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1.  Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis complicating a T-cell rich B-cell lymphoma 
BMC Hematology  2016;16:28.
Background
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in adults is often secundary to an infection or a neoplasm. In this last case, T cell lymphomas are the most frequent causes. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secundary to a B cell lymphoma has been rarely reported.
Case presentation
We describe a case of a hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis complicating a T-cell rich B-cell lymphoma treated with conventionnal chemotherapy leading to a complete remission.
Conclusion
Prompt etiologic diagnosis and treatment of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis leads to satisfactory outcome.
doi:10.1186/s12878-016-0065-5
PMCID: PMC5122011  PMID: 27904750
2.  Pulmonary tumor diagnosed as an undifferentiated sarcoma with epithelioid features: a case report 
Background
Pulmonary sarcomas are uncommon accounting for 0.5 % of all primary lung cancers. Undifferentiated sarcomas account for up to 20 % of soft tissue sarcomas. A lung tumor revealed to be an undifferentiated sarcoma with epithelioid features has never been reported in the literature.
Case presentation
A 61-year-old white Moroccan man presented with 2 months’ history of hemoptysis and dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed a cystic mass involving the lower field of his right lung evoking first a hydatid cyst. Abdominal computed tomography revealed bilateral adrenal nodules. Surgical resection of the lung mass was performed. On pathological examination, the tumor was cystic containing necrotic material. A histological diagnosis of undifferentiated sarcoma with epithelioid features was made. A positron emission tomography scan showed involvement of his pleura, left colon, adrenal glands, left thigh muscle, and leptomeninges.
Conclusions
Undifferentiated sarcoma with epithelioid features is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumor. Clinical and radiological features are not specific. A differential diagnosis includes sarcomatoid carcinoma, malignant mesothelioma, melanoma, and other epithelioid sarcomas.
doi:10.1186/s13256-016-1056-7
PMCID: PMC5046801  PMID: 27716413
Undifferentiated; Epithelioid; Sarcoma; Lung
3.  Paraneoplastic syndromes revealing ovarian teratoma in young and menopausal women: report of two cases 
Paraneoplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of clinical and biological manifestations caused by underling neoplasms. They can reveal ovarian teratoma which express neuroendocrine proteins, or contain mature or immature neural tissue inducing an autoimmune response. The etiological investigation is then crucial to early identification of the tumor in order to optimize the prognosis and to limit neurological sequelae. In case of ovarian teratoma, management is essentially based on surgical resection sometimes associated with immunotherapie. We report two new cases of ovarian teratoma revealed by paraneoplastic syndromes in young and menopausal woman.
doi:10.11604/pamj.2016.24.161.6743
PMCID: PMC5072828  PMID: 27795759
Paraneoplastic syndrome; ovarian teratoma; diagnosis; management
4.  Primary Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland: case report of an exceptional type of thyroid neoplasm and review of the literature 
Background
Primary thyroid lymphoma is an uncommon pathological entity that accounts for only 1 to 5 % of all thyroid malignancies. Primary Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland is very rare. This article presents the first Moroccan case of a primary BL of the thyroid to be reported in the literature to date.
Case presentation
We describe here a case of a 70-year-old male who developed a rapidly enlarging thyroid gland with progressive symptoms of compression. Core biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma. The patient died of septic shock, 2 weeks after the first cycle of appropriate therapeutic chemotherapy.
Conclusions
This presentation emphasizes the importance of considering lymphoma when dealing with a thyroid mass, as its management is different from that of other thyroid pathologies, and affords an opportunity to review a very rare type of primary thyroid lymphoma.
doi:10.1186/s12907-016-0028-6
PMCID: PMC4864901  PMID: 27175103
Burkitt lymphoma; Thyroid gland; Chemotherapy
5.  Bone metastasis from malignant phyllodes breast tumor: report of two cases 
Background
Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial tumors accounting for less than 1 % of all breast neoplasms. They are malignant in 20 % of cases. Only a few cases of malignant phyllodes tumors metastatic to bone have been reported.
Case presentation
Case 1: A 40 year-old white woman presented with three-week history of pain and functional impairment of the left lower limb. Her clinical past was remarkable for previous left mastectomy and radiotherapy for malignant phyllodes tumor performed one year ago. Computed tomography revealed a moth-eaten appearance of the left femoral head. The patient underwent computed guided femoral head biopsy. Pathological findings were consistent with metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor. The patient received ifosfamide and adriamycin chemotherapy. She is doing well without any evidence of progression on her imaging follow- up after 8 months.
