) and psychic anxiety (OR 1.74, CI 1.05–2.86) was significantly associated with breathlessness reported by the adolescent child. In contrast, maternal anxiety was not associated with increased risk for the register-based outcomes of asthma diagnosis or medication. The results remained also after adjusting for covariates and the children-of-twins analyses which indicate that the association was due to familial confounding.
Conclusions
We found some associations between maternal anxiety and subjectively reported offspring asthma or breathlessness which may be due to familial effects. A likely candidate for explaining this familial confounding is heritable personality traits associated with both anxiety and subjective measures of asthma.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066040
PMCID: PMC3680455  PMID: 23776601
5.  Maternal Bereavement and Childhood Asthma—Analyses in Two Large Samples of Swedish Children 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e27202.
Background
Prenatal factors such as prenatal psychological stress might influence the development of childhood asthma.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We assessed the association between maternal bereavement shortly before and during pregnancy, as a proxy for prenatal stress, and the risk of childhood asthma in the offspring, based on two samples of children 1–4 (n = 426 334) and 7–12 (n = 493 813) years assembled from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Exposure was maternal bereavement of a close relative from one year before pregnancy to child birth. Asthma event was defined by a hospital contact for asthma or at least two dispenses of inhaled corticosteroids or montelukast. In the younger sample we calculated hazards ratios (HRs) of a first-ever asthma event using Cox models and in the older sample odds ratio (ORs) of an asthma attack during 12 months using logistic regression. Compared to unexposed boys, exposed boys seemed to have a weakly higher risk of first-ever asthma event at 1–4 years (HR: 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98, 1.22) as well as an asthma attack during 12 months at 7–12 years (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.24). No association was suggested for girls. Boys exposed during the second trimester had a significantly higher risk of asthma event at 1–4 years (HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.02) and asthma attack at 7–12 years if the bereavement was an older child (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.25). The associations tended to be stronger if the bereavement was due to a traumatic death compared to natural death, but the difference was not statistically significant.
Conclusions/Significance
Our results showed some evidence for a positive association between prenatal stress and childhood asthma among boys but not girls.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027202
PMCID: PMC3210147  PMID: 22087265
6.  Birth anthropometric measures, body mass index and allergic diseases in a birth cohort study (BAMSE) 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2007;92(10):881-886.
Objective
We aimed to assess increased birth weight or birth length in relation to allergic diseases at 4 years of age, taking body mass index (BMI) at age 4 as a covariate in the adjustment.
Methods
The parents of a large prospective birth cohort answered questionnaires on environmental factors and allergic symptoms when their children were 2 months and 1, 2 and 4 years old. Perinatal data on weight and length at birth were received from the child care health centres. The children were clinically examined at 4 years of age and height and weight recorded. Blood was drawn for analysis of specific IgE antibodies to common inhalant allergens. Risk associations between birth anthropometric measures and wheeze, allergic diseases or sensitisation were estimated in multivariate logistic regression analyses (n = 2869).
Results
There were no clear overall associations between birth weight and allergic diseases at 4 years of age. Birth length ⩾90th percentile was inversely associated with any wheeze at age 4 (adjusted OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.92) but was significantly associated only with late‐onset wheeze (adjusted OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.77). No such associations were seen for persistent or transient wheeze, eczema, rhinitis or allergic sensitisation. Transient wheeze during the first 2 years of age tended to be associated with increased BMI at age 4.
Conclusion
Increased birth weight was not associated with wheeze or allergic disease. Increased birth length may play a protective role in late‐onset wheeze in early childhood.
doi:10.1136/adc.2006.110692
PMCID: PMC2083245  PMID: 17475692
allergy; birth anthropometry; birth cohort; body mass index; wheeze

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