Case 2: A 48 year-old white woman, with history of bilateral mastectomy and radiotherapy for malignant phyllodes tumor performed one and two year ago, presented with four-week left lower quadrant abdominal pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid aggressive osteolytic mass of the left iliac bone with extensive soft tissue invasion. Biopsy of the tumor was performed and showed a sarcomatous proliferation consistent with metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor. The patient received the same chemotherapy regimen as in the first case but without any response on her imaging follow up after 6 months.
Conclusion
Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare and aggressive fibroepithelial neoplasm. An accurate diagnosis of metastases should be based on clinicopathological correlation allowing exclusion of differential diagnoses. The goal of successful managing this tumor is early detection and complete resection prior to dissemination.
doi:10.1186/s12907-016-0027-7
PMCID: PMC4772458  PMID: 26933383
Bone; Metastatic; Phyllodes; Tumor; Breast
6.  Une angiocholite secondaire à un thrombus tumoral d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive du foie 
Nous rapportons le cas exceptionnel d'une patiente de 54 ans prise en charge pour une angiocholite due à un thrombus tumoral, d'une tumeur neuroendocrine primitive (TNE Ive) du foie, dans la voie biliaire principale.
doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.22.308.8185
PMCID: PMC4769041  PMID: 26966504
Angiocholite; tumeur neuroendocrine; foie; cholangitis; neuroendocrine tumor; liver
7.  Goitre ovarien bénin: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature 
Goitre ovarien appartient au groupe des tératomes mono dermiques. C'est une variété rare des tumeurs de l'ovaire. L'examen histopathologique est indispensable pour le diagnostic de cette entité. Le goitre ovarien peut être à l'origine d'anomalies du bilan thyroïdien. Vu le risque de la transformation maligne le traitement chirurgical reste la seule alternative thérapeutique. Notre patiente avait une grande masse annexielle unilatérale, multi-lobulée faisant 14,45 x 12,21 cm sans signes d'hyperthyroïdies associées. Un traitement conservateur par kystectomie a été réalisé. L'examen anatomopathologique a confirmé le diagnostic d'un goitre ovarien. Les suites poste opératoires étaient simples et le suivi clinique n'a pas montré d'anomalies avec un recul de 9 mois.
doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.21.271.7209
PMCID: PMC4646442  PMID: 26600899
Struma ovarii; goitre ovarien; thyroïde; tératome ovarien; histopathologie; Struma ovarii; ovarian goiter; thyroid; ovarian teratoma; histopathology
8.  Malakoplakie pseudotumorale du sein 
La malakoplakie est une maladie inflammatoire granulomateuse chronique, qui affecte généralement le tractus génito-urinaire et exceptionnellement la glande mammaire. Il faut savoir évoquer ce diagnostic devant une mastite pseudotumorale. Sa définition est anatomopathologique. Nous rapportons un cas inhabituel de malakoplakie mammaire chez une patiente ayant des antécédents de tuberculose. L'imagerie était en faveur d'une mastite carcinomateuse. L'analyse histologique de la biopsie mammaire révélait une inflammation granulomateuse faite d'histiocytes renfermant des granulations pathognomoniques de Michaelis-Gutmann. La patiente était mise sous traitement médical à base de ciprofloxacine avec bonne évolution clinique et radiologique après un recul d'un mois.
doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.21.87.3966
PMCID: PMC4594986  PMID: 26491530
Malakoplakie; Michaelis-Gutmann; sein; Malakoplakia; Michaelis-Gutmann; breast
10.  Relevance of expandable titanium cage for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy 
European Spine Journal  2012;21(8):1545-1550.
Background
In patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, ventral disease and loss of physiological cervical lordosis are indications for anterior approach. As bone graft and titanium cage present many drawbacks, expandable titanium cage has been recently introduced for this indication. The authors present the clinical and radiological outcomes in patients undergoing the placement of an expandable cage in the treatment of spondylotic myelopathy with straight or kyphotic cervical spine alignment.
Methods
This was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. A total of 26 patients underwent cervical corpectomy and reconstruction using an expandable titanium cage and anterior plate between 2005 and 2008. Pain and functional disability were measured using VAS and mJOA preoperatively and at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. Kyphosis was measured using lateral radiographs at the same points of follow-up. Fusion was evaluated on flexion–extension radiographs at 2 years.
Results
The mean VAS improved from 4.2 to 1.7 and the mean mJOA increased from 12.85 to 16.04 at 2 years postoperatively (p < 0.05). The mean kyphosis angle decreased from 17° to 2° at the last follow-up (p < 0.05). The fusion rate was 100 % at 2 years. Three complications were reported including a transient dysphagia, an epidural hematoma and an early hardware migration.
Conclusion
Expandable titanium cage is an effective device, which achieves good clinical and radiological outcomes at a minimum 2-year follow-up.
doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2380-2
PMCID: PMC3535245  PMID: 22639300
Spondylotic myelopathy; Kyphosis; Expandable cage; Cervical spine
11.  Extragonadal mixed germ cell tumor of the right arm: description of the first case in the literature 
Background
Extragonadal localization of germ cell tumors (GCTs) is rare; to the best of our knowledge, a location in the soft tissue of the arm has never been previously reported in the literature.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 37-year-old man who presented with a primary malignant mixed non-seminomatous GCT (teratocarcinoma variety) in the right arm, treated by a combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and surgery. After 18 months of close follow-up, no locoregional recurrence or distant metastases have been detected.
Conclusions
A combination of chemotherapy and surgery is the most appropriate treatment strategy for extragonadal GCTs, to ensure both local and systemic control.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-10-69
PMCID: PMC3356599  PMID: 22540884
Chemotherapy; Embryonic carcinoma; Extragonadal; Mixed germ cell tumors; Surgery; Teratoma
12.  Periductal stromal sarcoma in a child: a case report 
Introduction
Periductal stromal sarcoma is an extremely rare malignant fibroepithelial tumor of the breast which is characterized by its biphasic histology with benign ductal elements and a sarcomatous stroma made of spindle cells and lacking phyllodes architecture. Its therapeutic management is based on wide surgery with free margins. Adjuvant therapies are not needed. Periductal stromal sarcoma may evolve into a phyllodes tumor with time, as well as a specific soft-tissue sarcoma. To the best of our knowledge, this tumor has never been described in a child.
Case presentation
A 14-year-old Arabic boy was presented to our hospital one year ago with a nodule of the right breast that was gradually increasing in size without signs of inflammation. The histological examination after lumpectomy revealed a periductal stromal sarcoma with free surgical margins. No adjuvant treatment was given. At 50 months of close follow-up, no recurrence was observed.
Conclusion
Periductal stromal sarcoma in a child is a very rare disease which has the same indolent behavior as it does in adults. Therefore, close follow-up is required.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-249
PMCID: PMC3141703  PMID: 21714873
13.  Liposarcome dédifférencie du cordon spermatique: difficultés thérapeutiques des grosses tumeurs 
Le liposarcome du cordon spermatique est une entité rare : environ 100 cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature. Nous rapportons l’observation d’un homme âgé de 42 ans, chez qui a été décelée une masse tumorale développée aux dépens du cordon spermatique droit. Une orchidectomie droite avec exérèse large de la tumeur a été difficilement réalisée en raison de la taille importante de la masse. En post opératoire, le patient a présenté une progression locale et métastatique pulmonaire. Une mono chimiothérapie a été administrée à base d’anthracycline mais le patient a décédé suite à une progression rapide de la maladie. À travers cette observation, nous rapportons brièvement les données de la littérature de cette entité rare. Une exérèse large avec des marges saines, tant que possible, est indispensable pour le contrôle local de la maladie. Néanmoins, en cas de taille tumoral importante, comme le cas de notre patient, une exérèse complète est souvent difficile. Vu le taux élevé de rechute locale, une stratégie combinée associant chirurgie et radiothérapie adjuvante peut être envisagée. Le rôle de la chimiothérapie, bien qu’incertain, garde son indication dans les cas métastatiques, surtout dans les sous types dédifférenciés.
PMCID: PMC3221406  PMID: 22121456
Liposarcome; cordon spermatique; Chirurgie; radiothérapie

Results 1-13 (13)